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Xerox. These industries are interested in a wide variety of research that they expect may ultimately lead to significant technological innovation. It is worth mentioning several of the primary areas of investigation below.
There is a large program being carried out by IBM scientists in the area of microelectronics. On Port U6 of the vov storage ring, highly-collimated intense soft x-ray beams have been used to
replicate sub-micron integrated circuit features onto photoresist
Features as small as 0.25 micron (one-one hundred
thousandth of an inch) have been replicated successfully with high aspect ratios. With the addition of a temperature-controlled clean room to provide stable, contamination-free exposures, and an alignment system capable of producing circuit dimensions smaller than 0.5 microns, IBM plans to fabricate an experimental working integrated circuit.
If the IBM effort on U6 proves the technical feasibility of using synchrotron radiation for microcircuit replication, there could be a greatly expanded use of synchrotron radiation in this country with storage rings becoming an integral part of semiconductor factories. Indeed, efforts have begun in Germany and Japan to develop compact superconducting storage rings for the semiconductor industry. The NSLS is organizing a workshop this month to consider how a similar effort might be undertaken in the U.S. and what would be the roles of private industry and of the
Federal Government (through the expertise and the facilities of the National laboratories).
A number of the companies mentioned above have a common interest in studying catalytic reactions in the hope of developing more efficient catalysts. By using the high intensity synchrotron
radiation available from the NsLS, it will be possible to complete x-ray absorption and diffraction studies of catalysts during active operating conditions (elevated temperature and pressures) while the surfaces still remain active. These studies should help determine the structures and orientations of complicated organic molecules during catalysis. EXXON scientists on beam X10 are also using small angle x-ray scattering to study the pore structures in rock since this relates to the rate of flow of oil through various geological formations. The same technique is also being used to characterize the aggregation of organic macromolecules in petroleum crude since this has a direct bearing on the refining
STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS
There have been a number of experiments carried out by scientists from industrial laboratories in the area of structure of materials. Examples include the first structure determination of alpha-chromium phosphate by a DuPont team using the X13 powder diffraction beam, and a study carried out on the Xll beam of chromate and dichromate corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solutions for aluminum and its alloys.
University and Government laboratory scientists have carried out a wide range of topography and x-ray diffraction, absorption, and scattering experiments on technologically important metal alloys and semiconductors to study defects and microstructures. The success of these experiments is leading to expanded use of NSLS by materials scientists from all sectors of the scientific community.
A list of the major BES user facilities is contained in Table 6.
FY 1987 BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES BUDGET REQUEST
The FY 1987 budget request for the BES program is $441.4 million,
which consists of $380.1 million in operating Expenses, $31.8
million in Capital Equipment and $29.5 million in construction
funds (Table 7).
This request supports the core program for each
of the research areas with modest increases in each of the
subprogram areas for major user facility operations and for
enhancements to selected promising research areas. The requested
increase for facilities will cover increased costs related to
power, fuel, and essential operating personnel, as well as
safeguards and safety requirements.
of the total FY 1987 Operating Expenses request of $380.1 million, approximately 30% will be spent to operate and carry out research at the major BES facilities. As I noted earlier, these facilities are used not only by the Department, but also by other Federal agencies, by industry and by university researchers. They represent an investment in the Nation's long-term research and technological future. The budget request will ensure continued operation and access to these facilities in FY 1987. In addition
High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) - Brookhaven National Laboratory
to maintaining existing facilities, the FY 1987 budget also begins the necessary first step toward meeting the Nation's need for the next generation of advanced facilities.
The highest priority BES-related facilities proposed are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (LBL), continued research and development on the 6 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (ANL), and research and development of an Advanced Steady State Reactor (ORNL). The concept and need for those facilities have been reviewed and recommended by several committees, most notably and recently the National Research Council (NRC) study of Major Materials Facilities and the DOE Energy Research Advisory Board review of ti.e NRC report. The 1-2 GeV facility is being proposed for construction by requesting architect-engineer and long-lead procurement work in FY 1987, since significant preconstruction R&D has been conducted in the past. Research and development for
the 6 GeV facility and the Advanced steady state Reactor will be
The FY 1987 budget request also continues support for the
materials initiative that began in FY 1984. That activity
currently consists of a Center for Advanced Materials at LBL,
improvements at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and
expanded activities at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.
The economic health and National security of the U.S. require that we maintain a commanding lead in high technology. The ongoing advanced materials research activity is being organized to provide maximum benefit to the Nation. Industry is participating in the design of the research program to assure that it addresses America's high technology needs.
The Capital Equipment request for FY 1987 is $31.8 million.
requested funding will assure that researchers involved in our program continue to have the modern, sophisticated equipment needed to conduct advanced research. This level of funding is necessary to meet ongoing research requirements, additional
commitments associated with the new facilities and additional
equipment for selected areas of promising research. Examples of
equipment to be purchased include high resolution nuclear magnetic
resonance equipment, computer peripherals (e.g., disk and tape units), a fluid chromatograph for use in analyzing chemical solutions, infrared spectrometers, chemical vapor deposition apparatus, and an x-ray microprobe analyzer.
Table 8 details the construction request for FY 1987.
the projects, as mentioned earlier, are associated with the
materials initiative which began in FY 1984:
the Center for
Advanced Materials (CAM) at LBL, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), and the National Synchrotron Light
Source (NSLS) at BNL.
The CAM project consists of two buildings: a Surface Science and Catalysis Laboratory which will provide state-of-the-art instrumentation and facilities and the Advanced Materials Laboratory which will be devoted to interdisciplinary study of the synthesis and characterization of energy-related high technology
and strategic materials. Both of these facilities will be based