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ensure that contractual and reporting requirements are met. By the end of FY

1986, seventeen of the nineteen technology development projects will be

on-line, with the remaining 2 becoming operational in FY 1987. The low-cost

crossflow turbine and free-flow turbine R&D projects are expected to go

on-line in FY 1986 and the siphon penstock R&D project will be operational in

FY 1987.

ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

The Electric Energy Systems Program conducts research to establish a technology base that will lead to advanced concepts and materials that will enable future electric networks to meet the national security need for a reliable electric supply while maintaining the health and safety of society.

The Program supports research to resolve mid-to long-ten problems in order to ensure that the biological health effects and risks to life forms exposed

to high-voltage electric and magnetic fields are well understood and mitigated; to provide options that will ensure appropriate system reliability

and promote the efficient use of resources in the Nation's future electric

network; provide electric power over a wide range of system conditions

including both normal and emergency situations, and to improve the efficiency

of electric systems through the development of new materials, advanced

controls, and new design concepts.

The FY 1987 budget request is $7.6

million for operating expenses.

Researchers in reliability R&D activities will continue to assess the

potential impact of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse on the Nation's electric

network and to provide advanced techniques for control and protection of systems during normal and abnormal operations. In FY 1987 the reliability research will include a second-level impacts assessment.

Funds requested in the systems technology research activity are required to

meet contractual obligations to complete several current programs. New

materials research will be carried out on liquid dielectrics and

semiconductors.

ENERGY STORAGE

The Energy Storage program is developing a technology base for advanced energy storage and conversion systems that will facilitate the use of

abundant but intermittent energy sources.

Three promising energy storage

technologies are now being pursued: battery (electrochemical), thermal, and

The FY 1987 budget request for the Energy Storage program

chemical/hydrogen. 18 $8.6 million.

The battery storage technology base research activities encompass fundamental research with the objective of providing the basis for improvements in efficiency, power density, energy density, and lifetime in new electrochemical couples and small-scale fuel cells. In FY 1987, the aims of the technology base research will be to provide a better understanding of the complex phenomena that determine electrochemical activity; explore new

electrochemical couples with improved performance characteristics; develop improved materials and new components for advanced battery technologies to solve key technical problems; and identify new, low-cost catalysts for

electrochemical energy conversion systems.

The objectives of the advanced development activity include development and

evaluation of high-performance, long-life, economical batteries for future

Robile and stationary energy storage applications. In FY 1987, the

exploratory technology development activities will concentrate on

lavestigating key problems in sodium/sulfur batteries which have the

potential for providing up to five times the energy storage capability of conventional batteries. Research will include identifying new materials and designs for electrolytes and electrodes.

The thermal and mechanical energy storage activity will provide the technical underpinning for the more effective use of thermal energy sources and Improving the efficiencies of chemical/hydrogen production and storage. Activities in FY 1987 will emphasize chemical/hydrogen research on

high-temperature electrolysis and advanced storage options to achieve lower

cost in hydrogen liquefaction. The thermal storage program will conduct

research on form-stable phase-change materials in the high-temperature range

and will explore advanced storage concepts.

CONCLUSION

Mr. Chairman, I believe that the budget that I have summarized will

contribute to increased energy supply diversity and end-use efficiency and should serve to promote increased competition in the marketplace. I believe that this budget request will allow us to address the itens of highest priority in research and development in the fields of renewable energy and electric energy systems and energy storage thereby contribute to the accomplishment of our national goal of fostering an adequate supply of energy at reasonable cost. This is a budget which I believe seriously recognizes today's fiscal responsibilities, as well as tomorrow's anticipated BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

needs.

Thank you for the opportunity to present our budget request.

DONNA R. PITZPATRICK

Donna R. Fitzpatrick was nominated by President Reagan on July 31, 1985, and confirmed by the Senate on December 19, 1985. She was sworn in as Assistant Secretary for conservation and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on December 20, 1985. She had served as Acting Assistant Secretary since March 11, 1985, and as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary since January 1984.

In this position her responsibilities include management of research and development programs in energy efficiency and alternative fuels for industry, buildings, and vehicles. The programs in renewable energy resources involve research in active and passive solar, photovoltaic, wind, ocean thermal, geothermal, and biomass technologies. In addition, she administers federal grant programs for lowincome home weatherization and energy efficiency improvements in schools and hospitals, and coordinates management of three of the five federal power marketing administrations,

In 1983, Miss Fitzpatrick served on a consultant team for the Secretary of Energy to conduct a general review of the Department's conservation and renewable energy programs, focusing on policy, program goals and priorities, budget levels, and new initiatives. In 1980, she served the Office of the President-elect as a member of the Transition Team for the National Science Foundation, reviewing national policy in basic science research, project efficiency, funding, and proposed legislation.

In her law practice, first with the Washington, D.C., firm of O'Connor and Hannan and then as a sole practitioner, Miss Fitzpatrick worked extensively on real estate development, helping to coordinate public and private interests and activities where Federal and District of Columbia involvement was required. This included work with local utilities and engineering planners to determine the legal, economic, and technical feasibility of various energy options, such as solar, cogeneration, and an on-site power generation and district heating system for large scale, high density residential and commercial uses.

Miss Fitzpatrick is also experienced in civil litigation, including administrative law and contracting issues.

Miss Fitzpatrick received a Bachelor's degree in physics cum laude from the American University in 1972. After teaching high school chemistry and mathematics, she entered law school and graduated from the National Law Center of George Washington University in 1980.

January 1986

CONTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLES

Chairman HATFIELD. Last year in your testimony, you indicated that the contribution of the renewable energy sources to the overall supply base was growing and very important. I wonder if you have any new statistical data that indicates the trend line along this subject. Help us to appreciate, perhaps, a little bit more the contribution of renewables.

Miss FITZPATRICK. Mr. Chairman, we do continue to analyze and try to project what the future contribution of renewable energy technologies will be. The trend line is growing. It is increasing and will continue upward for decades, as far as we have projected it.

The Department does this kind of projection in connection with developing its national energy policy plans, and I would be very pleased to supply the subcommittee with a copy of those projections.

Chairman HATFIELD. We would be very happy to receive that for our

files.

[The information follows:]

NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY PROJECTIONS Based on information available to the Department, renewable energy contributed 8 to 8.5 percent of national primary energy supply in 1984. The difficulty of attempting to make dependable forecasts in a highly unpredictable future has been discussed within the energy community on numerous occasions and remains a valid consideration. From the information available to the Department it appears that renewable energy may represent some 9 percent within the next 5 years and 10 to 10.5 percent of the supply mix by the year 2000, and is projected to reach 13 to 14 percent of domestic primary energy supply by the 2010 timeframe. These estimates, of course, reflect a number of highly uncertain economic and energy assumptions.

A copy of the NEPP IV projections through the year 2010 will be provided to the subcommittee. NEP V projections should be completed shortly and will be provided to the committee at that time.

(CLERK'S NOTE: NEPP IV projections can be found in the subcommittee files.)

GOVERNMENT'S ROLE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY Chairman HATFIELD. Ms. Fitzpatrick, could you give us a general assessment of how much of a role the Federal Government has played in this growing and important contribution of the renewables vis-à-vis the apporpropriations to make available for grants research and so forth, and the tax policy that has been pursued, the tax investment credits and incentives?

Miss FITZPATRICK. If I could take the research contracting and grants issue first, I think the Department, the Federal Government, has a vital role to play in the further development of these technologies, so that they will become technically reliable and economically competitive, so that they can fulfill the potential of satisfying our energy supply needs.

That is why we are continuing to concentrate on the issues which involve fundamental science or a high-risk option, which has large potential payoffs, because those are the areas that private industry finds very difficult to support.

Sometimes they don't have the wherewithal, either economic or technical, to pursue the very fundamental scientific issues. Sometimes they

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