third year, when a river burst its banks, ward, with a significant hint that if he ever and deluged and destroyed nearly all that returned he might expect to be hanged. neighborhood. Absolute want now stared Fanpi, during all this time, had rarely, them in the face, and in the mere dread of if ever, had the opportunity of communi. it the daughter sickened and ied. The cating with his parents, or of receiving any second son, Fanpi by name, resolved to news from them; but about this period, a seek a living elsewhere, as others were Fokien junk arrived, having on board sevdoing ; and his parents and elder brother eral emigrants from his native district. reluctantly consented to his departure. From these people he learned that his eldFanpi embarked in a junk, which carried er brother was dead, and that his now aged him to Singapore, where he landed as poor father and mother were in great distress as it was possible for him to be. He was, and want. Many fabulous virtues have however, an industrious, persevering, in- been attributed to the Chinese ; but, gengenious young man, and he soon obtained erally, their warm filial affection has not plenty of work, and the means of improv- been exaggerated. Every true Chinaman ing himself in mechanical skill. Although holds it to be a sacred duty, not only to he never rose to a higher station than that honor his father and mother, but to toil for of packing-case maker to the English them, and support them when they can no merchants and shippers, he, in time, be longer work for themselves. Fanpi, accame possessed of a comfortable house and cordingly, told his Malay wife that he must of a considerable sum of money besides, return to the home of his fathers. She which he left to accumulate in the hands hesitated not a moment in saying that she of the worthy merchant who was his chief would go with him, and take her children. employer.

He plainly apprised her that there would Being thus comparatively affluent, Fanpi be danger, or at least the risk of danger, married a woman of the country, a young, in so doing ; since, by the laws of China, well-favored Malay, who had lived in serv- foreign women were prohibited from setice with a European family at Singapore, ting foot on the soil of the Celestial Emand had there acquired some general no- pire. The affectionate wife, however, detions of Christianity. Fanpi continued to clared that she had no fear; that life, inthrive until he had three children, and deed, would be insupportable without her three thousand hard Spanish dollars of his husband and children. Fanpi, therefore,

He had many friends in the colony, who loved her well, and who could not bear and only one known enemy. This was a the idea of leaving either wife or children Fokien man, who came from a seaport behind him, although with his means he town not far from Fanpi's district. He could have left them in a condition of commight have done well at Singapore ; but fort or even of prosperity, resolutely took he was an idle, worthless fellow, constantly a cheerful view of the whole matter. getting into scrapes and difficulties. On “ The laws of the empire,” he said, “proone occasion, to relieve him from his em- hibit, under pain of death, all emigration, barrassments, Fanpi generously lent him and yet my countrymen emigrate by thoua hundred dollars; but instead of making sands at a time; the same laws and the a proper use of the money, the Fokien same penalty stand against the introducman gambled it away at cock-fights and tion of foreign women ; and yet Chinese quail-fights, and in those horrible dens, do return to their own country, and take the opium smoking houses. This money foreign wives with them, and are allowed squandered, he repeatedly applied for to be at peace. Once free of the seaport, another loan, and was very properly re- we shall do well in my own district, which fused. Exasperated at the denial, he one is too poor to feed a single mandarin ; none night, when drunk and mad with the fumes will question or molest us there. I will of the opium pipe, violently assulted Fanpi redeem the mortgage which presses on in the streets, vowing that he was unmind- our patrimonial acres ; I will purchase ful of his country, that he was no true man more land, and hire my poorer neighbors of Fokien, and that he would have his life. to till it; we shall thrive, I trust, even in The police interfered ; and as the fellow that district; and I shall have the satishad made himself notorious by his vicious faction of succoring my father and mother, conduct and turbulent disposition, he was of closing their eyes, of interring them turned out of the colony a few days after- I among our ancestors, of dying on the spot


[graphic][merged small]

where I was born, and of being buried by found quiet and convenient lodgings in the the side of my parents.”

inner part of the populous town, where Thus reasoned Fanpi with himself, as everybody was too busy or too much occuhe engaged passage room in a return junk pied with his own pleasures to bestow a for himself, wife, and children. And all, thought upon them. But the day after no doubt, would have gone well and as he their arrival, as Fanpi was going down to wished, had it not been for the malice and the port to see to the landing of some revenge of that wicked, debauched, opium- goods which he had left in the junk, he smoking man of Fokien.

encountered the Fokien man who had Dressed as people of the country, and vowed his destruction. The fellow at once putting themselves in a boat which mixed geve him in charge to a mandarin of the with a shoal of other shore boats, Fanpi lowest grade, who exercised the functions and his family, without being challenged of a police officer, alleging, in a loud voice, or noticed, landed at the seaport, and easily I that Fanpi was a most desperate character,

who had not only broken the laws by emi- something of the precepts of the foreign grating, but who had been also actively en books.” To those whom she had consulted, gaged as a pirate ; and then finished his she said, “I will try and see this lady." charge by whispering in the mandarin's “ You cannot do better," said they ; " for ear that his prisoner was very rich. her influence over her husband is great,

The last accusation was the most fatal and has often turned him from evil-doing.” of all to poor Fanpi. He was carried to So, taking one of her children in each the house of the chief mandarin, being fol- hand, and bidding the eldest of the three lowed by his accuser. This great officer to follow her, the Malay stranger went to and administrator of justice was neither the mandarin's house, and, seating herself better nor worse than the majority of Chi- under a verandah, patiently waited in the nese mandarins. In the absence of any outer court until a female servant passed evidence, except that of a man who had by. She then rose, gave the woman a made himself notorious here, as he had small gold ring, and implored her to tell done at Singapore, and who at the moment her mistress that a distressed stranger, a was intoxicated, he would have imposed | wife and mother, from a far-distant land, some slight fine upon the returned emi- had a prayer and petition to put up to her. grant, and have let him go; but the opium In a very brief space of time, the poor smoker swore that Fanpi possessed the Malay and her children were admitted into enormous sum of 30,000 dollars; and it the inner garden of the house, and conwould have been against all precedent, as ducted to a pleasant detached pavilion, well as against his own nature and official which overhung an artificial lake. In this habits, for the sordid minister of justice to quiet apartment was the lady, and no other let such a prize escape toll-free. He ruled person. She was young, very handsome, and ordered that Fanpi should be thrown and had a most benevolent countenance. into prison, and bastinadoed on the mor All this was encouraging; and what was row, to extort a confession of his guilt. yet more so, was a little book of devotion

The arrest made little or no noise in which she held in her hand, and which the the town, being a matter of such common poor Malay knew to be of the sort disoccurrence; but, happily, the news reached tributed by the Christian missionaries. the Malay wife as she was wondering at She would have prostrated herself to kiss Fanpi's long absence. Being naturally a the lady's feet, but was prevented, and shrewd woman, and having learned much was gently told to relate her misfortunes. during her service at Singapore, Mrs. While she did this, the lady caressed the Fanpi went quietly and cautiously to work, children, who at first stood in great awe and, first of all, she hid the bags which and fear of her. contained her husband's money in the gar Fanpi's wife told her tale well and even den of the house where they had procured eloquently, as people mostly do when they lodging. She then made inquiries of the speak from the heart. Having insisted people of the house, and of some of the that her husband was an upright and honest most respectable of their neighbors, as to man, without offense or blame, except that, the character of the chief mandarin. They like so many others, he had emigrated to said that he was much like all other man avoid starvation, and had returned to sucdarins, excessively venal and rapacious, cor his starving parents, she said : “ If the and apt to be very cruel where he could law be against me, let me suffer, but let not attain his ends by gentler means. But

my husband go free ; for what could I do they all spoke with affection, respect, and but follow my husband wherever he might almost reverence, of the mandarin's wife, go? Lady, make the case your own! who was well known by her gentleness, Would you not rather brave danger than be her acts of charity, and especially by her parted from your husband and children?" dispensing of healing Frangi medicines to The tears stood in the lady's eyes, and the afflicted poor.

a redness came to her pale cheek, as she From the last circumstance, the Malay said, “I would rather face sudden death wife concluded that the lady must have than do it." had friendship with some of the European She then inquired what money Fanpi or American missionaries. “If,” thought might really have brought back with him, she, “the mandarin's wife knows the virtue well knowing that the mandarin's greed of those foreign drugs, she may know I must, in some measure, be satisfied.

Vol. XI.-34

your hand.”

The first impulse of the Malay was to THE COPPERAS WORKS OF VERMONT. state that they had only three hundred dollars; but the lady's tone and manner, and


very exa something working in her own bosom, tensively in manufactures, especially made her declare the true sum—three in dying black, making ink, and also in thousand dollars.

medicine as a tonic. It sometimes goes “ You are sure you tell me the truth," by the name of green vitriol, but more said the lady ; “but do you know what commonly by that of copperas. The latter truth is ?"

name would seem to indicate that cop" It is little known among my country- peras was a principal ingredient in it, men or country women,” said the Malay. the word itself properly meaning copper

“Or among mine," sighed the lady. rust. But there is no copper at all in it,

“But,” resumed the Malay, “I have The name probably arose from the fact learned something of truth from the distrib- that there are three vitriols, the green, blue, uters of books like that which you hold in and white, the bases of which respectively

are iron, copper, and zinc. The common “Ah!" said the lady,“ is it so ? Then term for the second became in time a am I more than ever disposed to serve you. synonym for vitriol, and by one of the My lord is a kind husband to me; he is strange freaks of language is now connot a bad man, but—he is a mandarin. fined to the most abundant of the vitriols, Something you will have to pay on these the sulphate of iron. The copperas of three thousand crowns; but fear not for the commerce is obtained principally from rest of your treasure, or for your husband's iron pyrites, a very abundant mineral, and liberty and safety, or for your own. These very easily worked. A great deal of our old laws are infringed every day, and no copperas is manufactured in Great Britone knows it better than the master of ain, where it is obtained at a cheap rate, this house. Wait here while I go speak and brought over sometimes as ballast in with him.”

ships. She was not gone long, although it The only place in America where this seemed a very long time to the impatient article is at present manufactured is in the wife. On her return, she re-entered the town of Strafford, Orange County, Verpavilion with a smiling countenance, and mont. The deposite is a vast ridge called said : “Stranger, be comforted; all has Copperas Hill," situated in the southgone well ; that wicked opium-smoker western corner of the town, and is apshall rue his malice, and Fanpi shall go parently inexhaustible. The rock conforth from the prison not very much the tains, besides sulphuret of iron, considerable worse for having been in it. Keep the quantities of the sulphuret of copper, (from children silent, and follow me.”

which excellent copper is obtained,) also She led her into the presence of her smoky quartz, hornblende, garnet, etc. husband, who received her more courte- | The solid rock has a “cop," as the miously than she believed he would, and ners call it, of petrified vegetable subdirected her to tell him the truth, and how stances, extending to various depths, and much money her husband really possessed. furnishing some curious fossils. She told him her sorrowing tale, which The process of obtaining the copperas 80 much impressed him that he ordered is somewhat as follows: The rock is first Fanpi's liberation, and immediately had blasted with powder, great fragments bethe Fokien man arrested, whom he had ing thus loosened and thrown up. The severely whipped, and afterward cast into large pieces are then broken up with prison.

sledges and drawn off to convenient places. The mandarin refused to accept any. It is now further broken. Then comes the thing from Fanpi, and he, with his noble “sorting,” the mineral containing the copwife, took their leave of their deliverers peras being thrown into one pile, that conwith feelings of the kindest love and grat- taining the copper into another, while that itude. Fanpi, and Mrs. Fanpi, still live, which contains neither is wholly rejected. and both have done good service in prop- This is attended to by men and boys with agating the faith among their ignorant small stone hammers, examining the ores friends and relations. Truth, in the end, carefully, and being themselves examined must always triumph.

in turn, as it is a very easy thing to slight

the work. The sulphuret of copper is evaporation consists of large shallow lead conveyed away in carts to be smelted, boilers set in fire ranges or arches, (as roasted, etc. The sulphuret of iron is they are sometimes called,) and coolers pulverized and thrown into large heaps. or crystallizers of the same material. Water is conveyed to it, and combustion The reason why lead is used is because takes place, usually spontaneously by the it is the available metal which will withavidity with which the mineral, when stand the action of the liquid. A modermoist, absorbs oxygen from the air; some- ate fire is kept up under the boiler till the times, however, it is necessary to set it on liquor reaches the proper consistency, fire. In this way it burns for several when it is drawn off into the coolers, where weeks, a great chemical change being the sulphate crystallizes and is separated produced, the oxygen of the atmosphere from the liquor, the latter being pumped uniting with the sulphur of the mineral back to undergo further evaporation. forming sulphuric acid, which uniting The salt attaches itself to the sides and with the iron forms the sulphate of iron bottom of the cooler, and also to sundry or copperas. Considerable sulphur is wooden slats which are let down from driven off during the oxydation, impreg- | joists resting on top of the vat. The nating the air with its peculiar odor some- crystals when first formed are of a beautitimes for miles round. I do not know ful sea-green color, and in the shape of that it is particularly unhealthy, and peo- delicate rhomboidal prisms. The color ple soon become accustomed to it, though and shape, however, soon become changed very unpleasant at first. Formerly the by exposure to the air. atmosphere was so thoroughly impreg- I am not positively informed as to the nated with sulphur that it destroyed veg- time when this deposit first began to be etation, and scarcely any green thing grew worked, but I think it was more than fifty in the immediate vicinity ; but I learn years ago. It was discovered by accident. that the combustion is at present allowed Some of the farmers engaged in the rude to proceed more naturally and moderately, process of manufacturing maple sugar, saw, and the unpleasant odor is in consequence where a sap trough had been overturned, very much diminished.

an appearance of fire, the moisture having At the cessation of the combustion the produced spontaneous combustion in the heaps consist of crude sulphate of iron, slight pulverization on the top of the rock, mixed, of course, with many impurities. resulting in a vitriol-like formation. The This salt, however, is soluble in water, attention of scientific men was called to and hence is now subjected to the leaching the spot. The nature of the deposit was process. Springs abound all over the ascertained, and the manufacture soon hill; the water is easily conveyed to the after commenced by individual enterprise. heaps, and, percolating through every The business, however, was not very part, carries along with it the substance profitable till taken hold of by some gensought. The liquor thus obtained is col- tlemen in Boston and a company formed. lected in spouts and gutters, and conveyed Great improvements have been made from to reservoirs near the “ factories," large time to time, so that at present the same buildings provided with all the facilities amount of copperas can be obtained by the for evaporation. On the way to the labor of ten or fifteen hands as was forfactories there are some very simple and merly produced by forty or fifty. For the efficient arrangements to induce a natural last few years from twelve to fifteen hunevaporation. These consist of several dred tons have been made annually. The tall wooden frames, each supporting sev- supply is apparently inexhaustible, and if eral galleries of brush, so situated, the there were no other deposit in the world, declivity of the hill favoring it, that the this would probably be all-sufficient for liquor can be conveyed to the top of the ages to come. frames and made to pass over and through The

copper mine is now worked to some all the galleries of brush, and thus to profit, though when first commenced it cover a large surface exposed to the ac- was a losing operation. Both the copperas tion of the atmosphere, and to present and copper works are under the superinitself at the factories in a much more con- tendence of John Reynolds, Esq., to whom centrated condition than it otherwise I am indebted for information respecting would. The apparatus in the factories for the subject of this paper.

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