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CEBAF has the highest p
for new construction i
(CEBAF). CEBAF has the highest priority for new construction in basic nuclear research in the United States.
CEBAF will be a new, single-purpose facility for basic nuclear
Its combination of continuous beam, high intensity, and
high energy will be unique in the world and will be important to
maintain America's position of worldwide leadership in basic
nuclear research. It will be operated as a user facility serving
a nationwide and international community of nuclear scientists. The central instrument of CE3AF will be a high intensity, high
duty factor electron accelerator with an energy range of 0.5-4.0 billion electron volts (GeV). The construction project includes an initial complement of experimental equipment and support facilities necessary to perform scientific experiments using CEBAF's high quality electron and photon beams.
Upon completion of construction, scientists can investigate the ways in which the quarks bound in neutrons and protons influence the makeup and behavior of nuclei, to determine how quarks interact while embedded within nuclear matter, and to test quantum chromodynamics as the fundamental theory of the strong nuclear force. Experiments in which electrons knock protons or neutrons out of nuclei will yield information about how energy and momentum is distributed among the nucleons bound inside nuclei and will
tell us about correlations among nucleons in nuclei. At the high energy limit of electron scattering, experiments are, to a good approximation, only sensitive to effects of electrons scattering from individual quarks within the nuclei. Under these circumstances, nuclei can be described as a loose collection of free quarks. At energies below 1 Gev, electron scattering from nuclei can be described accurately as electrons scattering from the protons, neutrons, and mesons known to be in nuclei. The energy capability of CEBAF would permit quantitative examination of the transition between these complementary descriptions of nuclei.
As is the case with High Energy Physics, the Nuclear Physics
program depends upon the operation of large and complicated
accelerator facilities to provide the variety of projectile beams_
and energies required to conduct the nuclear research program. Of
the Operating Expenses request, $93.3 million is needed for operation of these facilities. In FY 1986, the national facilities are expected to achieve an overall utilization rate of 55 percent. These National facilities are: the clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); the Bates Linear Accelerator Center at MIT; the SuperHILAC/Bevalac at LBL); the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS); the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); the 88-inch cyclotron at LBL; and the Double MP Tandem/AGS facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). To complement these National facilities, the Nuclear Physics program also supports on-campus accelerators at Yale, Duke, the University of Washington, and Texas A&M, each of which is being upgraded to maintain its effectiveness.
The FY 1987 Nuclear Physics budget request includes funds for
initial heavy ion nuclear research and 1000 hours of accelerator
operations at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at BNL.
Upon completion in FY 1986, the Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Transfer Line
will provide heavy ion beams to the AGS for acceleration to the unique energies of 14 GeV per mass unit. This unique capability offers the possibility that scientists may be able to create exotic new conditions of nuclear matter at high temperatures and densities.
The Capital Equipment request of $16.0 million would provide for
particle detection systems, data acquisition and analysis systems,
and instrumentation to improve the performance of Nuclear Physics
These funds are essential for the effective
operation and utilization of the National accelerator facilities by the Nuclear Physics program.
of the total request, $14.8 million is required for projects at BNL, LBL, ORNL, ANL, LAMPF, Bates Linear Accelerator Center at MIT, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Duke University. The Nuclear Physics program has landlord responsibility for providing the general purpose equipment at LBL, and $1.2 million is requested for that purpose.
The FY 1987 Construction request of $33.3 million (Table 5)
includes the continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility ($25.0
million), the Accelerator Improvements and Modifications Projects
($4.3 million), and the General Plant Projects ($4.0 million).
These projects are needed to maintain the scientific effectiveness, reliability and efficiency of Nuclear Physics facilities.
GENERAL SCIENCE PROGRAM DIRECTION
The FY 1987 bu
t request for General Science Proaram Directin
The FY 1987 budget request for General Science Program Direction is $2.5 million. These funds are required to provide for the salaries, benefits, travel and other expenses associated with 39 full-time equivalents in the office of the Associate Director for High Energy and Nuclear Physics and associated support staff required to administer these programs.
Now let me turn to the Basic Energy Sciences program.
BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES
The goal of the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) program is to uncover the basic scientific and engineering knowledge that can be used by the Government and the private sector to develop new concepts, products, materials and processes. Although the principal focus of the BES program is aimed at underpinning the Department's energy and defense goals, a number of other important National goals are also supported. The U.S. leadership in science and technology, the stimulation of economic growth, and the training of tomorrow's scientists are additional goals to which BES contributes as a result of the support of basic research. While
contributions from basic research cannot always be identified
immediately or directly, the knowledge that flows from this research forms the current foundation on which new ideas and concepts grow in each of these areas.
The BES program annually supports approximately 1200 individual
research projects in the physical, biological and mathematical sciences. These projects are selected on the basis of scientific excellence, relevance to BES' support of DoE long-term goals, and their contribution toward a balanced research program. This
research is carried out largely by scientists at universities and
National laboratories across the country.
Important results of supporting university researchers are the knowledge and technology transfer that occur when graduate students enter the private sector after completing their studies. In addition to research at universities and DOE laboratories, to a lesser extent, BES also supports research in industry and maintains contact there through a variety of mechanisms. These include participation in workshops, peer review panels, and the use by industry of the specialized research facilities supported by BES.
BES research covers the following seven areas: materials
sciences; chemical sciences; nuclear sciences; mathematical
sciences; engineering and geosciences; biological sciences; and
The ultimate impact of the research
results from over 1200 projects will be far reaching, beyond what is immediately obvious.
The following six examples, three of which I will discuss at some length and three that I will summarize in a sentence or two, provide some insight into the scope and diversity of the BES
The examples I want to discuss at length are in the Materials Sciences, Chemical Sciences, and the Advanced Energy Projects
MATERIALS SCIENCES ACCOMPLISHMENT
In the Materials Sciences subprogram, very promising research is
being supported on superconducting materials--materials that
conduct electricity (electrons) without any loss of electrical energy. Normally, these materials are compounds of metallic elements and become superconducting only at low temperatures. Materials which carry electrical current are very important in