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mering, scolding, and the jingle of the particular.” He thus delighted to take piano. A grave without rest, death with some butt, and aim the shafts of his ridi. out the privileges of the departed, who cule at him. “ A few months before his have no longer any need to spend money, death,” Stigand tells us, " there occurred or to write letters, or to compose books. one of the strangest and most touching What a melancholy situation!”
incidents of his life. To the solitude of His niece thus describes a visit she bis bedside there came a fair and brightpaid him in 1854 : “He received me with spirited young lady, who from earliest the greatest delight. “Come close to me, youth had been an enthusiast for Heine's my child,' he said, 'that I may see you songs. What her name was," the biogbetter,' and he raised his eyelids with his rapher goes on to say, we know not. A beautiful white hand to observe more mystery enshrouded her early life, which plainly if I were like my mother. I was Heine himself was not able to dissipate.” made to sit down by his pillow, and the His niece, although not revealing her first thing he asked me about was his sis naine, tells us a few more details of her ter. Lottchen! my Lottchen!'he ex- history than we have yet been able to disclaimed, “when shall I see her again ?'cover. Margot,” or Mouche," as the He incessantly recurred to the same sub- poet used to call her, was a beautiful ject during our conversation. I found creature, twenty-two years of age, refined him very much changed, almost unrecog. and highly educated, writing French, Gernizable; the tears rushed to my eyes with man, and English with equal facility. sorrow. Fortunately his blindness pre- Heine had advertised in the papers for a vented his seeing my agitation, but, hear reader, and she presented herself, offering ing the trembling of my voice, he said: her services in that capacity. They were • Why do you grieve? Have í not had accepted, and she entered on the duties as much happiness as a man can expect? of reader and amanuensis. She inspired I live on the memory of my youth, and I the poet's last songs; and she still keeps can assure you I did not waste my time.' many letters, written to her, begging ber The evening before my departure I was to come, or sending some little present sitting beside his bed, and he was going for her acceptance. Princess della Rocca back over his past life, his joys and his tells us that her history was a most re
Wearied out at last, he lay per. markable one. She was German by birth, fectly silent and motionless; the room but had married, at eighteen, a Frenchwas half lit by the shaded light of one man. After a few years of matrimony, lamp, and the only sound audible was the her husband wished to regain his freemonotonous ticking of the clock. I did dom, and pretending to have business in not dare move for fear of disturbing him ; London, begged his wife to accompany suddenly he endeavored to change his him thither. As soon as they arrived he position, but being incapable of involun. declared she was mad, and he had her tary movement could not do so, and was shut up in a madhouse. To such a deseized with violent spasms, and moaned gree did terror and mental suffering act and shrieked in the most piteous way. I on the nervous organization of this delithought his last hour was come, and, cate creature, that she became seriously weeping bitterly, implored God to put an ill, and some time elapsed ere she could end to his torment. Paolina, his faithful either think or speak coherently. When nurse, endeavored to calm me, telling me she recovered she was able to prove the she had often seen him thus before; but falseness of her husband's declaration, I, completely overcome, had to leave the and was removed to a hospital, where,
I only saw him once more, and under the care of an intelligent doctor, then it was farewell forever."
she became convalescent. Shortly afterTo the last his keen wit remained ready wards, aided by her friends, she sued for and sarcastic as ever. “If you calm my and obtained a divorce; only returning miserable sciatic nerve,” he said to Schle again to Paris to nurse her mother in her singer, “all the others begin a torment of last moments. The princess relates a hell. I am sure my nerves would obtain story of Béranger, wanting to see this a gold medal at the Great Exhibition for " Mouche ” of whom he had heard so over-sensitiveness." “ Pouvez-vous sif- much, coining to call on Heine, and, in fler?” asked bis doctor. “Non; pas the half-darkness of the room, mistaking méme les comédies de Scribe.” “Is her mother, who was then a lady adthere anything you would particularly vanced in years, for the lovely fancy?” 'inquired one of his attendants. flower." He discovered his error after a “No, I'an like Scribe, I have no taste in time; but the whole affair delighted
CARLYLE AND HIS WIFE.
Heine, who lay listening to Béranger's renowned German. “ Henri Eine," said gallant speeches with the utmost amuse- one, looking at the stone; “no, I do not ment.
know who he was.” With the exception One of the poet's friends, anxious for of the weather-worn and leafless remains his conversion, asked him shortly before of the laurel crown which the German his death if he were at peace with God. venerators of Heine placed upon the tomb "Set your mind at rest,” answered Heine, on All Souls' Day, 1879, no symbol of re. "le bon Dieu me pardonnera, c'est son spect or love now marks the grave of this métier.” “Do you believe in the exist. brilliant though erratic genius. We are ence of a supreme being?” the same per- astounded, considering the enthusiastic son asked on another occasion. “If a love of Gernians for their Heine, to find supreme being, perfectly omnipotent and his grave thus neglected. all-seeing, exists, do you think he will care "The tears which will flow for us will whether a wretched little mouse, living in not be so warm as those we shed for our the Rue d'Amsterdam, believes in him or loved ones. The new generation know
“What good does it do me,” he neither what we wanted nor what we have laments, “that at banquets my health is suffered, and how could they know us? drunk out of golden goblets, and in the The deepest secrets of our hearts we have best of wine, if I myself, separated from never spoken out; we descend into the all the joys of the world, can only wet my grave with closed lips.” lips with an insipid tisane? What good
NINA H. KENNARD. does it do me that enthusiastic youths and dansels crown my marble bust with laurels, when on my real head a blister is being clapped behind my ears by an old sick-nurse? What lists it to me if all the
From The Gentleman's Magazine. roses of Shiraz glow and smell for me so sweetly? Alas! Shiraz is two thousand The love-makings of men of genius, miles from the Rue d'Amsterdam, where before and after marriage, with or without I get nothing to smell, in the melancholy it, are tempting subjects of inquiry, and solitude of my sick-room, but the perfume all the information of this sort we can of warm napkins.” “It is time," he sings, get, if it sometimes does no more than "to bury the old, unhappy ditties, and all amuse an idle curiosity, may be, and genthe sad dreains, so fetch me a coffin vast. erally is, as instructive as it is entertainIt must be vaster than Heidelberg's vat, ing. With fuller information than we and longer than the bridge over the Main. have about the private relationships be. And then fetch a dozen giants - they tween Socrates and Xanthippe, we should must be stronger than St. Christopher, in understand better than we do the public the cathedral of Cologne, on the Rhine. work of the great father of Greek philosThey must take up that coffin and sink it ophy: A flood of light, which would othdeep in the ocean wave, for such a mighty erwise be wanting, is thrown on the mys. coffin must be laid in a mighty grave. tic scholasticism of Abelard by the extant Would you know why my coffin must be records of his dealings with Eloïse. If so vast and stout and wide ? I shall lay as much were known, from their points of all my sorrows and love and anguish view, of Beatrice and Laura as we know there, side by side."
of Dante's and Petrarch's written praises Heine was buried in the cemetery at of them, perhaps our estimate of the men's Montmartre, and his niece tells us that his manhood would be somewhat different widow would not allow the family to put from what it is, though our admiration for up a suitable monument over the remains the poets' poetry might remain the same; of the poet.
Nothing, therefore, marks and for an authentic biography of Anne his resting place but a marble slab, on Hathaway, all but the more pedantic which is inscribed his name, “ Heinrich Shakespearians would be willing to sur. Heine,” without even the words, “ Rest in render two or three of his less memorapeace." We saw the other day in the ble plays. Coming down to our own cencolumns of a newspaper, that a Swiss ad. tury, it will suffice to hint at the scientific mirer of Heine took a pilgrimage to his value of the little that has been disclosed grave on the late anniversary of his respecting Clotilde de Vaux in elucidat. death. He found it in the most forlorn ing the position of Auguste Comte as a and neglected state; he was curious to great teacher. Everywhere and always a learn if any of the French visitors to the man's worth must be gauged to some ex... cemetery knew anything of the world. | tent, though only in part, by his domes
ticity. Some of the best work done in than a third of the “Reminiscences the world has, of course, been done by which Mr. Froude somewhat indiscreetly men of small private worth. A man of gave to the world last year. Whatever genius is not to be judged by ordinary indiscretion there was in the publication standards. Genius is eccentricity. The of those volumes, it was important, Carduties it imposes on its possessors may lyle's own crabbed and incomplete recolmake it their duty to neglect duties im lections of his early life and some of its posed by custom, or something more au- connections havin been put on record, thoritative than custom, on common folk; that they should be supplemented by a and their highest virtue may consist of, fuller, and therefore truer, record; and, or not be inharmonious with, disregard of fif_Mr. Froude erred in printing the conventional virtues. But for all that, “Reminiscences," he has made as inuch men are men before they are anything atonement as was in his power by print. else, whether poets or philosophers, war. ing the letters and extracts from journals riors or statesmen; and among the fun which constitute the bulk of the " Thomdamental conditions of human life the as Carlyle." The later volumes convey, instincts that lead to love-inaking and on the whole, a much kindlier and more marrying are hardly less fundamental than accurate impression of Carlyle's characthose that oblige statesmen, warriors, ter than the otherwise uninformed reader philosophers, poets, and all such prodi. could have derived from the earlier volgies, to eat and sleep pretty much as umes. Therefore Mr. Froude has acted ploughboys do. If the common laws of rightly in publishing them, and in doing human life are varied from, there must be so he has made one of the most interestreason for the variation, and reverting ing and instructive contributions to bioto men of genius – it is useful to know, graphical literature that has appeared for not merely what variation there is, if there many a year. is any notable variation at all, but yet With the general contents of this book, more how it affects their standing and however, its revelations of Carlyle's homeinfluence in the world.
training and self-education, his beautiful For such a study, in the case of one of relations with his parents and brothers, the most remarkable men of genius living his struggles and his victories, and all else in our own century, very precise and wel- external and internal that conduced to come material is afforded by the volumes make him the great, though in some reentitled, “ Thomas Carlyle, a History of spects crooked, man of genius that he the First Forty Years of his Life," which was, I do not here concern myself. Nor Mr. J. A. Froude has lately issued. Mr. should I propose to step between the Froude was quite justified in issuing these book and the reader of its most attractive volumes, though he admits that in doing and really most important passages, those so he has not strictly adhered to the for- in which are very minutely detailed the mal instructions given to him as Carlyle's intimate friendship and rare affection that literary executor. Both in his will and existed between Carlyle and his wife, be. in his journal, Carlyle expressly desired fore and after their marriage, were it not that no biography of him should be writ. that Mr. Froude appears to have strangely ten, and in order to supersede such a misunderstood the significance of the work, he himself, after his wife's death, story he liad to tell, and that a large seccollected and annotated her correspond- tion of the public has been grievously ence with a view to its being published in misled, as it seems to me, by the asserdue time. “ He intended it,” says Mr. tions and insinuations with which he has Froude,“ as a monument to a character freely interspersed the documents it has of extreme beauty, while it would tell the been his good fortune to handle. If my public as much about himself as it could reading of those documents is correct reasonably expect to learn." This col. and it is a reading which I believe to be lection, however, which Mr. Froude prom. amply supported by them, as well as by ises to issue soon, begins only with the other evidence – Mr. Froude, in chival. date of Carlyle's settlement in London, rous bias towards the heroine whom, perand will throw little or no light on the laps rightly, he places on a yet higher history of their married life during its pedestal than the hero to whom he is loyal first eight years, or of their relations with in most other respects, has wronged th one another during the five previous memory of both. More than that: if Mr. years; and it was partly to supply this Froude is mistaken, bis mistake touches deficiency that Carlyle himself wrote the a broader question than that of Carlyle's fragmentary, memoir that occupies more dealings with his wife. The world is too apt to think that men of genius cannot be I to others, as well as to himself. This good husbands, and that the wives of men was the condition on which he married. of genius must inevitably be martyrs. If If his wife understood that condition bethe world would be honest enough, not fore she married him, and recognized it only to recognize the fact that most wives as binding on herself no less than on him are martyrs, whether their husbands are all through their married years, the blame, geoiuses or not, but also to save wives or the responsibility without blame, was from much risk of martyrdom by allowing hers as much as bis. That Mrs. Carlyle women to be in all respects as free as endured many hardships through marry. men are to make the best they can of their ing the man she liked before marriage, lives, and by putting no artificial restraint and loved afterwards, is true enough; but on the intellectual and social indepen- if she preferred her life with him to any dence of either sex which is not imposed life she could liave had without him, the by nature, men of genius, as well as men world has no right to accuse him of deof no genius, would be less likely than fects that she did not recognize, or, recog. they now are to have unhappy wives, or nizing them, accepted as portions of a to be themselves made either happy or whole with which, as a whole, she was unhappy by their wives' unhappiness. and had good reason to be content. That But until that is done, allegations against it was so, seems to be clearly shown even men of genius, as such, are out of place. by the volumes in which 'Mr. Froude In Carlyle's case, at any rate, any such makes his charges against her husband. allegations are inappropriate.
Carlyle was in his twenty-sixth year On his wife's tombstone Carlyle re when he first met the lady who was, five corded that “ for forty years she was the years afterwards, to become his wife. He true and loving helpmate of her husband, had struggled bravely up from the rough and by act and word unweariedly for- peasant life into which he had been born, warded him as no one else could in all and, carrying with him a lively affection of worthy that he did or attempted.” for his early surroundings, and tender de. Mr. Froude says it was remorse which votion to his plebeian but noble-hearted prompted that and the other reverentsen. parents, had gone through much, though tences in the epitaph. “There broke on by no means all, of the hard drudgery him in his late years," we are told, " like that was preliminary to his entrance on a flashing of lightning from heaven, the the career of eminence as a writer and terrible revelation that he had sacrificed teacher for which he was destined. He his wife's health and happiness in his ab- had had a smali love-affair when, plodding sorption in his work; that he had been as a schoolmaster in Kirkcaldy, and being oblivious of his most obvious obligations, then twenty-one or twenty-two years old, and had been negligent, inconsiderate, he “made some acquaintance," as he said and selfish.” That Carlyle did thus re in his “Reminiscences,” which “ might proach himself, in and out of Mr. Froude's easily have been more, had she and her hearing, is certain, and that, like every aunt, and our economics and other cir. other husband in the world, thinking over cumstances liked,” with the pretty and his dead wife, he had more or less reason sprightly Margaret Gordon, who was the for so doing, may be taken for granted. original of Blum, ne in “Sartor Resartus." What loyal widower, or widow either, re- "She was of the fair-complexioned, softly calling the experiences of a long married elegant, softly grave, witty, and comely life, would not wish that many things had type, and had a good deal of gracefulness, been different, and different through his intelligence, and other talent. To me, or her having shown to the lost one more who had only known her for a few months, care, consideration, and unselfishness? and who within a twelve or hiiteen months But such reproaches are not to be taken saw the last of her, she continued, for as certificates of facts. In so far as they perhaps three years, a figure hanging prove anything, they generally prove more or less in my fancy, on the usual rather that the mourner liad avoided, than romantic, or latterly quite elegiac and sithat he had exhibited, the faults for which lent terms.? A more memorable friendhe blames bimself.
ship than the one thus quaintly summed Carlyle, liowever, was, in a way, a selfish up, however, was with Edivard Irving, the man all through his life. He started with great preacher and founder of the relia "mission.” His pride and his humility gious sect that bears his name, who was joined in urging him to pursue certain then also a struggling schoolmaster, five aims, which he deemed to be of para. years older than Carlyle, and in frequent mount importance, at any inconvenience and affectionate companionship with him
at Kirkcaldy and elsewhere, as well as off in a plunge of tears. - an epitome of in Edinburgh where they were fellow- most of one's heroic sacrifices,' it strikes students. Irving had been betrothed in me, magnanimously resolved on, ostentahis youth to the young lady whom he af- tiously gone about, repented of at the last terwards, on her refusing to release him, moment, and bewailed with an outcry.” unwillingly married ; but, like other men A woman from first to last, and always a and ministers, he was given to flirting, tender-hearted woman, there was a heroic and Margaret Gordon was one of his spirit in her which she attributed in part flames. Another, and a more scorching to her Latin studies. These, she said, one, was Jane Baillie Welsh, and, as fate tended “to change her religion, and make had it, Carlyle, after inheriting from Irv. her into a sort of pagan.” " It was not ing the reversion of Margaret Gordon's religion alone that these studies influ. favor, succeeded also to a much more im- enced, but my whole being was imbued portant inheritance, the honest and de. with them. Would I prevent myself from voted love of Jane Baillie Welsh. doing a selfish or cowardly thing, I didn't
That was a treasure worth acquiring, say to myself, “ You mustn't, or if you do even at second hand. Everything that is you will go to hell hereafter; 'nor yet, If recorded about this lady's early life is as you do you will be whipt here; but I charming as all the sequel is pathetic and said to myself simply and grandly, A beautiful. Miss Geraldine Jewsbury set Roman would not have done it,' and that down some pretty stories about her, and sufficed under ordinary temptations." Carlyle corrected them and added many On the position of Carlyle's wife much others in the “Reminiscences.” Her fa. light is thrown by such illustrations as ther, Dr. Welsh, of Haddington, was a those of her girlish state of mind. It physician of great local repute, who died, was Edward Irving, then the Haddington when the daughter who worshipped him schoolmaster, who taught her Latin, and as she never worshipped any other man mathematics as well; and his influence was about seventeen years old, and both on her was great during many years, and before and after his death she experienced long after he had ceased to reside in Had. no lack of the simple comforts of this dington. When or how the relations of life. A bright little girl who danced like teacher and pupil were exchanged for a fairy, yet learnt Latin and did other those of lovers we are not told ; but they unusual things in her efforts “to be a were lovers, on a footing that is happily boy," wayward, as we are told, with all not very common, during several years. but her father, yet as graceful in her bear. Irving, as has been already mentioned, ing as she was masculine in her intellec. was betrothed to another young lady, a tual tendencies, she showed, while in her Miss Isabella Martin; but the question teens, that she was fit to take and to of marriage was deferred till he was in a adorn any station in life that came in her position to keep a wife, and meanwhile way. In a characteristic passage of her he evidently felt himself free to love diary, which Mr. Froude prints, she tells where he liked. Let Mr. Froude, who how, having been advised when she be knows more than his readers do, describe gan to read Virgil that she was too old to the situation : "Irving, who was a frego on playing with a doll, she prepared a quent visitor at Haddington, discovered, gorgeous holocaust, resolving that the when he looked into his heart, that his doll, if it was to be made an end of, should real love was for his old pupil, and the perish as Dido perished," with her dress feeling on her part was the word is es, which were inany and sumptuous, her her own — passionately 'returned. The four-post bed, a faggot or two of cedar mischief was done before they became allumettes, a few sticks of cinnamon, a aware of their danger. Irving's situation few cloves, and a - nutmeg! 1, non igna being explained, Miss Welsh refused to ra futuri, constructed ber funeral pyre listen to any language but that of friend. sub auris, of course;" and everything ship from him until Miss Martin had set else was done in classic style. • How him free. Irving, too, was equally highever, in the inoment of seeing my poor principled, and was resolved to keep his doll blaze up — for, being stuffed with word." But there was an unexpressed bran, she took fire and was all over in no hope on both sides that he would not be time - in that supreme moment my affec. held to it, and on these dangerous terms tion for her blazed up also. I shrieked, Irving continued to visit at Haddington and would have saved her but could not, when he could be spared from his duties." and went on shrieking till everybody “High-principled ”seems hardly the right within hearing flew to me and bore me I word to apply to a man who, whether froni