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good or from bad motives, does not choose | wrote. “I could like to see her surto be “ off with the old love," while he rounded with a more sober set of companspends at least two or three years in be. ions than Rousseau, and Byron, and such ing "on with the new," knowing all along like; and I don't think it will much mend that, unless some unlikely chance helps the matter when you get her introduced to bin out of bis dilemma, hé must in time Von Schiller, and Von Goethe, and your settle down to the distasteful marriage, other nobles of German literature. I fear and then abandon the loving girl - ten Jane has dipped too deep into that spring years bis junior – with whom he has been already, so that, unless some more solid amusing himself. Mrs. Carlyle, when her food be afforded, I fear she will escape romance was over, does not seem to have altogether out of the region of my symparegarded Irving's treatment of her in that thies and the sympathies of honest, homekindly light.

bred men." Irving was so far gererous, however, Out of sympathy with Edward Irving, that he allowed Carlyle to share in the Jane Welsh did, fortunately for her, in friendship of the bright little lady whom time escape; and her sympathy with be would have liked to marry. The two Thomas Carlyle grew. When, after a few friends were living in Edinburgh in the months' acquaintance, Carlyle began to summer of 1821, and one day they walked make love to her, she forbade him to con. down to Haddington on a visit to Miss tinue in that strain; but she accepted him Welsh and her widowed mother. They as a staunch, close friend, and their friendstayed in the neighborhood for a few days, ship continued and increased. Her heart and each evening Carlyle went to the had been given long ago to Irving, and house. “ The beautiful, bright, and ear- even after his marriage she seems to have Dest young lady;" he wrote, “ was intent been little inclined or able to feel for any on literature as the highest aim in life, and one else such strong affection as she had felt imprisoned in the dull element which wasted on him. Many years afterwards, yielded her no commerce in that kind, and indeed, when her old teacher's head had would not even yield her books to read. I been turned by his success as a popular obtained permission to send at least books preacher and he had given himself up to from Edinburgh. Book parcels naturally delusions and vanities, she had a lingering included bits of writing to and from, and regret, on his account if not on hers, that thus an acquaintance and correspondence she had not been near to him to keep him was begun, which liad hardly any interrup. from falling: “There would have been no tion and no break at all while life lasted. tongues,” she once said, “if Irving had She was often in Edinburgh with her married me!” mother, and I had leave to call on these Meanwhile, wishing to marry no one but occasions, which I zealously enough, if | Irving, she had, during the two or three not too zealously sometimes, in my awk- years following her acquaintance with ward way, took advantage of. I was not Carlyle, the choice of many husbands. her declared lover, nor could she admit Young and beautiful, with winning ways me as such in my waste and uncertain pos. of speech and action that were more ture of affairs and prospects; but we were charming even than her beauty, an heirbecoming thoroughly acquainted with ess, too, in a small way, she was never each other, and her tacit, hidden, but to in want of admirers in Haddington, Edinme visible, friendship for me was the hap burgh, or wherever she might be. The py island in my otherwise dreary, vacant, surroundings of her life were merry, and and forlorn existence in those years."

sbe made such honest use of them as a That concise statement is wonderfully quick-witted, large-souled young woman explicit. Carlyle, who did not then know has a right to make. She was none the that there was anything more than ordi- less sprightly and vivacious because her nary friendship on Irving's part, was soon heart was still somewhat wrenched by the installed as Miss Welsh's trusted friend unkindness of her first lover, and because and literary counsellor, and Irving's only she was being slowly fascinated by a secobjection to this arrangement was that ond lover, whose brilliant intellect made Carlyle's lessons in German poetry and her forget his uncouth manners. Witlaphilosophy might do no good io a young out accepting him as a lover, it pleased her lady who, in his judgment, was already that Carlyle should find his highest enjoyunhinged from many of the enjoyments ment in guiding her philosophical studies her condition might afford her." • There and in correcting her literary exercises in is too much of that furniture about the prose and verse, in confiding to her his elegant drawing-room of Jane Welsh,” he ambitions and his sorrows, his schemes

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for propounding doctrines of overwhelm. This was filial and business-like. In all ing importance to the world, and his her love-making Miss Welsh was thor. afflictions from the “rat gnawing at the pit oughly business-like, though not in any of his stomach " which, long before that unworthy way. She had by degrees time, had begun to tyrannize over him. come, as she said, to love Carlyle truly

Carlyle, it must be remembered, was and devotedly; perhaps she had come to still, and for many years to come, a rough find his society indispensable to her; but peasant scholar, who had ruined his health it was not with the romantic first love in studies for which he got small credit of a girl, and she refused to look upon from the public — a student in whom a marriage, early or at any time, as the infew friends saw the promise of great evitable issue of their friendship. She things, and whose yet undeveloped genius understood his temperament better than poured forth eloquent discourse through any one else, a great deal better than he his clumsy Annandale brogue; and Miss himself did. She was as anxious as he was Welsh was perhaps the most appreciative that he should do good work for the world of his friends. Her intercourse with him with his pen, and do it with unflinching was the greatest pleasure of her life, and honesty; that is, that he should never sink she was willing that it should be playful to the level of the hack-writers whom in as well as serious; but it was a long time Edinburgh, and afterwards in London, before she consented to think of becom- both he and she scorned, though with ing his wife. In one letter, written after more pity blent with the scorn than apthey had known one another more than peared in some of his lately printed refertwo years, she expressed so much grati- ences to Hazlitt, De Quincey, and others. tude for his kindness to ler, that he ven. She knew too, that, as his own mother tured again to make something like an had said, he was gey ill to live wi'," at offer of marriage. “My friend,” she the best of times; that he suffered grievwrote back, “ I love you. I repeat it, ously from dyspepsia, which rendered him though I find the expression a rash one. irritable and heedless of other people's All the best feelings of my nature are enjoyment when he could get no enjoy. concerned in loving you; but were you ment for himself. She was also well my brother, I should love you the same. aware that her own bringing up and way No. Your friend I will be your truest, of life had been so different from his that most devoted friend while I breathe the she could not expect to be a happy or, breath of life; but your wise, never — consequently, a good wife, unless she had never, not though you were as rich as Cree many comforts which he, as a bachelor, sus, as honored and renowned as you yet would hardly care for. All this she told shall be." Carlyle's answer was as clar. him frankly, and she insisted that, before acteristic as that frank statement of Miss she could marry him, he must see his way Welsh's scheme of friendship between to being able to provide a decent home them. “My heart is too old by almost for her and for bimself, in London or half a score of years, and is inade of Edinburgh, or some other place where a sterner stuff than to break in junctures decent home could be kept up with a of this kind. I have no idea of dying in moderate amount of money. the Arcadian shepherd's style for the dis. The letters in which she expressed appointment of hopes which I never se. these eminently sensible opinions — such riously, entertained, or had no right to of them, at least, as Mr. Froude has entertain seriously.”

printed — are model love-letters in their An informal sort of engagement, how. way, and, besides all their other interest, ever, grew out of that interchange of con- are especially valuable for their clear in. fidences. Though Miss Welsh vowed dication of hier own temperament and of that neither the wealth of Crosus nor her the full knowledge she had of the characfriend's honor and renown could tempt ter of her lover. If, as Mr. Froude urges, her to marry him, she let him understand Carlyle was selfish in wishing her to that she would not offer much objection marry him before he had a comfortable as soon as he was in a position to keep a home to offer her, he at any rate hid nothwife. In anticipation of that, and in or-ing from her, and made no pretence of der that no contingency, chargeable to being better than he was. From London, ber, might lessen the income of her moth- whither he had gone to look out for profit. er, she assigned to Mrs. Welsh a life able and honest work, and where he had interest in the little fortune she had re found little but disappointment, he wrote, ceived from her father, and which, since in January, 1825, to propose that they his death, they had spent in common. I should marry and settle on her little propo

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erty at Craigenputtock, in the hope of brother, a father, a guardian spirit; but a there making money by farming as well husband, it seems to me, should be dearer as by literature. This she refused to still. At the same time, froin the change do, "frankly and explicitly," to use her which my sentiments towards you have own adverbs, giving good reasons against already undergone during the period of the project, the best being that she did our acquaintance, I have little doubt but not love him enough to expect happiness that in time I shall be perfectly satisfied with him in such a lonely and forlorn with them. One loves you, as Madame lise. "I love you, and I should be the de Staël said, in proportion to the ideas most ungrateful and injudicious of mor. and sentiments which are in oneself. tals if I did not. But I am not in love According as my mind enlarges and my with you; that is to say, my love for you beart improves, I become capable of coinis not a passion which overclouds my prehending the goodness and greatness judgment and absorbs all my regards for which are in you, and my affection for myself and others. It is a simple, hon. you increases. Not many months ago I est, sincere affection, made up of admira- would have said it was impossible that I tion and sympathy, and better perhaps to should ever be your wife. At present, I found domestic enjoyment on than any consider this the most probable destiny other. In short, it is a love which influ. for me, and in a year or two, perhaps, I ences, does not make, the destiny of a life. shall consider it the only one.” Such temperate sentiments lend no false • destiny was made manifest in coloring, no rosy light' to your project. less than a year or two, within a very few I see it such as it is, with all the argu months. Miss Welsh would probably ments for and against it. I see that my have married Carlyle in any case, without consent under existing circumstances waiting for him to be rich enough to keep would indeed secure to me the only fel. her in comfort; but the marriage was lowship and support I have found in the hastened, or at any rate formally decided world, and perhaps shed some sunshine upon, through her first lover's disloyalty of joy on your existence, which has bith- and a well-meaning woman's officious. erto been sullen and cheerless; but, on ness. Irving, apparently more proud than the other hand, that it would involve you ashamed of having trifled with Miss and myself in numberless cares and diffi. Welsh's affections, had, soon after setculties, and expose me to petty tribula. tling in London, betrayed her secret to tions which I want fortitude to despise, Mrs. Basil Montagu, and Mrs. Basil and which, not despised, would embitter Montagu imagining that the young lady the peace of us both." There was much was, if not broken-hearted, still pining for else to the same effect; and, in a last her lost lover, not only addressed imperparagraph: “It would be more agreeable tinent condolences and warnings to her, to etiquette, and perhaps also to pru. but also wrote about her to Carlyle, whose dence, that I should adopt no middle acquaintance she had made when he was course in an affair such as this, that I in London, and whom she supposed to be should not for another instant encourage only an ordinary friend of Miss Welsh's. an affection which I may never reward, Carlyle had hitherto heard nothing of the and a hope I may never fulfil, but cast old love-affair, and even now, in his next your heart away from me at once, since letter to his Jane, did no more than tell I cannot embrace the resolution which her that Mrs. Basil Montagu was “under would give me a right to it forever. This some strange delusion" about "her heart I would do assuredly if you were like the being with Irving in London.” To his generality of lovers, or if it were still in amazement he received for answer a full my power to be happy, independent of confession of the facts that had been kept your affection.

But, as it is, neither eti. from him, accompanied by self-reproaches quette nor prudence can obtain this of far beavier than there was any occasion

If there is any change to be made for. All that Miss Welsh really had reain the terms on which we have so long son to regret was, that she had not cared lived with one another, it must be made to open a bealed wound by telling her by you, not by me.”

lover of an old “passion which was Carlyle protested a little, and drew from honest on her part, and which had long this honest and clear-headed women a yet since given place to pity, if not contempt, more “ frank and explicit” statement of for its object. There was little occasion her “sentiments about himn. “I am for penitence; but she felt herself disnot sure that they are proper sentiments graced in the eyes of a man who, as in for a husband. They are proper for all her self-humiliation she acknowledged

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both to herself and to him more plainly been sealed by a formal marriage engage. than ever before, now had all her affec- ment, Carlyle more than once offered to tion. She could not accuse him of injus. release Miss Welsh from her bond. tice if he cast her off, she declared; but In a letter, either querulous, or sportnever before had he been so dear to her. ive, or both, which she wrote to him early Carlyle, however, had no thought of cast.j in 1826, she had reminded him of the ing her off. His answer was a tender rival suitors who were then hanging about self-depreciatory love-letter, which led to her - "a certain handsome, stammering a formal engagement of marriage, and to Englishman," a second cousin with "a marriage itself after very little further fine establishment," and "an interesting delay.

young widower.”

“But what am I talkMr. Froude puts on record Mrs. Car- ing about?” she added — "as if we were lyle's statement that, “but for the uncon- not already married, married past redempscious action of a comparative stranger, tion. God knows in that case what is to her engagement with Carlyle would prob. become of us. At times I am so dis. ably never have been carried out,” but he heartened that I sit down and weep." has apparently failed to see the great im- “Oh, Jane, Jane !” Carlyle wrote back, portance of this episode – which he only "your half-jesting enumeration of your reports very briefly, and of which there is wooers does anything but make me laugh.” no other record in the life-history of Car. And he went on to say that, if the proslyle and his wife. They had been friends, pect of marriage with him made her weep, and very real lovers after a fashion, for she was free to break it off. “It is rea. now more than four years; but they might sonable and right that you should be connever have been more than friends and cerned for your future establishment. lovers had not Mrs. Basil Montagu Look round with calm eyes on the persons brought matters to a crisis. During four you mention, and if there is any one years Carlyle had been hoping to make among them whose wife you had rather Jane Welsh his wife; while she had beld be — I do not mean whom you love better back, partly because she was not sure than me, but whose wife, all things conhow strong and deep were her own feel. sidered, you had rather be than mine ings about him, but mainly because she then I call upon you — I, your brother sbrank from giving up the comfortable and friend through every fortune – to surroundings of her maiden lise and en. accept that man, and leave me to my des. tering on a new career which, knowing tiny. But if, on the contrary, my heart herself and her lover as she did, she more and my hand, with the barren and perthan suspected would have as many pains plexed destiny which promises to attend as pleasures in it. There was nothing them, shall, after all, appear the best that blameworthy in her fears and her caution; this poor world can offer you, then take but, on the other hand, surely Carlyle is me and be content with me, and do not not to be blamed for pressing one who vex yourself with struggling to alter what liad accepted his love during so long alis unalterable — to make a man who is time to share with him the whole battle poor and sick suddenly become rich and of life, even under such hard conditions healthy." After more to the same effect, as his genius and its embarrassments, his he added: “I am reconciled to my fate as poverty and his dyspepsia, imposed on stands, or promises to stand ere long. him, and would impose on them both after I have pronounced the word “unpraised' their marriage. The prudence that made in all its cases and numbers, and find her shrink from becoming a poor man's nothing terrific in it, even when it means wise may have been as commendable as unmoneyed, and even, by the mass of his was the unselfish wisdom that always Majesty's subjects, neglected and even urged him to prefer poverty, and such partially contemned. I thank heaven I independence as would leave him free to have other objects in my eye than either give the fullest scope to his peculiar gen- their pudding or their breath ... Conius, to lucrative but less honorable work, sider this as a true glimpse into my heart, which would have made it eas; for him to which it is good you contemplate with the provide himself and her with a comforta-gentleness and tolerance you have often ble liome. But no woman ever married, shown me. If you judge it fit, I will take or promised to marry, with her eyes more you to my heart as my wedded wife this open to the prospect before her; and if very week. If you judge it fit, I will this either is to be biamed for their marriage, very week forswear yours forever. More the blame is at least as much hers as his. I cannot do; but all this, wlien I compare

Even after their long friendship had | myself with you, it is my duty to do."

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Here are Mr. Froude's sneers at this here be said beyond the remark that Carbeautiful letter: "That Carlyle could con. lyle may perhaps, as Mr. Froude says, template with equanimity being unpraised, have acted unwisely and ungraciously in un moneyed, and neglected all his life; refusing to live with his mother-in-law as that he required neither the world's pud. well as with his wife, seeing that Mrs. ding nor its breath, and could be happy Welsh's income joined to his would have without them, was pardonable, and per. saved the young and not very domesti. baps commendable. That he should cated wise from many discomforts. It is expect another person to share this un- impossible at this distance of time, howmoneyed, puddingless, and rather forlorn ever, to decide whether Carlyle's holding condition, was scarcely consistent with of the traditional prejudice against mothsuch lofty principles. Men may sacrifice ers-in-law was not in his case justified. themselves, if they please, to imagined Undoubtedly his infirmities and bis peculduties and high ambitions, but they have iarities inclined him to be even less satisno right to marry wives and sacrifice factory as a son-in-law than as a husband; them.

and had he fallen in with his wife's sug. Those last words express an excellent gestion, matters might have turned out far rule which a good many married and mar. worse than they did. Instead of a marrying men nowadays might very properly ried life which on the whole was — in spite take to heart. But what is their force as of anything Mr. Froude may say — happy regards Carlyle and his wife?

and beautiful during forty years, there In the first place, as I have attempted might have been discord at starting, and to show as fully as space would allow in the unheroic wasting of two heroic lives. the foregoing pages, Carlyle did not As it was, they began their married "marry” his wife as most husbands, good course as brightly as was possible, and or bad, marry theirs. Miss Welsh was considering Carlyle's dyspepsia and nervnot a silly girl who rushed into matrimony ousness, and their soinewhat straitened in blind devotion to her lover, or in igno- means, eighteen months were passed rance of his temperament and condition. pleasantly enough in their first abode at She was

a shrewd woman of five-and. Comley Bank, Edinburgh. “The house twenty, who had long since come safely, is a perfect model,” he wrote to his mothif a little wounded, out of her first great er, " furnished with every accommodation love-affair, and had spent nearly five years that heart could desire, and for my wife I in analyzing the character of her second may say in my heart that she is far better lover, and in prudently balancing the ad- than any wife, and loves me with a devot. vantages and disadvantages of marrying edness which it is a mystery to me how I bim. The very visible exteriors of his have ever deserved. She is gay and haplife – bis poverty, his uncouthness, his py as a lark, and looks with such soft irritability of body and mind — were not cheerfulness into my gloomy countenance, more manifest to her than were his inner that new hope passes into me every time qualities, the impulsive nature of his gen. I meet her eye.”. “On the whole," he ius, and his all-absorbing earnestness to wrote to his brother, “this wife of mine do the work he felt himself, out-of-date surpasses my hopes. She is so tolerant, Puritan as he was, called upon to do. so kind, so cheerful, so devoted to me. Carlyle had never attempted to deceive On, that I were worthy of her! Why am her, and it was not possible for him to de. I not happy then? Alas, Jack, I am bilceive her by a tithe as much as he invol-ious. I have to swallow salts and oil; the untarily deceived himself. She knew per- physic leaves me pensive, yet quiet in fectly well that he was "gey ill to live heart, and on the whole happy enough; wi?;” and of her own free choice and de. but the next day comes a burning stomach liberate purpose she risked all perils in and a heart full of bitterness and gloom." deciding to live wi?" him.

“We are really very happy," wrote Mrs. In the second place, as a few more par. Carlyle to her mother-in-law.

My husagraplis must suffice to show, Carlyle and band is so kind, so in all respects after his wise being married, he did not“ sacri- iny own beart. I was sick one day, and fice" her.

he nursed me as well as my own mother Before the marriage took place in Oc. could have done. We see great numbers tober, 1826, there was a good deal more of people, but are always most content pathetic, and sometimes amusing, corre alone.. My husband reads then, and I spondence and debate as to when and how work or read, or just sit and look at him, it should come about, and what should be which I really find as profitable an emdone afterwards; but of this nothing need | ployment as any other." “Oh, that he

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