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man, and certainly we make the remark | planning of those raids in which the ser. in no spirit of disparagement to the very vitors are first captured. Invading the entertaining accounts of the social organ- nests of other tribes, in order to carry off ization of ants which Sir John gives us. the grubs of workers for industrial use, is But as he is inclined to claim for ants the so very aggressive and original a bit of next place in the scale of intelligence to strategy, that in comparison with it, the human beings, and appears to consider it revolutionary rising which might reclaim one of the grounds of that claim that, like the nest for those who do the labor, would human beings, they have introduced a seem natural and almost a matter of system of slavery, and have found it inju- course. And yet we never hear of any. rious to their own energy and self-respect, thing of the sort. Why are there no serwe wish he had given some attention to vile wars, to balance and avenge the the question why ants alone, of all crea- slave-making expeditions? Why, espe: tures in the world, appear to possess this cially when everything is in the hands of strange instinct for robbing the young of the kidnapped workers, as it certainly is other species of their own race, and in the case of most of the "slave-makbringing them up to assist in the work ing" tribes, - Polyergus rufescens, for and organization of their community. It instance, or still more, Strongylognathus, is quite clear that if the workers thus in. and most of ald, Anergates, do we hear troduced from outside had the smallest of no fall of those seeble dynasties which revolutionary disposition, they could often do not so much hold the sceptre, as have mutiny with success against the original it held up for them by their industrious dynasty, and make the nest their own. servitors, and then of the restoration of In some cases, the queen and her rela- the crown to the race which really works tions are so absolutely dependent on their and rules? Why are these fainéant imported labor, - the coolies, as we may queens not only tolerated, but apparently call them, which the rulers introduce in maintained by those who might upset their infancy that without the ministra- them in a moment? Where military destions of these aliens they could not even potisms seem so common, and aggreseat the food within their reach; having sive wars so much a matter of course, why lost — alone amongst animals, says Sir are mutinies unheard of, and democratic John, unless it be a few ant-loving beetles upheavals unknown ?

We could very the instinct of feeding theinselves. well understand the plea that there is no But besides the power of letting the sufficient intelligence amongst ants to requeens and their relatives perish of hun- sent the condition of slavery, if that plea ger, if they chose to exert it, there seeins were but compatible with the obvious to be no reason why the so-called slave fact that there is sufficient intelligence races should not so feed some of the amongst ants to desire kidnapping expegrubs they capture as to turn them into ditions; but why, if there be intelligence rival queens, if at least the assumption enough for the offensive movement which be true, as Sir John seems to believe, that disturbs the equilibrium, should there not the whole difference between a queen and be intelligence enough for the resistance an ordinary worker depends on a differ- and reactionary movement which restores ence of food and treatment in early life. it? Surely the desire for the command If that be so, there seems no reason in of mere labor, - if that were the motive, the world why, if they wished it, the bor- - is a more artificial, and, so to say, elabrowed workers who manage the nest, orate state of mind, than the desire for might not so treat some of the larvæ of homogeneity of race? Surely it is easier their own race plundered from unenslaved to imagine even a creature of dull innests, as to produce a queen of their own stincts expelling the alien rulers from its race, whose standard they might then bome, than it is to imagine a creature of raise against that of the former queen or the same sort of instincts planning a raid queens of the nest, and so revolutionize for the purpose of introducing a colony of the State, and turn the alien dynasty out young strangers ? And the remarkable of it. We find it difficult to understand thing is that if Sir John Lubbock has why, among creatures which are advanced proved anything by his experiments, it is enough to choose the unfortunate alterna- that most races of ants feel much more tive of extending their operations by jealousy of the presence of any sort of coolie labor, there should be no evidence stranger, than they feel desire for the of the wish to turn the tables on the liberation or recovery of their friends. slave-makers, - a course which would ap- Only, as this never seems to apply to the parently be so very much easier than the coolies imported in their rudimentary


state for the very purpose of working the invading ants never seem to take possesorganization of the nest, so also, – which sion of the ant-hill they invade, but only is much odder, - it never seems to be to rob it of its larvæ and pupæ, considera applied by these coolies to the mistresses ing again, that the moment the defending whom they serve. Indeed, quite the con- force retires, the invaders never seem, trary, for it is clear that many of the according to Sir John Lubbock's account, military expeditions planned by the impo- to press their enemies, but devote thein. tent dynasty, for instance, of the Strongy. selves at once to the carrying off of the lognathus ant, would never have even a infant ants, - it seems very doubtful chance of success, but for the military whether the real object to which this ag. exploits of the slaves who aid their raids. gressive instinct tends is the gain of force Instead of turning on their mistresses in to the nest, so much as the gain of new their need, these workers of another race subjects for the maternal care of workers help them as loyally in the new aggres- who find themselves insufficiently prosions made for the sake of carrying off vided with satisfaction for their nursing more slaves, as they do in the work and instincts. The working ants being all organization of the nest itself. And this females and laying very few egys them. seems to show that Sir John Lubbock is selves, probably find that the queens of wrong when he guesses (p. 106) that the their nest do not provide them with subindifference displayed by the ants of a jects sufficient for the exercise of their nest of Polyergus rufescens to the neigh-maternal instincts, and after building borhood of two strange ants, a neighbor: roomy apartments for the reception of a hood which other nests of ants had much larger number of larvæ and pupa strongly resented, might be explained by than they have to attend to, they ask persupposing that “the warlike spirit of haps to be led out to battle, that they may these ants was broken by slavery.” If provide themselves with a sufficient numthe much degenerated Strongylognathus ber of orphans on which to exercise their ant (as Sir John deems it) is cordially as- maternal feelings. The reason we supsisted by its slaves in military expeditions, pose this to be the object of the instinct, it can hardly be that a much less degener. rather than any ambitious motive for the ate type has lost its warlike spirit through mere enlargement of the power of the the demoralizing influence of slavery. nest, is this, that the first result of The slaves if slaves they be — appear these raids must be, not to provide the to be just as closely identified with the nest with new force, but, on the contrary, military instincts of their mistresses, as with new burdens. A very much greater they are with the civil organization of amount of labor must be required from their kingdom. Slavery, or the actual the old workers after the raid iban before, condition of these alien servitors, what. since none of the new acquisitions, not ever it may really be, does not appear even the most advanced pupa, can be in to diminish the fighting instinct, at all a condition to do anything for themselves events in the slaves, but only to engage it for some time after their capture, so that entirely on the part of the nest in which for many days after the expedition, the they first make their entrance from the nest of aggressors must be very much chrysalis state into active life; and to us weaker for purposes of war, as well as the wonder is why, though there is no in. much harder worked in relation to ordiherited instinct in favor of having only nary duties, than it was before. Now, it ants of the same race in the same nest, is obvious that the instinct immediately there should be so strong an inheritance gratified is far more likely to be the disof instinct in favor of what we may turbing instinct which causes these raids, call the Jingoism of ants, – in other than any instinct which can be gratified words, marauding expeditions tending to only ultimately, and after a considerable strengthen the population of the nest from period of abeyance. And, therefore, we which those expeditions proceed. Is, are disposed to believe that it is the inadthen, Jingoism more deeply rooted in the equately satisfied maternalinstincts of the insect world than even the patriotism of workers, which really lead to these unrace?

principled raids on the offspring of other Apparently so, if it be Jingoism, or nests. The Romans made raids on the anything analogous to Jingoisın, which i Sabines to obtain wives, but the Formica prompts these forays for larvæ and pupæ. sanguinez makes raids on the Formica But, considering that there is nothing fusca to obtain not wives, but children, to like the desire for mere conquest visible nurse and feed and care for. It is, we in these expeditions, considering that the suspect, a sort of aggressive pedagogy



a passion for the extension of formican | more organizing power than their queen Kindergarten – which leads the ants into or queens, whom they only condescend to these unscrupulous raids to carry off the help by their artistic industry, on condichildren of their cnemies. The food is tion that she supplies them with enough prepared, the nurseries are prepared, but objects for their care. Sir John Lubbock where are the children? That is the con suggests in one place that the slaves dition of things, as we imagine, which should rather be called auxiliaries than leads the ants into their aggressive wars. slaves, and this, we strongly suspect, is

Sir John Lubbock may, perhaps, sug- the key to the matter. The working ants, gest that this explanation hardly consists even when they are of another race from with the displeasure with which a repub- the queen, have never, we must rememlic of ants in which there is no queen ber, known any independent life in a nest often meet a queen who is offered them. of their own; and all their instincts are He has shown that though he can gain no less gratified, perhaps even more comthe crown for a queen by offering her to pletely gratified, in a nest where they are a few disunited ants, and then gradually much superior in ability to the nominal increasing the number of her subjects, he dynasty, than they would be in their own cannot introduce a queen into a nest original nest. The working ant, we which has long been organized without should suspect, cares remarkably little any queen, except at the peril of her life. vho produces the children, provided she And yet as a queen would promise a lib. bas the care of them, provided she supereral progeny to the nest where at present intends the whole organization of the there are but few young ones, — and they kingdom which the mother ant is incomnot workers, but only males, which are petent to superintend for herself. very short-lived, — it would seem that there cannot be so ardent a desire for off. spring as our explanation of the motives of raids on other ant-hills suggests. But then it must be remembered that the pos.

From The Saturday Review. session of a queen, though it may prom. ise children for the future, does not at The modern traveller, approaching once gratify the instinct which the posses. Cairo in the short twilight of a winter sion of larvæ and pupa would at once evening, first catches sight of the citadel, gratify; and again, that it is not all ants' the dome of its great mosque still perhaps nests which do organize these raids for pink with the last rays of sunset. But grubs and chrysales, nor is it at all periods the darkness and fuss of the railway stathat even the aggressive species of ants tion, the rough road over which he drives will start such expeditions. Therefore, it to his hotel, the sparse distribution of gasis quite conceivable that even though the lamps, do not allow his first impressions conservatism of ants - especially of ants to take any distinct form; and it is not in confinement, where there is no unlim- until, on the following day, he has pene. ited space at their disposal – induces trated to the old parts of ihe city that he them to attack a stranger queen, yet when has anything to remind him that he is in they are positively feeling the need of the capital of Saladin. When, some sev. more maternal work to do, that need may en centuries ago, Saladin himself first well be sufficient to drive them into ag. came to Cairo, be approached it by one gressive war.

of the northern gates, and the newly-built As to the further question, why the mosque of the mad khalif Hakeem was working ants do not produce queens of perhaps the most imposing building he their own race out of the captured larvæ saw. The citadel was still unbuilt, al. of their own race, instead of keeping the though the rock on which it stands doini. nest under the queens of a different race, nated the city. To the eye of a born we can only suggest that the patriotism soldier there was evidently something of ants is probably local, and not one of amiss here. One of his first cares was to pedigree, that it consists in loyalty to fortify the coinmanding eminence. A the nest and the habits of the nest, loyalty soldier nearly as great perceived that to the father-land, not in loyalty to any Saladin's citadel was itself commanded race at all. In all probability, if the alien by a still moreilofty rock; and a little fort, workers of a nest are capable of any feel- built by Mohammed Ali on the Mokattem ing in the matter, they do not regard Hill, and armed with cannon, superseded themselves as in any sense slaves, but all the elaborate system of wall and tower, rather as imported managers, with much scarp and counterscarp, tunnel and gal



iheir own,

lery, which had made Saladin's fort al- regain his power. But Shawer soon quar, most impregnable in his day and long relled with the wild mercenaries, and after. Many of the old features still re-made an unholy alliance against them with main untouched, though to build his great Amaury, or Amalrich, the Crusader king mosque Mohammed Ali destroyed the of Jerusalem. Shirkuh, with the help of Hall of Columns which was the chief his nephew, defeated them both; and takchamber of Saladin's palace in his castle. ing Cairo, promptly put the perfidious The Mosque of Nasr is a barrack, and the Shawer to death, and annexed Egypt to defences on the city, side are new and the possessions of his master Nooreddin. armed with cannon ; but the deep well The Fatimite khalif, a mere puppet, conJoseph's Well, as the dragomans call it ferred on him a robe of honor, and gave the very Gothic-looking round towers, the him the title of Malik al Mansoor or Vicvaulted gateways, and the machicolated torious King. He was thus in a strange battlements show that a hundred years position, serving not one or two, but three after William the Conqueror built the masters namely, Nooreddin of Aleppo Tower of London, and a hundred years and both the rival khalifs. His servitude besore Edward I. built Conway, the most sat lightly upon him, however, and on his picturesque features of our pointed style nephew, and did not hinder them from were well known in the East. Recent establishing their power in Egypt without researches, indeed, would rob us even of much reference to any will the credit of inventing that most charac. and with, probably, little time to make a teristic of our Western mediæval institu- choice between the Shia and Sunnee doctions, the coat-of-arms. Mr. Edward trines, or the Abbasside and Fatimite Rogers, of Cairo, in the course of last khalifs. The central fact in Saladin's life season read a paper before the local seems to have been the high average antiquarian society in which be enumer- mortality of his opponents, and indeed of ated the chief heraldic devices of the all who stood in the way of his advance. Ayoobite and Mameluke sultans of Egypt. ment. They always died when they ought When in future we read the crusading to die, just as people do in novels. Yet, novels of Scott, we must transfer the with a very few exceptions, which go to shields be blazons from the Christian prove the rule, he did not inurder his knights to their opponents. The impe- rivals, or, if he did, managed to conceal rial eagle was carved on the walls of his the crime so adroitly that his reputation citadel by Saladin long before it was escaped unhurt. Shawer's death was the assumed by the German kaisers. A lion, almost natural consequence of his manias like as possible to the lion which fold treacheries. But Shirkuh only lived Richard I. put on his great seal, is carved long enough to secure his nephew a firm on either side of the entrance of an old gar- hold upon Egypt, and the title of Malik al den attached to the palace of Al Muizz, Nasr - which means nearly the same as and Mr. Rogers assigns it to a Mameluke Malik al Mansoor from the Fatimite king. The very shape Richard's shield khalif in his palace or state prison. Noo- loog, pointed, and rounded at the top reddin sent word to Saladin from Aleppo - is that of the stone shields carved over that he must not receive these favors from the north-eastern gate of Cairo, which was a heretic, and ordered him to proclaim built by Jauhar, when he brought the kha- the orthodox Sunnite khalif. Saladin lif from Cairoan.

desired the preachers in the Cairene Saladin's career needs no help from mosques to omit the name of the Fatimite fiction to make it romantic. Himself the khalif from their prayers, and to replace son of Ayyub, or Eyoob, a Kurdish chief, it with that of the Sunnite commander of he early became attached to the service of the faithful. They obeyed, and Al Aadad, his uncle Asad, usually called Shirkuh, buried in the recesses of his palace, knew who commanded the army of Nooreddin, nothing about it. What he might have king of Aleppo, a strong upholder of the said, and what believers in his sanctity Abbasside khalifs. Salah-ad-Deen Yus. might have done, we know not, because suf, the son of Eyoob, was still very of course be died just at the proper conyoung when two viziers of Egypt, the juncture. Saladin's life after this was ministers of the Fatimite khalif, residing one of uninterrupted prosperity. Nooredat Cairo, quarrelled, and one of them suc din died just when he might liave become ceeded in banishing the other. The ex- troublesome; so did Nooreddin's little iled Shawer betook himself and his tale boy; but here, it is to be feared, Saladin of woe to Aleppo, and Nooreddin offered did not wait for the interference of Provihim the help of Shirkub and his Kurds to dence. King of Egypt, and of Syria all

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but Palestine, Saladin turned his atten. I waly, or favorite of Allah; and a sacred tion next to the Crusaders and their little formula, which the orthodox only use for kingdom, for which see “The Talisman” Mohammed, is applied to the usurping passim, and taught them chivalrous be race of the Fatimites. Though it is evi. havior and heraldry. After the fatal field dent, therefore, that Saladin did not build of Hattin Jerusalem itself fell into his these ancient gates, which are in fact the hands.. This was the culminating point gates of the palace of Al Muizz and his in his life ; and he died himself in 1193, successors in the khalifate, he did build having exercised undisputed power for the great wall which is still in places to five years. His family quarrelled among be seen, often covered by modern houses, themselves; his own descendants were or heaped-up rubbish, and which took in dethroned, and those of his brother form all the suburbs that had grown round the the Eyoobite dynasty of Egyptian sov- palace and its mosques. They were com: ereigns which reigned with varying for- menced in 1170, while Egypt was still tunes for eighty years, one of the last under the nominal rule of the last Fatimite being another Saleh, whose army, when khalif, Ali Aadad. The work was carried he himself was dying or dead, took St. on after the khalif's death by Saladin's Louis prisoner at Damietta.

minister, who placed the present citadel There must have been something very in its commanding situation, and compowerful in the individuality of Saladin. pleted much of what we still see. The He and Mohammed Ali are the two rulers eastern walls of the city were prolonged of Egypt of whom the people most often southward, so as to connect the quarter speak, and to whom they habitually at round the palace with the citadel, and so tribute all great public works. Even the we have the southern gate, the Bab Zu. magnificent system of inland irrigation in waylah, in the middle of the town. The upper Egypt, which is perhaps five thou- true gate in this direction is that which sand years old, is called the Bahr Yussuf, opens on the ruins of "Old Cairo,'' and is Saladin's river. The long line of the called after the Lady Zenobia, “al Sitteh aqueduct which forms so prominent a Zeynab," a granddaughter of Mohamıned, feature in the view from the citadel of who is said to be buried in a neighboring Cairo is ascribed to him. Above all, they mosque. The name is still common thank him for the orthodoxy which since among Egyptian women, who little know his time has prevailed in Egypt. The that, in commemorating their patron saint, Shia heresy exists only among the Per. they also commemorate a queen of Egypt. sian schismatics who come to Cairo on From this point the walls were to have business, and perform strange and bar- been continued in such a way as to in. barous ceremonies annually in honor of clude the ancient city, but the design was Hassan and Husseyn. Among other frustrated by the death of its great author. great works thus assigned to Saladin are the walls are best seen at the north-east. the old city gates; but Mr. Kay, whose ern corner, where a bastion or tower of paper on the subject we have already had very curious construction still stands. occasion to quote from more than once, The traveller who prefers ancient Egyphas lately been at the trouble of decipher- tian to Arab art examines every stone for ing the inscriptions in the old Cufic char. hieroglyphics. These walls and the cita. acter which remain upon them. Cusic del and many another building of Cairo stands to Arabic much as black-letter were in part constructed of the materials stands to modern type, but it is very diffin which liad accumulated on the site of cult to translate on account of the absence Memphis. It was easier to pull down of diacritical points. Yet Mr. Kay has buildings which had convenient canals made them out, and made out, moreover, close by, and whose stones could be that they record the building of the gates floated across during the inundation, than by Badr al Jamali in 1087. But the to quarry in the rocky bill on the landstrangest thing is to find that on the great ward side; and the wonder is not that the north-eastern gate, the Bab en Nasr, the pyramids are so greatly dilapidated, as Shia confession of faith is still inscribed, that any of them remain. Yet on the in. having probably been suffered to remain ner face of the Bab en Nasr itself, bigh up unmolested by Saladin and his orthodox over the archway, a sharp eye can detect successors, owing to the difficulty of de hieroglyphs of the most ancient character, cipherment. This confession consists of and part of a frieze of figures carved in a declaration that Ali is the exclusive the style of the pyramid-builders.

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