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ing the allowance of 31. to sl. per family “It will be my special privilege to do for clothing, were very insufficiently clad, any and every thing in my power to for. and it was needful to obtain a further ward the movement, as until June 20 I supply for those most in want of it. shall be more than usually in command of

It took four hours to complete the em- my time, and either here or by travelling barkation, though all worked with a will; I am ready for whatever lies in my power and the people, with a few rare exceptions, to do." With such willing co-operation showed throughout their grateful sense of to depend upon, much of the anxiety atthe kindness which was shown them. I tending upon the movement of families, did not hear a single "wail” as we left so far as regards the numbers we might the ship; but before she steamed out a be able to assist, was thus removed; and multitude of hand-shakings and blessings though a little out of date, I may add were showered upon me, and three cheers that this promise has been more than ful. rang across the bay. To those who have filled, and that in personally meeting and seen – perhaps the most piteous scene arranging for the emigrants more than we one can witness — the parting, probably could have asked has been done. For forever, of near relatives at some Irish those who went to Canada we had also railway station, it may seem very remark- the willing co-operation and assistance of able that I can make such a statement. the Canadian government through their Nevertheless, it is true. Doubtless, the agents in Quebec or Toronto, etc., and absence of evident sorrow largely arose both in this and in other ways the comfrom the fact that the people were not mittee are under much obligation, as well separated — that father and mother and as to Sir A. Galt and Mr. Colmer, the children were leaving together, that the secretary of the Canadian government. great principle was acknowledged that April 7. — The news of the dreadful they ought not to be so separated. But I tragedy in Phoenix Park broke upon us in cannot think that this was all. As some Galway, bringing home, in most unmis. one remarked to me, “ It is as though takable language, the power and malignity the people were flying from a doomed of the secret organizations which in this city.” The full conviction had come upon country undermine the very basis of all them that it was impossible longer to order and true liberty. It recalled to me struggle with the depth of poverty by the striking words of a Galway man shortwhich they had been surrounded. When ly after the assassination of President asked to emigrate they would sometimes Garfield, who, referring to the undiscovsay, “Send us, your honor, where you ered murders in the north of the county, like, only let us go.” I confess, frequent-remarked: Sir, though the murderers ly as I lave heard it during the few last are known from K to T-, no one days, it has brought before me a sense of will give evidence. It seems to matter the depth and intensity of quiet, long. not who it is they kill — kings, emperors, borne penury which no words can de people, priest, or peasant--one would sup: scribe. There are many who must have pose they had forgotten there was a God thought that the responsibility of remov. in heaven.” ing so many families must have been felt On the Monday following circumstances to be a very serious one. Such, doubtless, led to a visit to Dublin which impressed it is, and always will be.

me deeply with the almost universal alarm It may seem an appropriate place to say and horror which this unparalleled crime here that before the meeting of March 31, had caused, reminding me faintly of Paris when it seemed probable that some sub- on the first day of the outbreak of the scription would be raised to assist emi. Commune, after the murder of the gengration, I had written to a personal friend erals in the garden of the Maire of in Philadelphia, who had joined me in the Montmartre. autumn of 1880 whilst making inquiries Joined in Dublin by Major Gaskell, in Minnesota and Manitoba, to ask for who had travelled from Dresden to take his co-operation in the work, claiming the part in the work, and whose labors on be. fulfilment, in a large sense, of a promise half of the Duchess of Marlborough's jokingly given by him and others, that committee have earned for him the gratiwhen i arrived with my “ragged regi- tude and love of the Connemara people, ment we should have a breakfast given we returned once more to the scene of us on landing. The answer had come a our former labors. To relate the story of few days before the sailing of the first the preparations for the third shipment shipment, even fuller than I anticipated : lof emigrants would, with slight variation,

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be merely to repeat the previous one. In cottages, where the furniture was lying place of three hundred we had more than scattered in confusion about, and the four hundred people to gather from sea- family barely recovered from the previous shore or mountain hamlet, and to clothe excitement, was truly a pitiable sight. them and provide for their transport to It was some satisfaction to find that in all the vessel; but though only a fortnight cases where illness or special causes arose was before us, Major Gaskell's experi- the families had been allowed to remain as ence and personal knowledge of the dis- caretakers." trict made the almost impossible task “Yes, it is dreadful work," said a mag. practicable. One or two incidents, how. istrate to me at the close of a long day, ever, connected with it may be briefly “especially when one feels assured that touched upon. That which was of the not one in ten could pay any rent.” greatest importance, so far as the work Again, I will venture to say, whatever in hand was concerned, was that the op. may be the sins and shortcomings of position of a portion of the members of these poor people, that it is the absolute the Clifden Board came to a head by the and bounden duty of the government, and resolution being carried by a majority to certainly more politic and expedient, to rescind the former resolution to borrow pass and enforce some law by which all the sum of 2,cool. for the purpose of emi- suitable families who have been evicted gration. The advances hitherto inade for without the means of paying rents shall emigration from the fund having been have, side by side with the offer of the based upon the previous resolution and workhouse, the offer also of the means to the actual application by the union to the emigrate. I exclude, of course, those Local Government Board for the loan, who dishonestly withhold the rent they with a written engagement to pay the are able to pay: amount when received to my account at I was painfully impressed on more than the Clifden Bank, it may natúrally be sup- one occasion during these later inquiries posed that this conduct caused much an with the fact that the entire absence of noyance and vexation both to the com- means extended to a higher class of tenmittee and myself. Up to this time the ants than I had supposed. amount expended by the committee, in- Driving from Glendalough to Clifden a cluding the present shipment, did not respectably-dressed man, with a roil of materially exceed the sum promised for native frieze under his arm, earnestly en. assistance to this union. This amount treated me to buy it of him. He had was 5,000l. And, after all, it was to the made it for his own use, but he was compoor people around that its effects were pelled to sell it to buy meal. Not wishimost serious. It compelled me at once ing to carry it with ine, I told him to meet to reject large numbers already on the me on my return in the evening. It was, lists, many of whom had been expecting however, nearly ten before we were able to be assisted by this or subsequent sail to do so, and of course too late to enter ings. If the 2,000l. promised by the upon this important transaction! He union had been paid, two hundred and would bring it to me next morning; and fifty more families would have been as before breakfast he had walked in the four sisted abroad. This was the more to be or five miles with his bundle. Wishing regretted, owing to the daily numbers of to know the cause of his earnestness to fresh applications received, especially sell his frieze, for which he asked a very from the persons affected by the numer. moderate price, he gave me the following ous evictions which were going on from story: day to day in this union. As it may be surmised that the evictions had in some Early in the year a notice of eviction for non

P. C. was a tenant holding under Mr. Bcases resulted from the possibility of the payment of rent was served on him, as on tenants being emigrated, it may be well to many others. He owed about three years and state that the processes were obtained had not the means to pay. Selling a small long before I visited the district. In vis- heifer for 51., he had in addition to borrow Sl. iting the cottages for the purpose of satis. from a shopkeeper to pay the 81. rental and fying ourselves as to the suitability of the 31. 155. expense “ of process,” and for the loan applicants, we more than once came upon in August

of the Sl. for six months which was payable the evicting parties. The police patrols of SI. would be all but doubled by the law ex.

- he had to pay 41.! Thus the rent on the road and others engaged with the sheriff indicated the nature of their em

penses and usury demanded.

The cloth, the produce of his sheep's-wool, ployment. To walk up to one of these had been woven for his own use, but he was

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compelled to sell it to buy meal, and must go were needed. It is not needful to deon without new clothes this year. He hoped scribe that which is involved in the colto struggle on, and did not ask to be emi- lection from the lodging-houses, the exgrated.

change of tickets, the transfer of so many The ill-advised purchase of one piece of men, women, and children from the tug to frieze led to my having over fifty applica- the steamer, and the final shakedown on tions. The quality of the frieze and its board. Suffice it to say, that with the aid sinish and neatness of color varied in of Major Gaskell, two Dublin gentlemen proportion to the character of the maker. who became interested in the work, and Some was remarkably strong and good, gave us much valuable help, the officers and the short lengths finished with inuch of the ship, and our own hard-working as.

This frieze was really "all wool,” sistants, it was done after six hours? and varied in price from 35. 61. to 55. per strenuous toil, and again with cheers the yard according to quality, of which the emigrants left the harbor. Through the owner was very quick in sorming a judg. kindness of Father Nugent, of Liverpool, ment. It is almost needless to say that the Rev. J. O'Donnell, R. C. chaplain of the cloth thus offered was not the work of the Liverpool workhouse, had been inthe very poorest, who possessed no sheep, duced to take charge of them. but from a rather better class, with farms I may perhaps be allowed here to say, up to 15l. a year. Why should not this that in any future work which may be homely manufacture be encouraged ? Is it carried on I would most strongly advise, too much to ask that those who perpetually on all accounts, the shipment of smaller cry“ Ireland for the Irish” should clothe numbers. Batches of not more than ten themselves in Irish homespun, or is it or fifteen families at the utmost should too small and too practical a bit of work be sent out. The doing so would lessen for the patronage of the “ Irish-Associa. the great strain on this side, and at the tion for the Promotion of Irish Manufac. same time reduce the chances of any tures”?

difficulty in finding employment in Amer. “Will you not buy one sovereign's ica, which the larger numbers may cause. worth ?” said a remarkably fine-looking With the Connemara people also a few and fairly-clad Connemara woman of forty families left who had come from the Newto me one day. “No, my good woman, port union; but, as already indicated, you see I have already enough to clothe owing to the absence of any'real or ex. half the town I live in,” was my reply. pecteil local assistance, the number as“Not one pound's worth, sir?" she again sisted from either Newport or Belmullet repeated, with a sweet, sad smile on her was insignificant, as it would undoubtedly face. And see,” she said, “I have put have also been from Clifden but for the a little bright color into it; I thought it promised aid and co-operation of the would look neater." How could such an union. This result has made more mani. appeal be resisted ? “ But," I asked, fest than any words can do the inability “why are you so pressing? you are not of the people to help themselves in tha like many of those around us without matter of emigration. For these districts, shoes or decent clothing." "No," she if the families really needing it are to replied, “but I want the meal for the emigrate, the means for so doing must be children. My rent was 15l.; and I had nearly if not wholly provided from other to sell the cows and all I could to pay this sources. and the cost of the process, 31. 155., and There were instances in preparing the 11. for the valuer who had to bring the lists in which, from evidence supposed to case into court. But the court has come be reliable, the sum was required from and gone, and nothing is done yet !” the intended emigrant for the supply of

On the 20th of May the “Winnipeg the needful clothing before he was allowed steamed into Galway harbor for the third to proceed; and I believe I am correct in and largest contingent of Connemara saying that wherever this was enforced emigrants, numbering four hundred and the intended emigrant did not leave. He twenty persons, who had, with the invalu. could noi, after satisfying the shopkeepable aid of Major Gaskell, been gathered er's claims, find the amount. together, by car or omnibus or hooker, To many the question of the cost of and were now in readiness for the steam- the work undertaken will be of interest,

Punctual to her time, at five the fol. and it has a real bearing upon any future lowing morning her steam-whistle told us work which may be undertaken. that she was in the bay — that all hands The following are the particulars :

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er.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XXXIX.

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No. I Shipment. 31 families ; 152 fares; 201 | one or two persons, who, wishing to emimen, women, and children.

grate, had been refused on the ground of Per Austrian,

unsuitability, could deter him from pro

d. moting that which he felt to be the only Ocean passage

885 0 American railway fares

chance of escape from the poverty around. Conveyance, etc., to Galway

Nor must I forget to notice the assist

75 Clothing

ance rendered by my temporary assistant, Lodgings, outfit for ship and

Mr. Peter King, who by night or day was sands

55 0 ever ready for the work.

The question is often asked, for how 1,265 0

o many persons, roughly speaking, is it American expenses

500 requisite that funds should be provided

for emigration ? It is a question which

1,315 0 £6 IIs. Sd. per person.

must necessarily be answered with con

siderable hesitation if actual numbers are No. 2. 58 families ; 260 fares; 345 persons. demanded, but so far as this experiment Per Nepigon.

enables us to give any reply, we think the Ocean passage

1,050 0 o following data may assist in arriving at a American railway fares

3 conclusion. Conveyance to Galway, etc.

154 4 6 There are in the western counties so Food, lodging, etc. in Galway

40 0

frequently referred to, from four to five Outfits in Liverpool

73 6

hundred thousand persons living on sevClothing (less gift 701.)

158 10 6 American expenses

enty-seven thousand holdings at or under

41. valuation, many of the rents being 2,081 It 4

il. to 31.; a large proportion of these are Say £6 os. Sd. per head.

unable to maintain themselves decently No. 3. 75 families ; 356 fares; 432 men, have little if any wages from local em

on the produce of the land they hold, and women, and children. Per Winnipeg

ployment. We are thus brought face to

face with an amount of poverty requiring Ocean fares

1,447 o most serious attention, and far beyond the American railway fares

492 12

power Conveying to Galway,

of any private association to refood, lodging, etc. (one sum) { 219 9 3 lieve. It is not intended to urge that this in Galway

3ó ś 8 number must be assisted to emigrate. Clothing (less gift 301. and 301.) 287 611

Taking Clifden union, with a population Liverpool outfit.

S2 16 of about twenty thousand who are living Expenses in America (say)

250 0

on holdings under 41., (out of twenty-five

thousand persons) as an example, it was

2,809 13 8 found that one-fifth ought to leave ! As Say £6 Is. 2d. per head.

there are only six other unions in the dis. In addition to these 978 persons, a few were trict included in the above number equally assisted from Belmullet, and subsequently 240 poor with Clifden, we think it might be others from Connemara, making a total of safe to take one-sixth of the whole: or 1,260 men, women, and children. The total say, sixty-six thousand if taken at four cost in round numbers being 7,700l.

hundred thousand, or at eighty-three thou. Amidst the many scenes and recollec- sand if at five hundred thousand. Taken tions which crowd in upon me as I bring broadly at seventy-five thousand, it would this record of seven weeks' work to a need, at 61. 1os. per head, a sum approach)close, I must not forget to make some ing half a million.* To remove so large acknowledgment of the services and un- a number must, however, be a work of failing aid rendered by Mr. J. Burke, the time, and it would be absolutely needful clerk of the Clifden union. I think I to make arrangements for their proper may venture to say that without his hearty reception and employment in the colonies co-operation the work could hardly have and the United States. been carried on, while his opposition When writing on this subject a short would certainly have been fatal to it. It time ago without actual experience to was perhaps the knowledge of this which guide me, I ventured to make the followled to the bitter tone adopted towards him ing suggestions in reference to these disby a portion of the guardians, culminating tricts: in the passing of a resolution calling upon * Any calculation based upon imperfect data must him to resign; but neither this, nor per thought and local inquiry extending over some monihs,

necessarily be liable to correction. sonal abuse, nor threatening letters from the above cannot, I think, be far from the mark.

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But after much

ist. That greater facilities should be with this many-sided and important quesgiven to all unions throughout Ireland tion. for borrowing for emigration purposes by Having said this, I wish again to draw extending the time for repayment of loans attention to the absolute necessity, whatfrom seven to twenty.five years, or even ever plan may be adopted, of carrying it longer, with a rate of interest not exceed-out with the greatest caution and considing 3 per cent.

eration, as regards the preparation and 2nd. That in all cases of eviction in arrangements for the settlement of famiwhich admission to the union is offered lies of emigrants. Without this I cannot to the tenant, it should be compulsory to think that any emigration ought to be give (to suitable families) side by side assisted by the State or private associawith this the offer of emigration, charge. tions. able, as at present, on the electoral divi. It is especially so in regard to the emision in which the tenant resides.

gration of families. Had no preparation 3rd. That it is needful in certain well- been made for the families assisted “by known impoverished unions (about twenty the sund” whether by private hands in in number), extending along the western the States or by the agents of the Canashores of Donegal, Mayo, Galway, or dian government in Canada, our work other unions in Connaught, and portions would have been largely a failure. Even of Clare and Kerry, to provide from the with every precaution and arrangement Treasury, either by loan without interest one must not be surprised to find, in deal. to be repaid in thirty years, or by free ing with people so poor and helpless, that grant, or partly by grant and partly by some persons or families assisted have loan, the sum of 100,oool. for five years drifted into the dregs of the population, for emigration.

or be disappointed if we hear, where so Subsequent experience has confirmed much depends in the future on the charthe opinion that this amount is really need acter and willingness of the individual to ed to be so spent, but it has also strength- work, that there is a proportion of failures. ened the conviction that the money must What these arrangements should be, be a grant in several unions,* and not a whether a revival of the scheme proposed loan, and that the control of the work by the Canadian government to the Britshould be entrusted to an emigration com. ish government in the winter of 1880, or mission.

through other associations in Canada, or Would it not be possible, by way of a by an organization co-operating with the prompt commencement, in addition to admirable arrangements at Castle Gar. giving, in the Arrears Bill now before dens in the United States, is beyond the Parliament, every facility to landlords and limits of this paper to enter upon; only tenants who may mutually wish to devote that it is absolutely needful if a really moneys advanced for arrears to the pur- beneficial emigration is carried out does poses of emigration, also to insert a clause not admit of any doubt. to meet those cases which will undoubt- That there is ample work for an assoedly arise of tenants who from extreme ciation such as that under whose auspices poverty are unable to comply with the I have had the honor to work is as little terms upon which relief from arrears is to to be doubted; and if it were possible be given, and who will therefore remain that the personal dealings with the people liable to eviction, by empowering the assisted - such as the selection of familord-lieutenant, through such agencies as lies, the clothing required, the reception he may deen desirable, to expend say arrangements – could be so delegated, I 200,000l. in facilitating emigration under believe much of the bitterness and cher. proper conditions

utilizing in fact the ished animosity which has so largely perdead letter of the emigration clause? vaded the minds of those who amidst Surely the experience gained in dealing infinite disadvantages have found their with these cases promptly, as from day to way to a more hospitable shore would day the need might arise, would be ex. vanish. ceedingly valuable in preparing the way It is, I venture again to urge, the pov. for the further and more complete dealing erty of the people which is intimately

associated with, if not the cause for, the * I am well aware of the strong objection to the prir:ciple of grants - but it must be remarked that agrarian crime which now exists in many during the past two years it has been found needful to districts. To whatever extent legislation pay the arrears of debts or cancel loans of four of the

can practically be directed to the removal unions of this district to the extent of nearly 25,000l., viz. Delmullet, Newport, Swinford, Clifden, out of the of this poverty, in that degree shall we Treasury grant for the Relief of Distress.

have removed the motive and incen.

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