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dow is this resemblance, that the Scot | But after every allowance has been made who for the first time sails along the west for these several influences, it seems to ern seaboard of Norway, can hardly real me that there are residual differences ize that he is not skirting the coast-line of which cannot be explained except by the Inverness, Ross, or Sutherland. Such a effects of environment. The Celt of Ire. form of coast forbade easy communica- land and of the Scottish Highlands was tion by land between valley and valley. originally the same being; he crossed Detached settlements arose in the more freely from country to country; his lansheltered bays, where glens, opening in- guage, manners and customs, arts, reli. land, afforded ground for tillage and pas. gion, were the same on both sides of the ture. But the intercourse between them channel, yet no two natives of the Britwould be almost wholly by boat, for there ish Islands are now marked by more could be no continuous line of farms, vil. characteristic differences. The Irishman lages, and roads, like those for which the seems to have changed less than the old red sandstone selvages offered such Highlander; he has retained the lightfacilities on the eastern coast. Hence, hearted gaiety, wit, impulsiveness, and though the Norsemen possessed them- excitability, together with that want of selves of every available bay and inlet, dogged resolution and that indifference driving the Celts into the more barren in to the stern necessities of duty, which we terior, the natural contours made it im. regard as pre-eminently typical of the possible that their hold of the ground Celtic temperament. The Highlander, on should be so firm as that of their kinsmen the other hand, cannot be called either in the east. When that hold began to merry or witty; he is rather of a self-rerelax, the Gaelic natives of the glens came strained, reserved, unexpansive, and even down once more to the sea, and all obvi- perhaps somewhat sullen, disposition. ous trace of the Norse occupation event. His music partakes of the melancholy ually disappeared, save in the names given cadence of the winds that sigh through by the sea-rovers to the islands, promon his lonely glens; his religion, too, one of tories, and inlets — the “ays,” “nishes” the strongest and noblest features of his or “nesses,” and “fords” or “fjords ” — character, retains still much of the gloomy which, having been adopted by the Celtic tone of a bygone time. Yet he is courtenatives, show that there must have been ous, dutiful, determinedly persevering, some communication and probable inter- unflinching as a foe, unwearied as a friend, marriage between the races. Among the fitted alike to follow with soldier-like obeouter islands the effects of the Norwegian dience, and to lead with courage, skill, occupation were naturally more enduring, and energy - a man who has done much though even there the Celtic race has in every climate to sustain and expand long recovered its ground. Only in the the reputation of the British Empire. Orkney and Shetland group have the vi- Now what has led to so decided a conkings left upon the physical frame andi trast? I cannot help thinking that one language of the people the strong impress fundamental cause is to be traced to the of their former presence. To this day a great difference between the geological Shetlander speaks of going to Scotland, structure and consequent scenery of Ire. meaning the mainland, much as a Low- land and of the Highlands. By far the land Scot might talk of visiting England, greater part of Ireland is occupied by the or an Englishman of crossing to Ireland. carboniferous limestone, which, in gently

But besides governing in no small de undulating sheets, spreads out as a vast gree the distribution of races in Britain, plain. Round the margin of this plain the geological structure of the country the older forinations rise as

a broken has probably not been without its influ. ring of high ground, while here and there ence upon the temperament of the peo- from the surface of the plain itself they ple. Let us take the case of the Celts, tower into isolated hills or hilly groups; originally one great race, with no doubt but there is no extensive area of mounthe same average type of mental and tains. The soil is generally sufficiently moral disposition, as they unquestionably fertile, the climate soft, and the limestone possessed the same general build of body plains are carpeted with that rich verdant and cast of features. Probably nowhere pasture which has suggested the name of within our region have they remained un- the Emerald Isle. In such a region, so mixed with a foreign element, and this, long as the people are left free from fortogether with the varying political condi- eign interference, there can be but little tions under which they have lived, must to mar the gay, careless, childlike temhave distinctly affected their character. I perament of the Celtic nature. If the

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country yields no vast wealth, it yet can protruding almost everywhere to the sur-
furnish, with but little labor, all the nec. face and only scantily and sparsely cov-
essaries of life. The Irishman is nat- ered with a poor soil, are naturally in-
urally attached to his bolding. His capable of cultivation. The crystalline
fathers for generations past have cul- formations of the Scottish Highlands
tivated the same little plots. He sees no may be taken as an example of this kind
reason why he should try to be better of territory. The grouse-moors and deer-
than they, and he resents, as an injury forests of that region exist there, not
never to be forgiven, the attempt to re. merely because the proprietors of the
move him to where he may elsewhere in- land have so willed it, but because over
prove his fortunes. The Highlander, on hundreds of square miles the ground it.
the other hand, has no such broad, fertile self could be turned to no better use, for
plains around him. Placed in a glen, it can neither be tilled nor pastured.
separated from his neighbors in the next Much patriotic nonsense has been writ-
glens by high ranges of rugged hills, he ten about the enormity of retaining so
finds a soil scant and stony, a climate wet, much land as game preserves. But in
coid, and uncertain. He has to fight this, as in so many other matters, man
with the elements a never-ending battle, must be content to be the servant of na-
wherein he is often the loser. The dark ture. He cannot plant crops where she
mountains that frown above him gather has appointed that they shall never grow;
around their summits the cloudy screen nor can he pasture flocks of sheep where
which keeps the sun from ripening his she has decreed that only the fox, ihe wild
miserable patch of corn, or rots it with cat, and the eagle shall find a home.
perpetual rains after it has been painfully In the second place, the true pasture-
cut. He stands among the mountains lands, that is, the tracts which are too
face to face with nature in her wilder high or sterile for cultivation, but which
moods. Storm and tempest, mist-wreath are not too rocky to refuse to yield, when
and whirlwind, the roar of waterfalls, the their heathy covering is burnt off, a sweet,
rush of swollen streams, the crash of grassy herbage, excellent for sheep and
loosened landslips, though he may seem cattle, lie mainly on elevated areas of
hardly to notice them, do not pass with non-crystalline palæozoic rocks. The long
out bringing, unconsciously perhaps, to range of pastoral uplands in the south of
his imagination, their ministry of terror. Scotland, and the fells of Cumberland,
Hence the playful mirthfulness and light. Northumberland, and Yorkshire, are good
hearted ease of the Celtic temperament examples. These lonely wilds might be
have in his case been curdled into a stub- grouped into districts each marked off by
bornness, which may be stolid obstinacy certain distinctive types of geological
or undaunted perseverance, according to structure, and consequently of scenery:
the circumstances which develop it. Like And it might, for aught I know, be pos.
his own granite hills he has grown hard sible to show that these distinctions have
and enduring, not without a tinge of mel. not been without their influence upon the
ancholy, suggestive of the sadness that generations of shepherds who have spent
lingers among his wind-swept glens, and their solitary lives among them; that in
that hangs about the slopes of birk round character, legends, superstitions, song,
the quiet waters of his lonely lakes. The the peasants of Lammermuir might be
difference between Irishman and Scot distinguished from those of Liddesdale,
thus somewhat resembles, though on a and both from those of Cumberland and
minor scale, that between the Celt of low. Yorkshire the distinction, subtle per-
land France and the Celt of the Swiss haps and hardly definable, pointing more
Alps, and the cause of the difference is or less clearly to the differences in their
doubtless traceable in great measure to a respective surroundings.
similar kind of contrast in their respective In the third place, the sites of towns
surroundings.

and villages may often be traced to a If now we turn to the influences which guiding geological influence. Going back have been at work in the distribution of to feudal times we at once observe to the population of the country and the de. what a large extent the positions of the velopment of the national industries, we castles of the nobles were determined by find them in large degree of a geological the form of the ground, and notably by kind.

the prominence of some crag which, rising In the first place, the feral ground, or well above the rest of the country, comterritory left in a state of nature and given manded a wide view and was capable of up to game, lies mostly upon rocks which, defence. Across the Lowlands of Scot.

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land such crags are abundantly scattered. they can obtain most employment and They consist for the most part of hard best pay; and these districts are necessaprojections of igneous rock, from which rily those where coal and iron can be ob. the softer sandstones and shales, that tained, without which no branch of our once surrounded and covered them, have manufacturing industry could exist. been worn away. Many of them are In the fourth place, the style of archicrowned with mediæval fortresses, some tecture in different districts is largely of which stand out among the most fa- dependent upon the character of their mous spots in the history of the country. geology. The mere presence or absence Dumbarton, Stirling, Blackness, Edin- of building-stone creates at once a funda. burgh, Tantallon, Dunbar, the Bass, are mental distinction. Hence the contrast familiar names in the stormy annals of between the brickwork of England, where Scotland. A strong castle naturally gath-building-stone is less common, and the ered around its walls the peasantry of the stonework of Scotland, where stone neighborhood, for protection against the abounds.

But even

as we inove from common foe, and thus by degrees the orig. one part of a stone-using region to an. inal collection of wooden booths or stone other, marked varieties of style may be huts grew into a village or even into a observed, according to local geological populous town. The Scottish metropolis development. The massive yellow limeundoubtedly owes its existence in this stone blocks of Bath or Portland, the way to the bold crag of basalt on which thin blue flags and slates of the Lake its ancient castle stands.

district, the thick courses of deep-red lo more recent times the development freestone in Dumfriesshire, the bands of of the mining industries of the country fine, easily-dressed white sandstone at has powerfully affected both the growth Edinburghi, the fints of Kent and Sussex, and decay of towns. Comparing in this have all produced certain differences of respect the maps of to-day with those of style and treatment. To a geological eye one hundred and fifty or two hundred passing rapidly through a territory, the years ago, we cannot but be struck with character of its buildings is often sugges. the reniarkable changes that have taken tive of its geology: place in the interval. Some places which In the fifth and last place, the dominant were then of but minor importance have influence of the geology of a country now advanced to the first rank, while oth- upon its human progress is nowhere more ers that were among the chief towns of marvellously exhibited than in the growthn the realm have either hardly advanced at of British commerce. The internal trade all or have positively declined. If now of this country may be spoken of as its we turn to a geological map, we find that life-blood, pulsating unceasingly along a in almost all cases the growth has taken network of railways. This vast organism place within or near to some important possesses not one but many hearts, from mineral field, while the decadence occurs each of which a vigorous circulation proin tracts where there are no workable ceeds. Each of these hearts or nerveminerals. Look, for example, at the pro- centres is located on or near a mineral digious increase of such towns as Glas. region, whence its nourishment comes. gow, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, The history of the development of our Birmingham, and Middlesborough. Each system of railways, our steam machinery, of these owes its advance in population our manufactures, is unintelligible except and wealth to its position in the midst of, when taken together with the opening up or close to, fields of coal and iron. Con of our resources in coal and iron. trast, on the other hand, the sleepy quiet, The growth of the foreign commerce unprogressive content, and even some of the country enforces the same lesson. tines unmistakable decay, of not a few Even, however, before the days of steam county towns in our agricultural districts. navigation, ber geological structure gave

Closely connected with this subject is England a distinct advantage over her the remarkable transference of population neighbors on the Continent. Owing to wbich for the last generation or two has the denudation that has hollowed out the been in such rapid progress among us. surface of the country, and the subsidence The large manufacturing towns are in that has depressed the shoreward tracts creasing at the expense of the rural dis. beneath the sea, the coast-line of Britain tricts. The general distribution of the abounds in admirable natural harbors, popuiation is changing, and the change is which on the opposite side of the Chanobviousi; underlaid by a geological cause. nel and North Sea are hardly to be found. People are drawn to the districts where | There can be no question that in the in.

VOL. XXXIX. 1979

LIVING AGE.

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AN UNPUBLISHED DIARY

fancy of navigation this gave a superior. lished journal in Swift's handwriting, ity for which hardly anything else could singular in its character, and of extraordicompensate. We boast that it is our in. nary interest. Of the verses he says sular position and our English blood that nothing at all. A mere glance at these have made us sailors. Let us remember documents will suffice to show their value that in spite of their less favorable posi- — their value as pieces intrinsically curition, our neighbors on the opposite shores ous, and as pieces peculiarly illustrative of the Continent have become excellent of the dean's character and habits. Of sailors too, and that if we have been en their authenticity there can be no ques. abled to lead the van in international tion. Those who are familiar with Swift's commerce it has been largely due to the writings would indeed require no further abundant, safe, and commodious inlets guarantee than that afforded by internal in our coast-line which have sheltered our evidence alone. But the ink, the paper, marine.

the handwriting — and the handwriting of Of the foreign trade of the country it Swift can never be mistaken – form in is not needful to speak. Its rapid growth themselves conclusive testimony. during the present century is distinctly It would be interesting to know the traceable to the introduction of steam history of this remarkable little volume. navigation, and therefore directly to the Mr. Forster obtained it from Dr. Todd, development of those mineral resources senior fellow of Dublin University, but which form so marked an element in the how it got into Dr. Todd's hands we have fortunate geological construction of the now no means of knowing. It originally British Islands.

belonged to Worral, one of Swift's most
ARCHIBALD GEIKIE. intimate friends, for on the first page is

an inscription : “ This book was all wrote
by Dean Swist, and was Mr. Worral's.”
On the same page in Swift's handwriting

is another inscription : "This book I
From The Gentleman's Magazine. stole from the Right Honble. George

Dodington Esqr. one of the Lords of the
Treasury. But the scribblings are all my

own.” On the opposite page are some
Every one interested in the literature memoranda in the dean's hand: “In
of the last century is aware that when Fleet Street about a clerk of St. Patrick's
Mr. John Forster died he was engaged in Cathedral.” Spectacles for seventy
writing an elaborate biography of Swift; years old.” Godfrey in Southampton
that of this work he lived only to complete Street. Hungary waters, and palsy
the first volume, but that, though he had drops,” and the like. On the third page
made no progress with the second and are some verses, extremely difficult to
third volumes, he had collected materials decipher, and cancelled. They are ap-
for them. Those materials formed part parently the rough sketch of a poem.
of his magnificent bequest to the South We give them exactly as they stand :-
Kensington Museum, where they are now
deposited. Few readers appear to be Because my shabby threadbare waistcoat, to...

Shall I repine aware of their existence, still fewer have Full five

years or out at elbows any conception of their great value. So see the Cassock of a poor divine Among these documents is a small note. Worn out at elbows why should be repine book which belonged to Swift; and with If neither brass nor marble can withstand the contents of that note-book we propose The mortal force of Time's destructive hand to present our readers. It appears to If mountains sink to vales, if Cityes dye have been guarded by Mr. Forster with And lessening rivers mourn their fountains dry jealous vigilance, for not a line of it has When my old Cassock says a Welch divine as yet seen the light, nor is even an allu- Is out at elbows why should I repine? sion to it to be found in any work relating Then commences the really valuable part to Swift. It had escaped the notice of of the manuscript the powerful and every editor and every biographer, though characteristic poem to which we shall among those editors was Sir Walter Scott, presently recur, and the diary, to which it and among those biographers was Monck inay be well to prefix a few words by way Mason. Mr. Forster had evidently reo of introduction. It was written, it will be served it as a grateful surprise for his seen, at Holyhead, and it is dated Sepreaders, merely observing in his preface tember 22, 1727. Swift had at this time that he was in possession of an unpub. I arrived at the summit of his literary and

WRITTEN BY DEAN SWIFT.

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political greatness. Three years before, me in the street and said that was my horse, the Drapier Letters had in Ireland given she knew me. There I dined and sent for Ned him power more than regal. The publi- Holland a squire famous for being mentioned cation of “Gulliver's Travels " in the in Mr. Lyndsay's verses to Day Morice, I there autumn of 1726 had established his pre of his mother, and had himself 27 children

again saw Hook's tomb who was the 41st child eminence in letters. But neither fame he dyed about 1638. There is a note here that nor power had been able to irradiate with one of his posterity new furbished up the in

a passing gleam the deep gloom scription, I had read in A. Bt Williains Life * which was settling on his life. Rage and that he was buryed in an obscure church in misery, the result partly of ill-health, North Wales. Í enquired and heard that it partly of domestic misfortune, but arising was at (sic) Church within a mile of Bangor, mainly from his continually brooding over whither I was: going. I went to the Church, the degradation of his adopted country, the guide grumbling. I saw the Toml) with were gnawing at his heart." A cruel dis- his Statue kneeling (in marble). It began thus ease tortured his body. Esther Johnson [Hospes lege et relege quod in hoc obscuro

sacello non expectares. was on her death-bed, and he had hurried Præsulum celeberrimus). I came to Bangor

Hic jacet omnium from London in the hope of seeing her and crossed the Ferry a mile from it where before she quitted him forever. In his there is an Inn which, if it be well kept, will correspondence at this period - in his break Bangor. There I lay, it was 22 miles letters, that is to say, Sheridan and from Holyhead. I was on horseback at 4 in Worral – his distress and agony find pas. the morning resolving to be at Church at Holysionate utterance. Of this there are no head but we then lost Owen Tudor's tomb at traces in the diary, for it was his habit to Penmany. We passed the place (being a little find in these soliloquies, as well as in the out of the way) by the Guide's knavery who trivialities recorded in them, that refuge riding that I was forced to stop at Langueveny,

had no mind to stay. I was now so weary with from distressing thoughts which ordinary 7 miles from the Ferry, and rest two hours. men find in light and idle conversation. Then I went on very weary, but in a few miles “ All this,” he writes in the middle of the more Watts' f horse lost his two fore-shoes. diary, “is to divert thinking;” and these So the Horse was forced to limp after us. words are the key not only to this journal, The Guide was less concerned than I. In a but to the more famous Journal to Stella. few miles more my Horse lost a fore-shoe, and The whole journal is, like the famous could not go on the rocky ways. I walked Journal to Stella, curiously illustrative of above two miles to spare him. It was Sunday

and no Smith to be got. At last there was a almost all Swift's peculiarities of temper and intellect. His sensitive pride, not un the horses and walked to a hedge Inn 3 miles

Smith in the way: we left the Guide to shoe mingled with vanity, his reserve and from Holyhead. There I stayed an hour with hauteur struggling with his craving for no ale to be drunk. A boat offered, and I human society, his grave drollery, the went by sea and sayled in it to Holyhead, restless activity of his mind, his never- The Guide came about the same time. I failing humor, his acute sensibility, his dined with an old Innkeeper, Mrs. Welch, listless but keenly observant interest in about 3 on a Loyne of mutton very good, but all that was passing round him, his sharp, the worst ale in the world, and no wine, for the swift insight, his querulous impatience day before I came here a vast number went to with everything which militated against Ireland after having drunk out all the wine. his physical comfort, his frugality pushed receit of Oyster shells which I got powdered

There was stale beer and I tryed a (illegible) even to parsimony, his cictestation of the Irish, bis sarcastic intolerance of dulness walked on the rocks in the evening and then

on purpose; but it was good for nothing. I and mediocrity — all find illustration here. went to bed and dreamt I had got 20 falls from The Diary.

Monday Sept. 25. The captain talks of sail. Friday at in in the morning I left Chester. ing at 12. The talk goes off, the wind is fair It was Sept. 22 1727.

but he says it is too fierce. I believe he wants I bated at a blind ale-house 7 miles from more Company. I had a raw chicken for dinChester. I thence rode to Ridland * in all 22 ner and Brandy with water for my drink. I miles. I lay there, bred (sic) bed, meat and walked morning and afternoon among the tolerable wine. I left Ridland a quarter after rocks. This evening Watts tells me that my 4 morn on Saturday. Slept on Penmanmaur, land-lady whispered him that the Grafton examined about my sign verses the Inn is to packet boat just come in had brought her 18 be on t'other side, therefore the verses to be bottles of Irish Claret. I secured one and changed. I baited at Conway, the guide going supped on part of a neat's tongue which a to another Inn, the maid of the old Inn saw

See Hacket's Life of Archbishop Williams, p. 230 • Rhuddlan.

† Swift's servantman, see infra.

my Horse.

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