« VorigeDoorgaan »
Having shut itself up in its cocoon, the tained liquid will be found to be of the larva is transformed into a chrysalis. color and consistence of cream. This soft Nothing now remains of the caterpillar liquid condition of the internal structure but its head, which rests upon the top of of the insect has been particularly noticed the chrysalis. The latter is about an inch by Herold and Murray, as an index of imlong, and is considerably thicker than the portant morphological changes, carrying larva. It has the usual form of lepidop- the animal forward to its perfect state. terous pupæ, being blunt at one end, and The gentleman last mentioned finely comtapering to the other. Its color is brown, pares the process of softening to that purwhich is darker along the back. Through sued in a paper manufactory, in which the the pupa-case can be seen the tracings, as rags are first reduced to a pulp, before they it were, of the wings and other component can be made into paper. parts of the perfect insect.
In the month of May the perfect moth The larva does not always succeed in leaves its cocoon.
The head emerges ; reaching the state of a chrysalis. Indeed, this is followed by the thorax and wings, our insect may be arrested at any stage in and lastly by the abdomen. The moth is its career of development, and perish, from a quite pretty object, in its sober dress of a great variety of causes. Soon after en-deep brown and purple. The arrangetering its cocoon, it may fall a prey to the ment of the colors is such as to give it a larvæ of several species of ichneumon flies, mottled appearance. It measures more which feed upon the interior of its body, than three inches between the tips of its and entirely prevent its transformation into extended fore-wings. The female is somea pupa. In one instance which came under what larger than the male. The animal my examination, there were seven large lives but a short time, the most important white ichneumonidan larvæ within the co- event in the life of the female being the coon, which were apparently ready to enter laying of its eggs. It appears to be destithe chrysalis state. Nothing remained of tute of feeding organs, and therefore canthe original caterpillar, the rightful occu not eat. pant of the cocoon, except the skin, which We will now revert to the cocoon, as it was still green, and conspicuously display- presents several points of interest, which ing its cornua. In another case there have not as yet been noticed. How dewere nine ichneumon flies in the pupa ceptive is its appearance! Deception not state. Many cocoons which I have opened only to the birds, who, if they knew any. have been occupied by great numbers of thing of its contents, would soon be peckvery small larvæ or pupæ. Out of forty-ing away at it in order to make a luscious four cocoons which I examined ten were meal of the chrysalis ; but deceptive also infested with the progeny of ichneumon to the generality of men and women who, flies. In all these cases, I presume that as they pass along, and occasionally catch the flies deposit their eggs in the body of a glimpse of the cocoon, in its dried and the caterpillar before the latter enters its withered covering, dangling from the excocoon.
tremity of a leafless branch, little dream The larva of the spicewood moth is of what it is, and of what it contains. But liable to perish before finishing its cocoon. thus it is with almost all of nature's marIn an instance which occurred to me, the vels. Not only their features of interest, cocoon consisted of only a few loose but even their very existence, are unknown threads, and within it was a dead cater save by the ardent and inquisitive votary pillar, shriveled and faded. The cornua of science. were still visible. It had died before com There is a most important use of the pleting its tenement. The chrysalis might cocoon, which is eminently deserving of also die. Out of forty-four cocoons twenty attention. It is the agent which effects contained putrid chrysalides. We thus the expansion of the wings of the perfect perceive how few comparatively of the moth. At its upper extremity its textlarvæ of the spicewood moth ever attain ure is loose, and composed of threads conperfection.
verging somewhat like the wires to the If the chrysalis be pricked with a pin at opening of a rat-trap. The aperture thus an early period, there will flow from the formed yields to pressure from within, and puncture a clear amber-colored liquid. permits the egress of the moth, while it At a period considerably later the con- prevents the entrance even of the smallest
insect. As the moth passes out of the success, and they reported that “the harcocoon, the rim of the opening presses up vest appeared plentiful in all the villages on the abdomen, and forces the fluids into of the upper Irondequois.” The common the nervures of the wings, causing their people, they said, listened to the words full expansion. This function of the co of the Gospel with simplicity. And if coon was first pointed out by Meinecken. the chiefs had any other than a friendly I have not the least doubt of the agency regard for them and their labors, they of the cocoon in this matter, and will men cloaked it with "a well-disguised dissimtion a fact which corroborates the view ulation.” On the reception of this report which has been stated. About two years the record says: “Father Paul Raguesince, I took four large chrysalides from neau, Father Francois Du Peron, some their cocoons, and when the perfect moths Frenchmen, and several Hurons departemerged from their pupa-cases, their wings ed from Montreal on the 26th of July, were entirely unexpanded, and folded up | 1657, to aid their brethren and compaprecisely as they are during the chrysalis triots." state.
Scarcely had they settled down in their The silk spun by the spicewood moth, work when a sudden and unlooked-for from the manner of its attachment, could catastrophe befel them, which shocked not be made available for the purposes of their sensibilities and overwhelmed them
An allied species, the Bombyx with terror and dismay. The savages, Cynthia, found in India, yields a kind of instigated by a sudden impulse of their silk, which the humbler inhabitants of that inveterate hatred against the French and region make into coarse garments. An their allies, or, more probably, by a susinteresting statement upon the subject was picion that this accumulation of missionpresented to the French Academy of Sci- aries and Frenchmen among them meant ences, a few years since, by M. Milne Ed- something more than a pious care for the wards.
spiritual welfare of their souls, without
the slightest intimation of their design, SKETCHES OF COLONIAL HISTORY. fell upon and massacred the Hurons who
accompanied the missionaries, with many
of their captives whom they had before UR brief sketch of the celebrated taken of the same tribe.
After this demonstration the missionof The National, ended with his return ary fathers, and all the French and Infrom his apparently successful visit to dians who were of their party, felt no the Onondagas. In the following year, security for their lives, only in consider1655, two others, Father Joseph Chau-ation of the fact that there were at that mont and Father Claude Dablon, were time a number of Iroquois Indians desent by the Society of Jesuits at Quebec, tained among the French near Quebec, as missionaries to that post. They met on whom their friends in Canada would with a flattering reception, as they con wreak their vengeance, should the savceived, and one of them returned to ages massacre them as they had the HuQuebec to obtain additional help. Ilav rons. But even this slight ground of seing succeeded in his object, he hastened curity was dissipated by intelligence they back to the new field of his labors, accom received from one who was in the secret panied by “three fathers and two brothers of the chiefs, that they designed to subof the society, and a good number of ject them to the fate of the Hurons, whose Frenchmen," who all arrived at the place barbarous massacre they had so recently of their destination on the 11th day of witnessed, which they delayed only from July, 1655. Thus was a Catholic mis- prudential considerations. Their informsion, under the auspices of the Society of ant was sick, received baptism, and soon Jesuits at Quebec, inaugurated on soil after died. But his information was conclaimed by the Protestant government of firmed by the spirit and conduct of the Great Britain, and among a people who Indians. were claimed by that government as its In this peculiar condition the missionrightful subjects.
aries set themselves at work to devise For a time the missionaries were en some means of escape. Difficulties beset couraged with high hopes of permanent I them on every side. They communi
cated intelligence of the massacre to their settlements they were exposed to be fallen friends to Quebec. The letters sent them upon by the Indians at any moment and in return by certain Mohawks who were totally destroyed. In his report to his in the province at the time were destroyed superior Father Ragueneau says: by the treacherous savages to whom they “Notwithstanding these obstacles, which were intrusted. A messenger of the On- appeared insurmountable to them (the Indians] ondaga nation, who was sent by a govern
as well as us, God, who holds in his hands all ment officer with a communication to them, the moments of our lives, so happily inspired failed to deliver it, but rendered their having departed on the 20th of March from
us with all that was necessary to be done that, condition more perilous and perplexing by our house of St. Marie, near Onontagui, at telling the chiefs that the French were eleven o'clock at night; his Divine providence leagued principally with the Algonquins guiding us, as if by a continued miracle, in the to make war upon them. This excited Quebec on the 23d of the month of April, hav
midst of all imaginable dangers, we arrived at their subtle enemies to greater fury, and ing passed Montreal and Three Rivers before increased the alarm of the missionaries any canoe could be launched, the river not and their associates. The Onondagas, having been open for navigation until the very however, desirous to act in concert with day we made our appearance.” the Mohawks, who were incensed at the Their voyage was one of toil, suffering, detention of some of their people by the and peril. The first part of it was spent French, but feared for their safety if an in the darkness and cold of a March night open rupture occurred between themselves on the Onondaga Lake. Passing down and that nation, delayed their meditated the river, they were obliged often to be in destruction of the mission family, in the the water mingled with ice up to their armhope that the influence of Father Le pits, to proper their batteau and canoes; Moine might be employed soon to effect a to lodge at night upon the snow; and to release of the Mohawk prisoners. This carry their baggage around the rapids in gave them time to consider and devise other the river, in continued fear of assassinameans of escape. In despair of receiving tion by the Indians, who, if they discoveither intelligence or relief from Quebec, ered their departure in time, could interThree Rivers, or Montreal, they were cept them at any point and cut them off at thrown upon their own sagacity and en
a blow. ergy to extricate themselves from their The stratagem by which they contrived perilous situation. This they did by to escape, Father Ragueneau ascribed to adopting the bold resolve to leave in a the interposition of God, and their delivbody, and make the best of their way to erance to a continual miracle. How much their friends in the province, or perish in of faith and piety they exercised to sethe attempt. The latter, however, seemed cure such a special interposition of Heaven the more probable alternative. How could in their behalf may be inferred from the they hope to escape without being discov- device they adopted, and the manner of ered by the savages, who would seize the carrying it into effect. These are stated first indication of their intention to do so by Father Ragueneau as follows: as a signal to execute their bloody design “The difficulty was to embark unperceived upon them?
by the Iroquois who constantly beset us. The Preparation must be made in the pres- be conveyed without noise
, and yet without
batteau, canoe, and all the equipage could not ence of the savages for conveying more
secrecy there was nothing to be expected save than fifty men with their effects and pro a general massacre of us all the moment it visions across the Onondaga Lake down would be discovered that we entertained the the river to Lake Ontario, and over that least thought of withdrawing.
“On that account we invited all the sarJake to the St. Lawrence River. Their
ages in our neighborhood to a solemn feast, at effects must be transported from Onon- which we employed all our industry, and spared daga Hill to their place of embarkation, neither noise of drams nor instruments of probably near to where the salt-works at music to deceive them by a harmless device. the southwest end of the lake now stand, part with so much address and success that all
He who presided at this ceremony played his a distance of several miles. And it was were desirous to contribute to the public joy. at a season of the year when they had Every one vied in uttering the most piercing reason to apprehend obstructions from ice cries, now of war, anon of rejoicing. The savin the lakes and rivers, and if retarded in after the French fashion, and the French in
ages, through complaisance, sung and danced their fight before reaching the French | the Indian style. To encourage them the
more in this fine play, presents were distributed in the province of New York, which just among those who acted best their parts and two hundred years ago at this present who made the greatest noise, to drown that writing was in its highest tide of proscaused by about forty of our people outside, who were engaged in removing all our equi- perity, and strengthened by a force which page. The embarkation being complete, the it was thought would render it permafeast was concluded at a fixed time; the guests manent and successful; but within three retired, and sleep having soon overwhelmed months thereafter was dashed in pieces them, we withdrew from our house by a back door, and embarked with very little noise with like a potter's vessel. out bidding adieu to the savages, who were Father Ragueneau, who seems to have acting cunning parts, and were thinking to felt the responsibility of a chief in this amuse us to the hour of our massacre with fair early missionary enterprise among the sarappearances and evidences of good will."
ages of Western New York, speaks of its Fortunately or unfortunately for these success as a religious work in the language adventurous missionaries, this expedient of gratulation and triumph. In a commuof guile and dissimulation, which savors nication to "the Rev. Father Jaques Remore of cunning artifice than divine inspira- nault, Provincial of the Society of Jesus tion, succeeded in averting from them the in the Province of France,” he says : crown of martyrdom, which seemed sus “My Rev. FATHER, — The present is to inpended over their heads. The savages, form your reverence of our return from the exhausted by their riotous carousing and Iroquois mission, loaded with some spoils res
cued from hell. We bear in our hands more reveling at the solemn feast to which they than five hundred children and a number of were lured by the cunning device of the adults, the most of whom died after baptism, missionaries, who had come among them we have re-established faith and piety in the to teach them the way of salvation, were
hearts of a poor captive Church, the first foundsoon overcome by sleep, from which they We have proclaimed the Gospel unto all the Iro
ation of which we had laid in the Huron country. did not recover until late on the following quois nations, so that they are benceforth withday. As they had not discovered the re out excuse, and God will be fully justified moval of the canoe and batteau of the against them at the great day of judgment." missionaries, nor any sign of an intention The numerical force of this mission on their part to effect their escape, which, was such as would seem to promise effiindeed, they deemed impossible, they were cient operations. Seven Jesuit fathers, greatly surprised to find their house closed, with other subordinate members of the and no one of them on the premises. It society, and a number of Frenchmen and was thought for a time that they were baptized Indians professing the Catholic within attending prayers. But as they faith, and resolute in the propagation of did not make their appearance after a suf- it, all collected within one tribe, and exficient time had elapsed to conclude their erting their combined influence upon the devotions, they knocked at the door, and untutored pagans in the wilderness, might received no response but the barking of have been expected to produce an impresthe dogs within, which the Frenchmen sion which would result in the conversion had left for the purpose of deceiving of many from their sins and degrading folthem. Judging, from the presence of the lies, had all been imbued with the spirit dogs and other animals which were left of the apostles and primitive Christians. on the premises, that their masters were But compared with the missionary labors not far off, the day was suffered to pass of the primitive ministers of Christ, or without any particular search being made even of Eliot, and Brainerd, and Finley, for them. But, after much perplexity, and Case, and others through whose inand many superstitious conjectures re- strumentality whole tribes of American specting their mysterious disappearance, savages have been brought to abandon they were forced to a reluctant admission their wicked practices, and lead peaceable of the fact that they had made their es- and quiet lives in all godliness and honcape, perhaps to their friends in Canada, esty, this mission of the Jesuit fathers perhaps to some secluded place in the wil presents a contrast which cannot fail to derness, whence they might pounce sud- impress all rational minds with the fact denly on their village when they should that they were missionaries of an essendeem it to their advantage to do so. Such tially different type from those honored was the fate of one of the first missions servants of God, the epistles of whose of the Jesuits among the Iroquois Indians | ministry are known and read of all men.
the form of steps. Connected with the THE DYAKS.
gallery, and running along the whole length BY A PERSONAL ACQUAINTANCE OF THEIRS. of the house, there is a broad platform or
the level of the floor, upon which the DyHE Dyaks live in communities of from aks spread out their rice after harvest,
them residing in one house under the head the sun. ship of one tuah, or elder, whose influence Thus, a Dyak house is rather a singuamong them depends very much on his lar structure ; and when imbosomed, as it personal qualifications. The house in often is, among cocoa-nut, plantain, and which each community lives is an edifice other fruit-trees, forms a quietly pleasing of from fifty to a hundred yards in length, and picturesque object, suggestive of much and raised on posts eight or ten feet high. social happiness enjoyed in a simple state Its frame-work is constructed of posts of society. It awakens, moreover, ideas lashed together with split ratans; while of a higher kind, for it is a sign of the the roof and partitions are composed of presence of the all-subduing man on the altaps, a kind of thatch, so simple and confines of the jungle that is yet to fall useful as to merit a distinct description. before his ax. It is made of the leaves of the Nipu, a The materials of which these edifices palm which grows in the mud on the banks are constructed are so fragile, that they of the rivers, and differs from most other require to be rebuilt every five or six years, palms in having no trunk, being merely a and when this necessity occurs, the Dyaks, collection of fronds proceeding from one instead of erecting the new house in the root.
Each frond consists of a stem or immediate vicinity of the old one, genermid-rib, about twenty or thirty feet in ally remove to a considerable distance. length, on each side of which grow a series From the above description, it will be of leaves, two or three feet long, and two seen that a Dyak house may with more or three inches broad. To form attaps, propriety be called a village, as it is the the Dyaks cut off these leaves, and wind residence of a score or two of families them over a stick a yard long, making who live in a series of rooms under one them overlap each other, so as to become roof, and all of whom look up to one tuah, impervious to rain. They then sew or or elder, as their head. These houses are interlace them all firmly with split ratans ; sometimes in groups of two or three, but thus forming a sort of leaf-tile, at once more frequently they stand alone ; and strong and light, and well adapted for ex thus it happens that if the tribe is popucluding both sun and rain. The house is lous, it may be scattered over a very great divided longitudinally in the middle by a extent of country. partition, on one side of which is a series Besides the tuahs, there is another and of rooms, and on the other a kind of gale superior class of chiefs, called orang kaya, lery or hall, upon which the rooms open. (rich men,) grave, steady old men of good In these rooms, each of which is inhabited family, who, when young, have distinby a distinct family, the married couples guished themselves by their and children sleep; the young unmarried who, in their riper years, are regarded as women sleep in an apartment over the discreet judges in weighty matters of the room of their parents, and the young men law. Even the power of an orang kaya, in the gallery outside. In this gallery however, is extremely limited. He has likewise, which serves as a common hall, no actual authority over his followers, so their principal occupations are carried on; as to compel them to do anything against and here the planks of their war-boats, their will; his superiority is shown only in their large mats, and all their more bulky leading them to battle, and acting as a articles, are kept; and the grim trophies judge in conjunction with other chiefs. In of their wars, the scorched and blackened other respects, the chiefs have scarcely heads of their enemies, are suspended in any distinction. They work at their farms bundles. The floor is a kind of spar- and their boats as hard as their own slaves; work, composed of split palm-trunks, and they wear the same dress, and live in the raised ten or twelve feet from the ground, same manner as the rest of the community: access being given to it by a ladder, or their only token of chieftainship being the more frequently by a log of wood cut into | respect which is voluntarily accorded to