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He says.....

In rising and being (though called present participles) there is evidently here no adsignification of time.

Sciger saw plainly the same. 66 Modus non fuit necessarius : unus enim tantum exigitur ob veritatem, indicativus. Cæteri autem ob cammoditatem potius.

And even Perizonius and others who maintain a contrary opinion, are compelled to acknowledge, that....“ Indicativus adhibetur ad indicandam simpliciter rem ipsam.

“ Horum autem participiorum magis promiscuus “ aliquando est usus; tum quia nomina sunt, et

sæpe adhibentur sine ullo temporis respectu aut designatione ; quando scil. ejus distinctio non requiritur.“ Hæc ipsa autem res, h. e. adsignificatio tem

poris, ne quis præcipuam putet, sæpissime “ reperitur neglecta, immo plane extincta.

“ Animadvertendum est, uno in commate sæpe “ diversa notari tempora, atque adeo præsens verè

paricipium posse accedere omnibus omnino pe“ riodis, in quibus etiam de præterita et futura re

agitur. QUIA”.... (Having by compulsion ad. mitted the fact, now come the shallow and shuffling pretences) “ Quia in præterita illa re,

quum gesta est, præsens fuit: et in futura, item præsens erit.

“ Recurrendum denique ad illud etiam.....pre“ sens haberi pro extremo præteriti temporis puncto, “ et primo futuri.

Advenientes dicuntur, non illi tantum qui in s itinere sunt, sed et qui jam pervenerunt in locum

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adjective, as well as the indicative mood adjective. But I deny it to be either. I deny that the present time (or any time) or any manner, is sig. Sied by that which is called (improperly) the indicative mood present tense. And therefore its proper name is merely the verb......indicative, if you plea. 2 : i. e. indicative merely of being a verb.

And in this opinion (viz. that there is no adsignification of manner or time in that which is called the indicative mood: and no adsignification of time in that which is called the present participle) I am neither new nor singular: for Sanctius both asserted and proved it by numerous instances in the Latin.

Such as,

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“ Et abfui proficiscens in Græciam.”

Cic. “ Sed postquam amans accessit pretium pollicens." Terent.

66 Ultro ad eam venies indicans te amare." Terent. “ Tum ayri inter se dimicant indurantes attritu arborum costas."

Plin. « Turnum fugientem hæc terra videbit.

Virg. In the same manner we say, • The sun rises every day in the year.” " Justice is at all times mercy.“ Truth is always one and the same from the beginning of the world to the end of it.”

Neither time nor manner is signified by the indicative in these sentences.

Again,.....“ The rising sun always gladdens the " earth."

“ Do justice, justice being at all times, mercy."

“ My argument is of no age nor country, truth being always the same, from the beginning of < the world to the end of it."

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He says.....

In rising and being (though called present participles) there is evidently here no adsignification of time.

Scaliger saw plainly the same. 6. Modus non fuit necessarius : unus enim tantum “ exigitur ob veritatem, indicativus. Cæteri autem ob commoditatem potius.”

And even Perizonius and others who maintain a contrary opinion, are compelled to acknowledge, that....“ Indicativus adhibetur ad indicandam simpliciter rem ipsam.

“ Horum autem participiorum magis promiscuus “ aliquando est usus; tum quia nomina sunt, et

sæpe adhibentur sine ullo temporis respectu aut designatione ; quando scil. ejus distinctio non requiritur.“ Hæc ipsa autem res, h. e. adsignificatio temporis, ne quis præcipuam putet, sæpissime reperitur neglecta, immo plane extincta.

" Animadvertendum est, uno in commate sæpe “ diversa notari tempora, atque adeo præsens verè paricipium posse accedere omnibus omnino

periodis, in quibus etiam de præterita et futura re “ agitur. Quia....(Having by compulsion admitted the fact, now come the shallow and shuffling pretences) Quia in præterita illa re,

quum gesta est, præsens fuit: et in futura, item præsens erit.

“ Recurrendum denique ad illud etiam,....presens haberi pro extremo præteriti temporis puncto, “ et primo futuri.

Advenientes dicuntur, non illi tantum qui in “ itinere sunt, sed et qui jam pervenerunt in locum

3 F

66

PART II.

" ad quem tendebant, et speciem advenientis adhuc 66 retinent."

Præsens....quia præsens fuit, et præsens erit !

Præsens....extremum præteriti punctum, et pri. mum futuri!

Advenientes....qui pervenerunt !

These shabby evasions are themselves sufficient argument against those who use them. A common termination (i. e. a coalesced word) like every other word, must always convey the same distinct meaning; and can only then be properly used, quando distinctio requiritur. What sort of word would that be, which, (used too with propriety) sometimes had a meaning, and sometimes had not a meaning, and sometimes a different meaning ?

Thus stands the whole matter. Case, gender, number, are no parts of the noun. But as these same circumstances frequently accompany the noun, these circumstances are signified by other words expressive of these circumstances : and in some languages these words by their perpetual use have coalesced with the noun : their separate significacation has been lost sight of (except in their proper application ;) and these words have been considered as mere artificial terminations of the noun.

So, mood, tense, number, person, are no parts of the VERB. But these same circumstances frequently accompanying the verb, are then signified by other words expressive of these circumstances : and again, in some languages, these latter words, by their perpetual recurrence, have coalesced with the verb; their separate signification has been lost sight of (except in their proper application ;) and these

words have been considered as mere artificial terminations of the VERB.

The proper application of these coalesced words, or terminations, to nouns, has been called declen. sion: and to verbs, has been called conjugation. And perhaps this arrangement and these denominations may have greatly contributed to withdraw us from a proper consideration of this matter : for we are all very apt to rest satisfied with a name, and to inquire no farther.

And thus have I given you my opinion concerning what is called the present participle. Which I think improperly so called ; because I take it to be merely the simple verb adjectived, without any adsignification of manner or time.

H. Now then let us proceed to the past participle, which you chuse to call the past tense adjective.

F. As far as relates to what is called the indicative mood, and consequently to its adjective, the participle present ; you have seen that, so far, Sanctius and I have travelled in perfect accord together. But here again I must get out at Houn. slow(). I cannot proceed with him to the exclusion of the other moods and tenses : for, in Latin, they have distinct terminations, and in English, termination and auxiliaries, signifying the circumstances

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(6) This is a political allusion; when the anthor was accused of a crime for being an advocate of reform and an enemy to parliamentary corruption ; on being questioned as to his share in the political pro-, ceedings of which the late Mr. Pitt was also a participator ; Tooke said that no doubt some reformers might wish to go as far as Windsor, but he would not accompany them beyond Hounslow. Windsor is the roya! residence ; Hounslow, a place noted for robbery and gibbets.

AMER. EDIT.

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