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in architecture it is memorable for the tion. But he brought it into captivity to introduction of the acute arch. It was the imperial authority. The pontiffs the age of Theodora and Marzoria, but changed masters; but they did not change it was also the age of St. Romuald and manners. Violence and impurity reigned St. Nilus. It is darkened by the con- in the Apostolic throne no less after than spicuous badness of many of the pontiffs before the establishment of the new rela. who disgraced the Apostolic throne, tions between the tiara and the imperial “ They lived for the most part rather like crown. But violence and impurity were monsters or wild beasts than bishops,” is not the only scandals which disgraced the Mabillon's judgment of them, - but it is chair of Peter. Simony was no less con. relieved by the exemplary virtues of oth- spicuous, and it passed into a proverb
Against a Stephen VII., guilty of that everything in Rome had its price. the brutal indecency of dragging the body The eleventh century, indeed, opens auspiof a dead predecessor through the streets, ciously with the too short pontificate of may be set such a holy and humble man the learned and virtuous Gerbert (Sylves. of heart as Leo VII.; against a John XII., ter II.), the fitting successor of the learned accused publicly, and apparently on too and virtuous, but severe, * Gregory V.; good grounds, of "hoinicide, perjury, sac- and in 1012 Benedict VIII. assumes the rilege, of incest with his relatives and two tiara, a pope who, as Giesebrecht observes, sisters, of drinking wine in honor of the “recognized it as his mission to provide devil, and of invoking in gambling Jupi- for the welsare of all Western Christianity, ter, Venus, and other demons," may be and who feared neither weariness nor exset a John X., no saint, indeed, but appar- ertion to restore to his high office the ently a virtuous man, zealous for the value it had lost." | Still it is to the early restorations of religious discipline, and portion of this eleventh century that we the deliverer of his subjects from the must go for the most scandalous examples Saracen invader.* But what I am con- of simoniacal vice in the Roman sec. cerned to point out is that whether the John XIX., who had himself, when a mere popes were good or bad, they were pene-layman, purchased the popedom upon the trated by the feudal spirit.' This John death of Benedict VIII., $ offered to confer X. just mentioned, as Muratori notes, was the title of universal bishop upon the pathe first to give the world example of a triarch of Constantinople for a pecuniary Roman pontiff at the head of an arıy. consideration. His successor, Benedict And John XII., a man of blood from his IX., stated to have been ordained at the youth, made himself notorious, in a by no age of twelve, after a career of which, acmeans tender-hearted age, for the 'sav. cording to the chronicler, the chief inci. agery with which he waged war and pun- dents were “multa turpia adulteria, et ished his enemies. It is curious that homicidia manibus suis perpetrata," rewhen the messengers from the Council solved to wed his first cousin, and finding convoked by the emperor Otto to rescue that public opinion would not tolerate a the papacy from its abasement sought the married pontiff, sold the papacy to John pontiff in his camp at Tivoli, they were Gratian, and consecrated him with his told that “pharetratus jam in campestrem own hands by the name of Gregory VI., abierat;” or, as we should say, that his in 1044. It is under this pope, whose Holiness had gone out shooting:t Nor virtues were singularly out of keeping did Otto's reformation unfeudalize the with the manner of his elevation, that we papacy or breathe into its occupants a first find Hildebrand at Rome in an offispirit ecclesiastical. He delivered it, cial capacity. He is described as the indeed, more or less, from its bondage to pontiff's chaplain (capellanus). the Tusculan barons, whose unprincipled So much as to the condition of the paambition and shameless intrigues had pacy in the century and a half succeeding been the immediate cause of its degrada. the death of St. Nicholas I. It still main
tained the sacramentum unitatis. But • Baronius judges this pope severely, and, as Gregorovius shows, unfairly: – “ Summus erat Pastor tunc temporis Urbe Joannes
• "Durus ille pontifex," Damiani calls him, and Officio afiatim clarus sophiaque repletus,"
certainly not without reason, if the account is true which
has conie down to us of his treatment of the anti-pope, is the account given of him by the contemporary author Philagathus. “De Laudibus Berengarii.".
+ Gesch. der Deutschen Kaiserzeit, vol. ii., p. 172. † The fate of this unexemplary pontiff, perhaps the I “Largitione pecuniæ repente ex laicali ordine neoinost singular vicar of Christ the world has ever seen, phytus constitutus præsul ex laico (nefas dictu) is thus related: “Dum se cujusdam viri uxore oblecta- est transformatus in papam.” (Baronius, ad ann. 1024. rei, in temporibus adeo a diabolo est percussus, ut inter quoting Glaber, a writer of that age.) dierum ocio spatium eodem sit vulnere mortuus.” (Con- § Bonizo, apud Watterich, Pout. Roman. Vitæ, vol. tin. Luitprand, l. vi., C. .
of the poem
i., P. 75.
how feebly, how precariously, is obvious. nally been mere life estates. The process Thus was the head affected by the evils by which they at first became heritable, of feudality: The members suffered still and then alienable, is so well known in more. The tendency everywhere had this country, through our real property been to convert the bishops into feudal | law, that I need not dwell upon it. The barons, and the transformation had to a same process was going on in the feudalvery large extent been effected. Underized Church. The prospect before the the successors of the great Charles, the world in the earlier part of the eleventh episcopate had practically become in large century apparently was that the spiritumeasure a royal donative, and abbacies, alty would be merged in the feudal system, like sees, had been conferred by the nom- that the priesthood would become a caste, ination of the prince. The spiritual char. holding churches and lands on a secular acter of the higher clergy was obscured tenure, and gradually, like secular holders, by their employment as councillors of acquiring power of 'alienation. It is not state, ministers of princes, governors of too much to say that, if this result had provinces. They became more familiar been attained, the whole future of Europe with the helmet than the mitre. St. Ful. would have been disastrously different. bert of Chartres testifies † that he knew For it would have meant the extinction of prelates better acquainted with the laws the Church as a society perfect and com. of war than most secular potentates. And plete in herself, and with her the extinc. with the occupations of feudal lords they tion of the great principles of which she assumed their way of living. For the was the sole representative in the world first time in ecclesiastical history, we read - the principles of the supremacy of law; of bishopesses (episcopisse), and of the of the freedom of conscience; of the real transmission to these women's sons of equality of all men; of their brotherhood their fathers' office. The same evil, as in the Church ; of the essentially fiduciary was natural, affected more sorely the in- and limited nature of human authority.* ferior clergy. The priest's concubine, That these great ideas were not blotted whether he had gone through the form of out from the mind of the new nationali. marriage with her or not, was almost ties, was, humanly speaking, the work of a recognized member of the sacerdotal one man, and that man was Hildebrand. household; and the appellation "son of a The pontificate of Gregory VII. is the priest” took high rank among vituperat. turning point of the Middle Ages. ive expressions: it may be regarded, in
: deed, as the equivalent of a term attributive of canine maternity, much in favor as It was in a carpenter's shop, in the an opprobrious epithet among mariners little Tuscan town of Soano, that the fu. in our own day. Simony gradually be- ture pontiff first saw the light. An atcame universal. At the beginning of the tempt was made in after years, by — to eleventh century the traffic in livings was use a phrase of Mr. Carlyle's geneconducted as openly and unblushingly alogists of the flunkey species,” to trace throughout Europe as it is conducted in his lineage to the noble family of the nineteenth-century England. And simony, Aldobrandini. But it would seem to be as the natural consequence and companion beyond question that, as we read in a of incontinence, may, like it, be referred remarkable letter † addressed to him by directly to the invasion of the ecclesias, a contemporary abbot, upon his elevation tical order by the feudal spirit. Feudal to the pontificate, he was vir de plebe; fit benefices, like ecclesiastical, had origi- origin for the great champion of religious
democracy in the Middle Ages, “the holy * Bruno, in his life of St. Leo IX., gives the follow- athlete of the Christian faith," I as Dante ing account of the condition of Christendom at the period of that pontiff's election in 1048: "Mundus sings, who was to maintain the cause of totus in maligno positus est, defecerat sanctitas, justitia the poor against the violence of a military perierat et veritas sepulta est: regnabat injustitia, avaritia dominabitur, Simon Magus ecclesiaın possidebat, * It is most important to understand how strongly episcopi et sacerdotes voluptatibus et fornicationi dediti this was insisted on by the mediæval Church.
Non erubescebant sacerdotes uxores ducere, “right divine of kings to govern wrong" was so much palam nuptias facere, nefanda matrimonia contrahebant as dreamed of in the Middle Ages. I shall touch upon et legibus eas dotabant cum quibus secundum leges, nec this point in a subsequent portion of the present essay. in una domo simul habitare debebant. Sed quod his It is well brought out by Montalembert: Moines d'Ocomnibus deterius est vix aliquis inveniebatur qui vel cident, vol. vi., c. 6. simoniacus non esset, vel a simoniacis ordinatus non Quoted by the Bollandists in his “Acts."
Talis erat ecclesia, tales erat episcopi et sacer- liam of Malmesbury speaks of hiin as “ despicabilis dotes, tales et ipsi Romani pontifices, qui omnes alios parentelz.” (Apud Pertz., Monumenta Germania illuminare debebant.” (Apud Watierich, Pont. Ro- Historica, vol. xii., p. 474.) man. Vitæ, vol. i., p. 96.)
Della fede cristiana il santo atleta. (Paradiso, a | Ep. 112.
aristocracy. His father, the carpenter, IX., finding himself unable to procure had a brother, or a kinsman, who ruled as the bride he desired, returned to Rome abbot the monastery of St. Mary on the after a three months' absence, and, occu. Aventine. Thither Hildebrand was sent, pying the Lateran Palace, resumed the when a mere boy, to learn the liberal arts pontifical name and functions, while at and moral discipline. There he was first the same time John, Bishop of Sabina, brought into contact with John Gratian, was designated pope by a faction of the arch-priest of the Roman Church, who Roman nobles under the title of Sylves. was subsequently to be his first papal ter III. In this scandalous condition of patron; and there he made the acquaint. the papacy the Romans appealed to the ance of Odilo, Abbot of Clugny, a “saint emperor Henry III., a prince of irregular of gentleness and meekness," whose play: life but animated by deep sentiments of ful answer to those that blamed hini for personal religion, who caused a council showing too much mercy in the execution to be summoned at Sutri, where Gregory of his office, “If I am to be damned, I presided, as unquestionably the lawful would rather it were for excess of pitiful- pope. Here Benedict withdrew his claims ness than for excess of severity," is in to the pontificate, and Sylvester was senitself a revelation of his beautiful and tenced to degradation from his ecclesias. winning character. 1o the great religious tical rank and to imprisonment for the house over which Odilo ruled, so famous rest of his life within a monastery. And for the magnificence of its church, the now Gregory's turn was to come. “ Idi. exactness of its ritual, the strictness of ota et miræ simplicitatis," as the chroniits discipline, Hildebrand migrated in en cler* calls him with half-contemptuous tering upon manhood.* He remained pity, he acknowledged to the assembled there for several years, drinking more prelates the unworthy means by which he deeply at its abundant founts of the eccle. had obtained the supreme pastorate, and siastical spirit with which, as his biogra- was exhorted by thein to judge himselfphers testify, he had been deeply imbued no earthly authority being competent to from his earliest youth; and as St. Peter judge him- so that he might not be Damiani relates in his life of St. Odilo, judged of the Lord. “ Better will it be the prescient mind of that holy person for thee," they are represented as saying, discerned, by the second sight of sanctity, “to live like the holy Peter, poor in this the coming greatness of the neophyte, world and to be blessed in another, than, applying to him the words spoken of an like the magician Simon, whose example earlier reformer, “ Iste puer magnus erit misled thee, to shine in riches here, and coram Domino," "He shall be great in to receive the sentence of condemnation the sight of the Lord.” Whether he com- there.” The conscience-stricken pontiff pleted his monastic novitiate at Clugny gave ear to them, and thus pronounced or at St. Mary on the Aventine is un sentence upon himself: “1, Gregory, certain. But “after some years," as the bishop, servant of the servants of God, chronicler writes, with a disdain of ex. adjudge that on account of the most act chronology somewhat uncongenial to shameful trafficking of heretical simony the modern mind, he set out to return which, through the craft of the old ene. to Rome, and on his way spent some time, my, crept into my election, I am deprived probably upon business of his order, at of the Roman see.” The emperor carihe court of the emperor Henry 111., and ried the fallen pope with him to Germany, preached a sermon before that prince and as the chronicler Bonizo relates, which drew from him the testimony, Hildebrand, beloved of God (Dco ama“Never have I heard man proclaim the bilis), attended him thither, wishing to word of God with so much boldness.” It show reverence towards his lord.” Nine would appear that he reached Rome about months after, the life and troubles of the the time of the election of his old patron, sixth Gregory came to an end in his place John Gratian, to the Apostolic throne, of exile on the banks of the Rhine. Then under the title of Gregory Vi. To the Hildebrand returned to Clugny. This cause of this unfortunate pontiff he at- was in the year 1046. tached himself, and, although only in sub- So far as we can judge, it would seem deacon's orders, was appointed, as we to have been Hildebrand's intention, at have seen, one of the papal chaplains. this period, to devote bimself thenceforth The election of Gregory VI. took place to the monastic life in that great centre in 1044; but his predecessor, Benedict
* Bonizo, apud Watterich, Pont. Roman. Vitæ, vol.
i., p. 85; and again, “Ut erat idiota omnem suæ elec• Adolescentiam ingressus. (Paul. Bern.) tionis pravitatem aperuit.”
and home of it. Shortly after his return | probable. What is certain is that from to Clugny he appears to have been elected the first the new pope clave to the young prior — second or deputy prior, as Mr. monk, and desired to attach him to the Bowden conjectures, probably with cor. pontifical court. The abbot Hugh, be. rectness — under St. Odilo, who, weighed tween whom and Hildebrand there was down with the burden of eighty-five years, one of those firm monastic frienships still ruled as abbot the monastic brethren. which the cloistral writers delight in Two years afterwards the papal chair be comparing to the love of David and ing vacant, the emperor Henry III. sum- Jonathan, “passing the love of women,” moned a council at Worms for the pur- was unwilling to allow the sub-prior to pose of providing an occupant for it. The depart, and it was with difficulty that his conciliar, or rather the imperial choice, * unwillingness was overcome by Leo's enfell on Bruno, Bishop of Toul, a kinsman treaties “quem ab abbate multis preciof the emperor. Bruno, a man of holy bus vix impetravit,” says Bonizo. life, benign manners, and ecclesiastical further difficulty arose. Hildebrand had spirit, shrank from the dignity, and after scruples. The election of the pope had praying and fasting for three days made been uncanonical. A contemporary chronaloud a general confession of his faults to icler, who tells us that he derived his the Council, by way of showing his un information in after years from Gregory worthiness of it (spontaneam suam coram himself, relates in simple language what omnibus confessionem dixit). It is worth took place.* “ I cannot go with you," while to pause for a moment to try to said Hildebrand, in answer to the invita. picture to oneself the scene: the assem- tion of the pontiff. “Why?” “ Because bled prelates sitting round the emperor without canonical institution and by the in the great church at Worms, and the mere warrant of royal and secular power pontiff-designate, worn by his triduo of you are going to take possession of the mortification and self-examination, tear- Roman Church.” The devout bishop was fully unburdening himself of those things affected, and, at once laying aside the of man ” which • the spirit of a man alone pontifical ornaments, assumed the habit knows,” and which, in these days, the de- of a pilgrim. It was on the 28th of Devoutest think it penance enough to whis-cember, 1048, that Leo and Hildebrand per into the ear of a confessor. Ade rode fo upon their journey to the paquately to realize this may help us to pal city. The contrast between the two realize how far the world has travelled in was striking. Leo, akin to the emperor, these last eight centuries. But, as might to whom he owed his elevation, trained have been expected, Bruno's humility in the use of arms and conversant with availed hiin nothing, and a few days be the ways of courts, represented, saint as fore Christmas, A.D. 1048, he was pro- he was, the aristocratic and feudal ele. claimed pope, under the title of Leo IX. ment in the Catholic hierarchy. And his
Shortly after his election, the new pon- external appearance was in keeping with tiff was brought into intercourse with this character. “ Cestui Pape Lyon," we Hildebrand. Where they met, whether at read in the French chronicler, “était Worms, in which city, as some authorities moult bel et était roux et était de starelate, f Hildebrand happened to be on ture seignoriable: ”f a handsome man, of certain business of his order; or at Be- ruddy countenance, and of lordly proporsançon, where, according to the Regesta, tions. Hildebrand, on the other hand, is the new pope spent the 25th and 26th of said to have been little and of mean pres. December; or at Clugny, whither, as ence (homuncio exilis staturce ), potothers say, Leo turned aside to visit the bellied and short-legged (ventre lato, new abbot Hugh, who had just been crure curto $), of tawny complexion and elected in succession to the venerable black hair (fuscus (1) probably a somewhat Odilo, is uncertain, nor does it much mat- vulgar-looking ecclesiastic of a type still ter, although, indeed, the last of these ac- common enough in Italy, while his origin, seems to me to be the most as we have seen, was of the humblest,
and his training had been of the severest. * “ Eligitur ab Heinrico presentibus Romanorum legatis," is the account in the Regesta. By legati we * Bruno, 11. s. : “Multa nobis beatus Gregorius Papa must understand the deputies of the Roman clergy and narrare solebat,” etc. people, whose right to elect the pontiff was never † Aimé de Monte Casino, “l'ystoire de li Norquestioved, although at this period it was in practice mant:” quoted by Watterich, vol. i., p. 109, note.
# See Pertz, Monumenta Germanize Historica, xii., + “ Erat ibi monachus, quidam Romanus Hildebran- p. 474. dus nomine," etc. (Bruno, in Vita S. Leonis PP. IX., g Ibid., vol. xiii., p. 654-6. apud Walterich, vol. i., p. 96.)
ū Ibid., vol. xvi., p. 69.
One thing which the two men had in com- for himself, Hildebrand's own letters.
was intense religious fervor. For It must be invincible prejudice which can the rest, the highly-born pontiff might refuse to see that the writer lived, as we truly have said of his humble compan- all live, from day to day, dealing with ion,
problems as they arose, dealing with He was rich where I was poor
them, like us, with reference to the exiAnd his unlikeness fitted mine.
gencies of the time, the opportunities of The iron will, the far-reaching mind, of of the moment, but, unlike most of us,
the hour, the calculations, the inspirations Hildebrand were the necessary complement of Leo's simplicity and gentleness.* dealing with them too on clear and immuThe harmlessness of the dove required,
table principles, and with an eye unswervfor the task that was in hand, to be united ingly fixed upon a definite aim far above to the wisdom of the serpent.
“the vulgar range of low desire.” That From that day the
aim was the liberty of the Church. To subdeacon,
young soon raised to the cardinalate, and shortly or of earthly tyranny, to vindicate her
free her from the fetters, whether of vice afterwards made archdeacon of the Ro. claims to absolute independence in carman Church, was the trusted friend and counsellor of the pontiffs who in succes. fect and complete in 'herself, divine in
rying out her mission, as a society per. sion occupied the Apostolic chair, until the time came for him to go up higher and ity to the limits of time and space, in
her constitution, divine in her superiorhimself sit thereon. With Leo “a new the world but not of it, a supernatural light seemed to have risen for the world,' writes one of his contemporaries, t and it order amid the varying forms of secular was Hildebrand who, more than any other, hands found to do, and which he did with
polity — such was the work which his ministered the oil which kept bright the all his might, from the day he rode Rome. sacred flame during the six years' reign ward with Leo until the day, thirty-six of that pope, and during the four pontificates which fill up the nineteen years be- years after, when he passed away at Satween it and his own elevation. It is not
lerno, thinking he had failed. my object to write his history. Even to
not failed. He wrought much that did sketch with any fulness its outlines would
not pass away with him, which abides
with u to this day, and of which we may be a task far beyond the limits to which I am restricted here, and indeed would be confidently affirm that it shall not pass foreign from my present purpose. I wish away.. What that is I shall endeavor to rather to indicate the nature of the work
show in a subsequent number.
W. S. LILLY. which. he did, as we, judging of it after the event, see it in its completeness. For be it remembered that we, at this distance of time, may contemplate it in its wholeness and in its fruits, as he did not and
From Temple Bar. could not contemplate it, and so may judge of it more accurately than was possible
BY MRS. PARR, AUTHOR OF “ADAM AND EVE.” It is a grave error to impute to him a clear or even a dim prevision of the consequences, nay, of the tendencies, of
“Mrs. and Miss Temple, ma'am, have all his acts. It is a graver error still, and
come to see you,” was the summons just now a very popular one, to suppose which had brought Robin to the drawing. ihat he nourished“ a great scheme of the ocratic empire,” that he dreamed of “a vast ideal of sacerdotal despotism.” The stroll in the garden, and a long talk to
She and Christopher had had their intelligent reader, who wishes to afford
gether, which had served almost entirely his intelligence a fair chance in this matter, should give all diligence to clear his still felt terribly nervous at the thought
to restore Robin's former equanimity; she mind of this cant. And I know of noth-of meeting Jack, but that strange turmoil ing which will more effectually help him of emotions, so suddenly stirred within in doing so than to get, and honestly read her, had calmed gradually down and had
subsided. * “Natura simplex atque mitissimus." (Bruno, u.s.) It is worth noting that he was an accomplished musi
“ Had he come with them?”
Her beart was in a flutter; she could + Desiderius, Abbot of Monte Casino, Gregory's VII.'s immediate successor under the title of Victor not put the question, but the words kept III. Dialog , l. iii.
repeating themselves until she was in the