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on strong programs that exist at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The FY 1987 budget includes $10.5 million for this project.
At NSLS, $2.6 million is requested in FY 1987. This funding completes the project and will meet the demands for a much higher level usage by providing additional experimental equipment and space. When fully instrumented, the NSLS facility will be able to accommodate 90 experiments simultaneously.
For the SSRL, the FY 1987 request is $1.7 million to complete the
project. This funding will allow us to continue three principal
the construction of two conventional beam lines and three
special beam line facilities as well as the alteration of the
electron storage ring. These improvements will ensure the usefulness of this facility for basic research for many years to
Another major project proposed for final funding in FY 1987 is the Kansas State University Ion Collision Physics Facility; $1.2 million is requested for this project. This facility, which is jointly funded by the University and DOE, will allow researchers
to study the atomic physics of a range of ions unmatched in the world.
The budget also includes $5.0 million for continuing the Neutron Scattering Experimental Hall project at LANL, which was begun in FY_1986. As a result of this project, a significant enhancement in research space will be made available to take advantage of the unique (highest neutron-flux in the world) capability at this
Construction funds are requested also for General Plant Projects and Accelerator Improvement and Modifications Projects. For these two construction items, the FY 1987 request is $4.1 million and $2.9 million, respectively.
The final project for which FY 1987 funding is requested is $1.5 million for A-E and long-lead procurement for the 1-2 GeV Synchrotron source. This facility, as I mentioned earlier, is a state-of-the-art synchrotron source which is a necessary step in keeping the U.S. at the cutting edge of technology in the next century.
The budget request for Program Direction provides for personnel and other costs associated with continuation of 63 full-time equivalents.
MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY
To assure our National long-term energy options, it is appropriate for the Federal government to sponsor R&D in those areas where the cost or duration of the program discourages private investment. The Magnetic Fusion program is a clear example of appropriate energy research for the Federal portfolio. The goal of this program is to establish the scientific and
technological base required for fusion energy. The program is
making excellent technical progress toward this goal.
term need and desirability for fusion energy continues to be
strong. However, the program plan and the program budgets have
been adjusted to reflect improvements in our near-term energy
supply as well as the need to control Federal spending. During
the mid-1970's the Magnetic Fusion Energy program responded to
the then looming energy crisis, by laying out a plan that was dedicated to the goal of having a fusion energy reactor by the year 2000. A set of program activities was developed and a pace established to meet this goal. However, due to a relaxation in the energy crisis situation, there is now less urgency to develop an energy supply system based on the nuclear fusion principle. The desirability for such a system, however, remains strong.
Therefore, a revised Magnetic Fusion Program Plan was developed
and put into place last year. This plan took into consideration the present economic conditions, the current energy situation and how it might change in the future, technical progress in fusion research, the ability to train scientists and engineers, the contributions to basic research in the fields of plasma physics and atomic physics and technology transfer. This plan has been accepted by both the Congress and the technical community.
The development of magnetic fusion could lead to economic energy
sources that possess a secure fuel reserve, as well as acceptable
environmental and safety features. The fuel, deuterium (and tritium from lithium), is readily available at low cost, and its supply is essentially unlimited. Potential end use applications are electricity generation, the production of synthetic fuels, nuclear fuels, and high grade heat for industrial applications.
The schedule for completion of magnetic fusion development is directly related to the present technical, economic, and political uncertainties of energy supply. Knowledge of how to
employ fusion power, its economic costs and its environmental effects should be available when major decisions must be made on the deployment of new energy systems. It follows that, based on the estimated timescales for the resolution of uncertainties affecting the acceptability of other energy sources, the scientific and technological base for fusion should be available
essentially by the turn of the century.
Fusion has a unique role in the process of determining our Nation's energy future. In principle, fusion energy has the flexibility to fit a variety of future energy scenarios. Fusion may provide improvements to the attractiveness of other energy sources as well as providing an attractive alternative to these sources.
Although magnetic fusion research and development is addressing a
wide range of detailed scientific and technological problems, the
remaining work that must be accomplished to reach the program
goal can be summarized by defining four key issues.
The first of these issues concerns magnetic confinement systems. The particular type of magnetic geometry used can have a profound influence on the economics of a fusion device. Although significant progress continues to be made, it is not possible to design a fusion reactor at this time. Therefore, several potentially attractive confinement systems are being investigated. While many of these have similar features, it is
likely that the most desirable system will include features from
several different confinement systems. In addition, history has
shown that progress in all systems will be more rapid because of the cross-fertilization possible between related concepts.
The second key technical issue concerns the properties of burning plasmas. Understanding the properties of burning plasmas is required to complete the scientific base. Furthermore, since a
burning plasma will require much of the technology required for a fusion reactor, it offers the additional benefit of advancing the technological position of the program goal.
The third key_issue concerns materials for fusion systems. Since
materials play a central role in determining the environmental characteristics of a fusion reactor, they are the key to realizing the benefits of fusion. Achievement of the program goal requires the development of new materials to enhance the economic and environmental potential of fusion.
The fourth key issue concerns nuclear technology of fusion
systems. This issue requires advances in the basic engineering sciences, as well as the application of the results of basic fusion materials research. This issue will be completed only when integrated blankets are tested in a nuclear environment.
Our present strategy for addressing these issues is to take a
complementary approach, which emphasizes development of the
scientific and technological components or subsystems of the
integrated fusion system, to the maximum extent that is
This approach is most appropriate for our program goal in the
It allows accommodation of budget
stringency, as well as for progress to resolve the technical
uncertainties that exist about the exact nature of a suitable
There appears to be no premium on early
deployment of fusion in our present energy circumstances. Therefore, time is available to perfect the fusion energy source, which we expect to be a critical necessity in the long run.
Finally, the utilization of the United States portion of the world's fusion development resources can be enhanced by this approach, since it provides the flexibility to collaborate internationally.