Fifth Series, Volume XXXIX.


No. 1990. – August 12, 1882.

From Beginning,

Vol. CLIV.

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CONTENTS. 1. The TURNING-Point of the MIDDLE AGES, Contemporary Review, . II. Robin. By Mrs. Parr, author of "Adam and Eve." Part XIII.,


Nineteenth Century,

Blackwood's Magazine,

Cornhill Magazine,


Pall Mall Gazette, VIII. ALEXANDRIA,

Saturday Review,.

335 339 356

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369 377 381 382

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Singic Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


Where dark water-cresses grow A STATELY ruin, cold and gray,

You will trace its quiet flow, Majestic in its lone decay,

With mossy border yellow, Bears witness to a bygone day.

So mild, and soft, and mellow,

In its pouring. Here desolation reigns supreme,

With no slimy dregs to trouble And, conscious of the mournful theme,

The brightness of its bubble The very stars refuse their gleam.

As it threads its silver way

From the granite shoulders gray The night-wind, wailing like a child,

Of Ben Dorain. Bears to and fro the storm-clouds piled

Then down the sloping side In shapes fantastic, weird and wild.

It will slip with glassy slide

Gently welling, And overhead and underneath,

Till it gather strength to leap Decay sits still with clenched teeth,

With a light and foamy sweep And twines her fatal cypress wreath.

To the corrie broad and deep

Proudly swelling; Race after race to dust is hurled,

Then bends beneath the boulders While Death, with oriflamme unfurled,

'Neath the shadow of the shoulders Still rules the kingdoms of the world.

Of the Ben,

Through a country rough and shaggy, And higher yet, and ever higher,

So jaggy and so knaggy, Earth mounts upon her funeral pyre,

Full of hummocks and of hunches, Awaiting heaven's consuming fire.

Full of stumps and tufts and bunches,

Full of bushes and of rushes, Her idol-worships, human creeds,

In the glen, Suffice not man's immortal needs,

Through rich green solitudes, Far more than this his nature pleads.

And wildly hanging woods,

With blossom and with bell, Each ruined temple as it stands,

In rich redundant swell, In classic grove or sterile sands,

And the pride Lifts silent, interceding hands.

Of the mountain daisy there, A speechless voice from every stone

And the forest everywhere Is echoing on their spirits' groan,

With the dress and with the air Who dimly worshipped the Unknown.

Of a bride,

M'INTYRE. Nor even yet may man aspire To satisfy his soul's desire, Since heaven than earth is ever higher. The shadow of God's hand is laid. Across the world which he has made, And we must worship in that shade.

SHADOWS. Earth's myriad temples all at last

A BURST of golden sunshine, Will vanish in the sacred past,

A whispering of the leaves, While truth outlives the judgment blast. A music-ripple on the brook,

A joy, a wonder in each nook ; Eternal worship is the end

A sweeping shadow o'er the land, For which man's being doth contend,

A flushing of the tree-tops, The heaven towards which his hopes ascend. A crimsoning of the lake,

A peaceful mildness in the air, For God's own presence, shining fair,

A thought of hidden mysteries there, And sending glory everywhere,

A glorious fading of the sun
Makes an eternal temple there.

A summer's day is done.
Good Words.

A joy in childhood's playthings,
A casting them aside;
A flash of golden youth-hood's hour,

When joy breaks through the passing shower ; FROM the rim it trickles down

A castle-building in the air ;
Of the mountain's granite crown

A cherished hope defeated;
Clear and cool;

A smile, a joy, a doubt,
Keen and eager though it go

A gleam, reflected from the past;
Through your veins with lively flow, A sigh upon its bosom cast;
Yet it knoweth not to reign

A inystery of a world unknown;
Through the chambers of the brain

And then - a soul has flown.
With misrule;

Chambers' Journal.




From The Contemporary Review, have been born “is made and moulded of THE TURNING-POINT OF THE MIDDLE things past.” Every death is but a trans.

formation of life. And the mediæval PART THE FIRST.

period, dead though it is in one sense, in

another and as true a sense is living and In the history of modern Europe, four working in our midst. The generations great events stand out as landmarks upon pass away; but their doing remains. To which the student who desires accurately borrow a phrase from Buddhism, “We to explore that great field will do well to inherit the karma of the countless multifix his earnest attention. The first is the tudes who have lived and died, who have coronation of Charles the Great on Christ- struggled and suffered, in the long ages mas day, A. D. 800; the second the election of the past." * And, as I venture to of Hildebrand to the papal chair on the think, by far the most important part of 22nd of April, 1073; the third, the fall of our heritage in this new time is that which Constantinople on the 29th of May, 1453; has come to us directly from the mediæthe fourth, the sacking of the Bastille on val period. Of that period the greatest the 14th of July, 1789. The bestowal of figure, beyond all question, is Hildebrand, the imperial crown upon the great Frank- and its most momentous struggle the conish monarch by Pope St. Leo III. was flict to which he received his supreme the outward visible sign of that new order consecration upon the day when the papal which had “ been made secretly and fash. tiara was set upon his head. Moreover, ioned beneath in the earth," amid the the great issue in which he bore so masterdecay and dissolution of the Roman ful a part is still before the world, under world: it was the beginning of the Middle other names. The battle yet rages, though Ages. The pontificate of St. Gregory waged under different conditions. It is VII. was the turning point of those ages, not so long since the foremost of English determining, in vitally important matters, statesmen made it matter of complaint the course they were to run. The tak that the late pontiff had “refurbished the ing of Constantinople by Mohammed II. rusty tools" of his predecessors, conspicmarks their close; it was this event that uous among the ecclesiastical arms thus by scattering Greek scholars over Italy, opprobriously designated being the spircontributed more than anything else io itual weapons of Gregory VII. And, as the revival of materialism, called the Re. we all know, the German chancellor has naissance, and to all that came therefrom, for years been haunted by the bugbear of including the Protestant Reformation, Canossa. I think, therefore, I may justly wliich, in Germany* at all events, cer- claim for my subject the merit of actuality tainly was, in part, a reaction against the a quality which, perhaps, may fairly be new heathenisin of humanist popes and looked for in a contribution to a review prelates. And the passing-bell of the bearing the title of “ Contemporary:" Cæsarism which had arisen upon the So niuch by way of apology for the ruins of the mediæval order is sounded topic which I am about to discuss. Let in the presageful words of the Duke of me add that now, perhaps, the time has Liancourt, when announcing to Louis arrived when, without undue confidence, XVI. the capture of the royal fortress one may hope to obtain a patient hearing and the murder of its little garrison: for its discussion. For centuries the “Sire, it is not a revolt; it is a revolu- memory of Hildebrand lay under reproba. tion.” Perhaps of all these great events, tion as the very type of insatiable ambithe second is that the significance of tion and spiritual pride. Instead of the which is least understood. And yet, cer. aureole of sanctity, a kind of diabolical tainly, it is by no means the least worthy splendor encircled him, and the grim pun, of careful and exact study. This Europe borrowed from the German, whereby he of this nineteenth century into which we is described in the Anglican Book of

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• See Möhler's Symbolik, 5th edition, p. 9.

• Mr. Rhys Davids' Hibbert Lectures, p. 215.



Homilies as “the brand of Hell” did but between the papacy and the Empire. It express the general estimate of him is, indeed, but a mere sketch which he formed alike by Teutonic and English has given us of the character and actions historians. Nor was he judged more of Gregory VII. But the outlines are favorably in France. “The Church has there traced as by a few strokes of a numbered him among the saints. The pencil in the hand of a master, and it has wise have numbered him among mad- been a tolerably easy task for later schol

," * writes Voltaire. And even among ars to complete the picture. The laboriFrench ecclesiastical writers of authority ous erudition of Germany has placed there are those who have recorded a before the world a mass of authentic docscarcely more favorable verdict upon uments, among which Jaffé's Regesta him. But Time has at length retried his Pontificum Romanorumand “Monu– Time,

menta Gregorianadeserve especial which solves all doubt

mention; while Gförer's massive work, By bringing Truth, his glorious daughter, out. “ Papst Gregorius VII. und sein Zeitel.

ter,” is a perfect treasure-house of learnWithin the last half-century investigators ing; and Giesebrecht's “ Geschichte der more thorough, exact, judicial, in a word, Deutschen Kaiserzeit," the production of scientific, have examined, with most fruit

an author formed in a different school, ful results, the question what manner of and written under the influence of other man Hildebrand was, and of what kind convictions, merits hardly less attention. his work was. So long ago, indeed, as To France, too, we owe several important 1815, Voigt, in his “ Hildebrand als Papst contributions to the subject with which I Gregor VII.,opened out to his aston

am concerned. It must suffice here to ished countrymen quite a new view of the speak briefly of three of them. First, great pontiff: but it is perhaps to M. there is M. Mignet's series of articles Guizot, more than to any one else, that entiled, “ La Lutte des Papes contre les we owe the passing away of the old error Empereurs d'Allemagne,” which attractfrom the European mind. It was in 1828 ed so much attention when they appeared that this illustrious teacher, setting, at in the Journal des Savants, and in which, nought the inveterate Gallican tradition, whether we assent or dissent, as we read exhibited Hildebrand to his hearers at the them, we find everywhere tokens of careSorbonne, not in the guise of a reaction- ful research and conscientious thought. ary, an obscurantist, a foe of intellectual Then there are the two brilliant volumes development and of social progress, but of M. Villemain's Histoire de Grégoire as a reformer alike of the Church and VII.,” which, begun so long ago as 1827, civil society, upon the basis of morality, were not given to the world until 1873. – of justice, of order; as a great construc- two years after the author's death. M. tive genius, who did a work parallel to Villemain, we are told by his editor, rethat of Charlemagne or Peter the Great.

garded this work as pre-eminently his It is not easy to over-estimate and just contribution to history (comme son auvre now the tendency appears to be greatly historique), and no doubt it is in many to underrate — the services which M.

respects a very valuable contribution. Guizot's calm courage, judicial mind, wide Nowhere, perhaps, do his characteristic learning, and singular power of gener, excellences come out more strikingly than alization have rendered to the cause of in some portions of it – for example, in scientific history. But of all those ser bis description of the death of St. Leo vices none deserves to be more highly IX., or in his account of the great Count. valued than the effort made by him to

ess Matilda — his taste for picturesque mete out even justice to the heroic cham- details, the vividness and beauty of his pion of the Church, in the great struggle coloring, the luminousness and distinct

ness of his images. But on the other * "L'Eglise dont il fut le vengeur et la victiine, l'a mis au nombre des saints. . . . Les sages l'ont mis au

hand, he has great defects. He is no psychologist. He draws from without

nombre des fous." - Essai sur les Neurs.


rather than within. He never loses him. Another posthumous contribution to the self in his subject; he displays little of history of Gregory VII. is supplied by that self-effacement which allows events the sixth and seventh volumes of M. de to tell their own story. M. Taine has Montalembert's “ Moines d'Occident somewhere remarked, with much happi. volumes which, left incomplete and unreness, that the historian should have in vised by their illustrious author, are him five or six poets. M. Villemain has hardly a fair subject for rigorous critibut one; and that is a poet after the orcism. Here it must suffice to say of der of Lucan, not of Virgil - a rhetori- them that they are marked by the same cian rather than a creator. Then, again, warmth of sympathy, indefatigable indus.

purely critical faculty cannot be try, and lofty thought which distinguisha ranked very bigh. Thus he receives as the earlier portions of his unfinished genuine, apparently without misgiving, task, while they cannot be said to be exthe famous “Dictatus Papæ," the spuri- empt from what has been called the ousness of which, pretty generally recog- religious romanticism which was, as it nized by the most competent of the ear- would seem, a natural constituent of his lier critics, las been conclusively estab- beautiful and noble character. Among lished by Giesebrecht; while his intro- English writers upon the life and times ductory discourse on the history of the of Hildebrand, the first place must still, I papacy certainly reveals both a very de. think, be conceded to the late Mr. Bowfective acquaintance with the mass of den. He has not, indeed, the brilliancy authorities he cites, and a very imper- of Dean Milman; but he is far more fect power of appreciating evidence.* accurate, and far less under the influence

of that tendency to "people past history • I feel that one ought not to express this opinion with phantasms, and color it with lines without assigning grounds for it. Adequately to do which belong to our own times” – to that would require a volume. Here, in a note, I can only adduce one or two examples of the faults which I borrow a phrase from Milman's distin

Thus M. Villemain writes: “Le Concile de guished successor — which so greatly Nicée, sous l'inspiration de Constantine, qui voulait mars the work of the historian of “ Latin que l'Eglise eût des assemblées, mais pas d'autres chefs que lui-même, avait déclaré le patriarche d'Alexandrie Christianity.” Mr. Bowden, indeed, égal en honneurs et en privilèges à l'évêque de Rome" wrote forty years ago, and wrote, too, (vol. i., p. 47). He is, of course, referring to the sixth under the influence of an unhistorical canon of the Nicene Council, but it is difficult to be

ecclesiastical theory which presented a lieve that he can have read it. That canon merely provides for the maintenance of the ancient custom very specious and winning appearance whereby the great sees of Alexandria and Antioch ex

on paper, and which had not then been ercised over the whole civil diocese, the one of Egypt, the other of the East, original jurisdiction, similar to tried and found wanting as a fact. This that exercised by the Church of Rome in the West. must be remembered when his book is There is not one syllable in the canon about equality in read. But bearing this in mind, and honors and privileges, and the declaration wbich the Council made was of nothing new (as M. Villemain im- making all proper allowance for it, we plies) but merely of an existing fact. In another place may say that still the book merits the (vol. i., p. 72) M. Villemain quotes a passage froin a praise bestowed upon it by Cardinal letter of St. Augustine, in which the saint relates a saying of St. Ambrose : “ Cum Romam venio jejuno sab- Newman when it first appeared, as very batis. Cum Mediolani sum non jejuno. Sic enim tu (it is Monica who is addressed) ad quam forte eccle- following sentence: “Ouvrez l'histoire de la grande siam veneris:ejus morem serva.” From this he infers, révolution chrétienne, parcourez les monuments origi"l'autorité de la chaire de Milan égalait presque celle naux des premiers siècles, l'évêché de Rome y remplit de Rome.” To show the absurdity of the inference it d'abord peu de place” (vol. i., p. 2). If any one thing may be sufficient to say that Cardinal Manning would is clear where so much is dark, it is that throughout give of himself in the present day an account as to this those ages, although genius was with the Eastern matter similar to that given by St. Ambrose. "I ab- Church, authority was with the Western. “ Dès le stain from flesh on Saturday when I am in Rome be- IIe siècle, Rome exerça une action décisive sur l'Eglise cause it is the custom there. I do not abstain on de Jésus," writes M. Renan (Conférences d'Angleterre, Saturday in England because it is not the English cus- p. 12); and the fact is incontestable, whatever.explana



Therefore (according to M. Villemain) the auction we may put upon it. As this brilliant writer elsethority of the see of Westminster alınost equals that of where remarks: “L'esprit qui, en 1870, fera proclamer

Once more. It is not easy to imagine how l'iniaillibilité du pape, se reconnaît dès la fin du lle any one who had really studied the ecciesiastical history siècle à des signes déjà reconnaissables.” (Ibid., p. of the early Christian centuries could have written the 172).



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