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Farm Work.- October is a busy and important " hold on" anything there just now, or to find month to the farmer. Our limits only allow us anything to "hold on.” This disease has thus a brief allusion to some of the most important far completely baffled every effort to ascertain operations, though we have articles prepared in its cause, and nearly all remedies have proved detail. On the first appearance of frost, all alike fruitless. The best plan we know is to tender roots should be stored, and preparations spread them out and expose them to the light, made for those that are more hardy. We are carefully separating the good from the bad; convinced that all roots keep best in a good (no doubt this would answer equally well for cellar; but few farmers have cellar room for a the Wall-street “rot;") in some cases a little moiety of their roots, and they must conse
air-slacked lime dusted over them has acted quently be stored out of doors. For this pur- beneficially, but the decaying tubers must be pose a dry spot should be selected, and the daily removed. With our present knowledge earth thrown up from the trenches so as to of the disease and its cause, our remedies must throw off the water. Proper ventilation must partake of an uncertain character. also be provided for. Parsnips that are not wanted for winter use will keep best where they How to keep Celery during the Winter.-In our are grown. Turnips and carrots can remain in last we gave directions for earthing or blanchthe ground until frosts become severe, and they ing celery; we now purpose making some sugwill continue to grow. Plans should be ma- gestions as to the best mode of keeping it for tured for laying out orchards and transplanting use during the winter. If simply protecting it deciduous trees and shrubs. The matter of from the cold of winter were the sole object, planting fruit trees is one of the first importance that could be easily attained; what we want to to the farmer. He can make no better invest- accomplish is to place it in such condition that ment of his means. The planting should be it can be readily got at for daily use during the done in the most careful manner, and the kinds winter. There are several ways of doing this, of fruit, and their varieties, selected with the the best of which we shall describe. If the best judgment, both in reference to the wants plants are grown in beds, much trouble is sared, of the family, and the demands of the market since there is thus no necessity for lifting the nearest at hand. Make suitable and careful plants; this, however, is seldom or never done; provision for the comfort and well-being of your indeed, very few know that celery can be so stock during the winter. Let not the dumb grown. When grown in trenches, it is necesanimals that minister faithfully to your wants sary to lift the plants, and this should be done and pleasure suffer unnecessarily from exposure without shaking the earth from the roots. Se. to the severity of the weather. If you cannot lect a spot conveniently near to the house, and provide proper shelter for them, pass them along prepare a bed as follows: Dig out the earth to somebody who can. We have often had our about two spades deep, and of any convenient pity moved at the sight of some poor animal width; then lift the plants from the trenches turned out night and day to feed on husks dur- with the earth adhering to the roots, and put ing the bitter cold of winter, without so much in a row, with some three or four inches beas a board to shelter him; and our heart has tween each plant, throwing some earth against been equally moved with indignation at the them, as you proceed, to keep them in place ; " brute” within sitting by his blazing fire. Of having completed one row, proceed with another the two, we have thought we would rather be about six inches from the first, and so on till the " animal.”
the plants are all in, filling in the earth to the
tops of the plants as you go along. While The Potato Rot.–From all sections of the bedding them each plant shonld be well drawn country we hear of the ravages of the rot. together to keep the earth from the crown. Probably more than half the crop of the whole When the plants are all in, the bed should be country will be an entire loss. In a ride of covered with a thick coat of coarse manure, nearly two hundred miles we saw but one patch straw, hay, or litter of any kind ; manure, howthat was not more or less affected; and in the ever, is best, owing to its superior warmth, and majority of cases that we had an opportunity the greater ease with which it is removed of examining, there were not as many sound during winter. The bed may be made of less potatoes as would pay for the labor of digging depth than recommended above, but the plants them. Those planted late are most affected, as are not so sure to keep well when the bed is has always been the case heretofore. The les made too shallow; no person, however, will beson to be drawn from this fact is to plant early. grudge a little trouble to have this delicious Farmers who have dug their potatoes (many vegetable in perfection during the winter. have not attempted to do so) have been selling Celery will keep very well during the winter them for almost any price they could get lest in a cool cellar, if buried in sand in the manthey should rot on their hands and prove an ner described above; but it will not be necescntire loss; potatoes, consequently, are now sary to cover the tops of the plants; they may, very cheap, but they will be dear enough before however, be placed much closer together. Our another season rolls round. Unless the disease practice, during very cold weather, is to dig has manifested itself decidedly, we think our enough for several days' use, and lay it on the friends would do well to "hold on," as they cellar floor. It should not lay too long, or it say in Wall-street, though it is pretty hard to will wilt and lose its flavor. Having said thus
much about keeping celery, we shall venture to should be gathered and carried to the compost add a word about eating it, or rather preparing heap. it to be eaten, which few persons really know anything about. We have to remark, first, that Winter Pears. These should be left on the celery is not grown for ornamental purposes ; trees until there is danger of frost, in order hence it should not be curled and frizzled like that they may mature as fully as possible; the hair of a vain young miss dressed for a ball; when picked too soon they are apt to shrivel on the contrary, let it be placed on the table and ripen off badly. Put them away in a cool in its plain native simplicity. Cut off the root dry place, where they will be free alike from close up to the crown; the stalks will then frost and fire heat. There they will keep well break away readily; put them in clean water, until our next number appears, when we shall and wash them thoroughly; the outside stalks devote an article to their winter treatment and should be thrown away, using none but those ripening, a somewhat complicated subject, for that are solid and well blanched; and, as inti which we have no room at present. mated above, avoid splitting and curling the stalks. The green leaves boiled in soup impart Gathering Fruit.-Much fruit is injured every to it a delicious flavor, and will generally be season, and its value lessened by carelessness in preferred to parsley.
gathering. Fruit carefully gathered by hand
will hot only keep longer, but, as it looks much Vinegar from Beets.—We find, in an exchange, better than when bruised by rough handling, directions for making vinegar from beets. We will always sell more readily and at a higher have not tried it, but it strikes us that excellent price. A little care and neatness in selecting vinegar might be made in this way. We know and putting up fruit for market is by no means that much of the vinegar purchased at stores labor lost. Any one will pay more for a neatly is vilely adulterated, and we regard favorably arranged basket of fruit than for the same careany plan which will enable us to obtain a sup-lessly thrown together. A few decaying speciply of the pure article for domestic use. If mens will not only injure the sale, but often our readers should not succeed with the beet, really injures and sometimes destroys the we then recommend them to procure the “Vin- whole. egar Plant;" with this we know they can make a good article at a very small cost. The “ Vin
THE WORLD AT LARGE. egar Plant” is not easily obtained, but we have a few which we can spare, and will part with
A map of busy life,
Its fluctnations and its vast concerns.-CowPER. them to such of our readers as will furnish us with the name of at least one new subscriber. The following is the method of making vinegar
The Atlantio Telegraph has temporarily failed.
On the morning of the 11th of August, when threo from beets:
hundred and thirty-five miles from the Irish coast, and
while the " Niagara" was proceeding at the rate of four “ The juice of one bushel of sugar beets, worth twenty-five cents, and which any farmer can raise
miles an hour, the brakes were applied in order to with little cost, will make from five to six gallons of
lessen the speed of paying out, and the cable parted
somo distance from the stern of the ship. The televinegar equal to the best elder wine. First wash and grate the beets, and express the juice in a cheese press,
graph squairon returned to Plymouth, where they
were to rendezvous. There still remained over two or in any other way which a little ingenuity can suggest, and put the liquor into a barrel, cover the bung
thousand miles of cable, sufficient to unite the two
continents, and the experiments made fully satisfied with gauze and set it in the sun, and in fifteen or twenty days it wi be fit for use.
all who took part in them of the practicability of the By this method the
enterprise. Mrs. Cunningham Burdell, it is very best of vinegar may be obtained withont any great trouble, and I hope all who like good vinegar fully related her autobiography will be one of the
said, is about to write a history of her life. If truthwill try it."
most astounding ever given to the world. ... A Na
tional Emancipation Convention assembled at CleveManure.—A late number of the American Agri- land, Ohio, on the 26th of August. It was numerously culturist
attended, and Rev. Dr. Hopkins, of Massachusetts, was
chosen president. They discussed, among other the value of muck and swamp mud as fertilizers
things, the appropriation of the public lands and tho for all crops, and on all soils not well supplied revenue from the customs beyond the expenses of the with organic matter, and especially of the great government, to the compensation of slaveholders. utility of mixing it in large quantities with the
The American Association for the Advancement of
Science held its session at Montreal, Canada. yard manure, but we cannot return to this topic opened on the 12th of August, and adjourned on the too often. If we accomplish nothing else than 19th. Professor Caswell presided. . . Tho Metropol. to stir up farmers to appropriate to their fields
itan Church at Washington, District of Columbia, for
which a great deal of money was collected in the a moiety of the rich stores of organic matter
Northern States, is said by a leiter-writer in the Northnow lying useless in the swamps, swales, and western Christian Adrocate to be “undoubtedly a low spots, we shall not labor in vain. All these failure; at least," says the writer, “it is unknown here,"
that is, in Washington. black earths are the remains of plants, and, as
A monument to the memory of the late Dr. Woods we have formerly shown, they furnish just the of Andover has been erected by the alumni of the elements to nourish other plants of every kind. theological seminary at a cost of over five hundred If not already attended to, noio is the time to
dollars. It has this inscription: In reverent remedl
brance of the pious care, patience, skill, learning, and dig out and pile ap large stores of these ma wisdom of their instructor, friend, and counselor, his af. terials, before the ground is filled with water. fectionate pupils place here this stone. . . The Evangela The carting to yards and fields can be done at
ist, from an examination into the facts of the case, makes
it appear that, as a matter of history, Congregationalism leisure, in the later autumn or winter months.
has no greater strength in this city than it had eight Remember that one load of manure and two or ten years ago. The Independent returns the comloads of muck are better than two loads of ma pliment, and by an examination of the statistics of the bure not so treated." As autumn advances
New School Presbyterians reaches the conclusion that,
"even including the Mission Churches for foreigners, and the leaves begin to fall in the woods, they | the bistory of "he New School Presbyterian Church in
New York for the past eight years shows a net loss of Russia, and Sardinia have suspended diplomatic rels. trou churches, and it net lov8 of 902 members in all the tions with her, until she will consent to annul the rechurches; namely, in 1849, whole number, 7,430; in cent elections in the Danubian principalities and order 1857, whole number, 6,528." The Southern Aid new ones; and it is said that England advises her to Society has issued a circular calling for funds, on the inake the concession, A conference of the five powers ground that the Gospel seems to be more decidedly is to be held on the subject. . . . Spain, after having owned of God at the South than at the North, there accepted the good offices of England and France for being more orthodox conversions in southern than in the settlement of her dispute with Mexico, bas notified northern churches, ... The Erie Railroad bas laid those powers that she can no longer consent to their down a few miles of road with iron superstructure or negotiating the matter, and it is probable that she will roadway. It requires no bolts or spikes of any kind; yet go to war with Mexico. It is said that the governand it may be taken from the furnace and adjusted ment of Madrid has been plainly apprised that in such upon the road with less labor and expense than is a case neither England nor France will render any asusually required to lay the ordinary woolen sleepers. sistance for the defense of Cuba, the loss of which This iron casting is imbedded in the ground on stone, would be an almost inevitable consequence of war with or a similar solid foundation, where it is secure from Mexico. Twenty-five thousand troops have been or frost and other disturbing causes The rails rest upon
dered there from Madrid. ... The popular mind in India rubber springs, which deaden the noise of a the Italian states is restless and unquiet. In Genoa ? train, and at the same time ease off those heavy blows futile attempt at insurrection had been made at the and shocks of the engines and cars while running, thus instigation of Mazzini and his co-refugees in London. diminishing their wear and tear.
The Assasination of the Emperor of France was to be The last number of THE NATIONAL mentioned & consentaneous with the ontbreak at Genos, but was serious revolt among the natire troops in British In frustrated by the vigilance of the Paris police. Three dia, and it ras predicted that the accounts then re Italians, who had been hired by Mazzini for the ceived revealed but the commencement of the diffi pose, had been arrested, tried, and condemned to long culty. Later accounts confirm the prediction. Advices imprisonment. The confession of the criminals and have been received up to the 24th of June, and they correspondence found in their possession clearly implishow a much more extended mutiny than previous cated Mazzini and some of his companions in having accounts had indicated. Upward of eighty native employed and paid them. ... Russia is earnestly regiments, infantry and cavalry, had revolted, or been urging a claim to again anchor her fleet in the Black disarmed and disbanded as no longer trustworthy. A Sea. General Conchacaptain-general of Cuban report that the city of Delhi, the stronghold of the in has been recalled to Madrid, and Marshal Serrano has surgents, had been carried by storm was in circulation, been appointed in his stead. The boundary difti. but was not generally believed. It was not taken on culties between Nicaragua and Costa Rica have been the 27th of June, the date of the latest accounts through settled by those two governments on terms mutually known and regular channels. But on the 8th of June satisfactory. Costa Rica is to have the north bank of a strong position of the mutineers outside of the city the San Juan River, and Nicaragua the south between walls was carried by assault, which probably was the
Castillo and Salmas Bay. An important report foundation of the rumor in question. On the morning has just emanated from the committee appointed by of June 17 General Barnard still lay before the city, the Parliament of England to inquire into the expewaiting re-enforcements, which were proceedng tbither diency or otherwise of renewing the charter of the by forced marches, At the latest intelligence from Hudson's Bay Company, As the chairman of this IndiaDelhi was still in possession of the insurgents. committee is a member of the present administration,
The city of Delhi is situated on the River Jumna, it is to be inferred that the recommendations and sug. and is the depot of communication between Cabul and gestions of the committee are in accordance with the Cashmere and India. It is about seven miles in cir. views of the government. It is proposed that Canada cumference, is entered by eleven gates, and has a shall be permitted to annex the Red River settlement strong wall on three sides, mounted with cannon. It and the fertile valleys of the Saskatchewan as soon as contains an English Church, and a college managed by she desires to do so, and can give assurance of her a joint committee of natives and Europeans. The ro power to maintain anthority there. So also with re. capture of the city from the natives is probably only gard to territory lying still beyond those named. Van& matter of time.
couver's Island is to be detached from the authority The most horrible barharities were practiced upon of the company as speedily as possible, and it and the European women and children at most of the points adjacent territory west of the Rocky Mountains are to where the troops revolted. At Delbi the mission be formed into a new colony. At least such we supestablishment of the Church of England was broken pose to be the committee's recommendation, though, up, and all but one of the missionaries fell victims to from some ambiguity in the committee's language, it the popular fury. Several missionaries of the London is uncertain whether they may not be added to Canada Missionary Society in various districts becaine mar The hunting grounds of the company and the monoptyrs, and others narrowly escaped with tlieir lives. oly of the fur trade are to remain with the company The Rev. Mr. Butler, superintendent of the mission for another term of years. of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the call of the The English papers announce the death of Dr. commandant of his district, left his station barely in Thomas Dick, the well-known author of the “Christian time to escape a general massacre which followed. A Philosopher," and other works that have had a wide conspiracy had been discovered in Calcutta. The and beneficial intluence; and of Dr. Blomfield, ex. ex-king of Oude and some members of his family, it is bishop of London; and the French papers the death alleged, were implicated, and were arrested. The re of Eugene Sue, the novelist; and Beranger, the poet volt, indeed, does not appear to have a military char and soug writer. acter exclusively, but to be political and national also. A work has appeared in London, entitled "Burning It is almost as much a rebellion as a mutiny, and the tho Dead; or, Urn Sepulture Religiously, Socially, and immense efforts which the English government and Generally considered: with Suggestions for a Revival the East India Company are making to meet the of the Practice, as a Sanitary Measure. By a Member einergency sufficiently shows the magnitude and im of the Royal College of Surgeons." The Paris Academy portance of the crisis. The government has asked and of Medicine has again set the papers to writing and the obtained permission from Parliament to call out the people to thinking ear stly of the revival of the pracmilitia of the kingdom during the recess of Parliament tice of buruing the dead. They say that in the sumif their services are needed.
mer time the Parisian hospitals are crowded by the Lord Elgin, the British special embassador to China, victims of pestilence engendered by the foul air of the bad arrived at Hong-Kong. He had determined to send graveyards in the neighborhood. The vicinity of the all the troops ordered for China direct to Calcutta. The cemeteries is a constant source of mortality; their British Admiral (Seymour) at Canton had made three putrid emanations filling the air, and the poison they Siccessful attacks upon the Chinese fleet of war junks. emit impregnating the waters, are held chargeable for The engagements took place on the 25th and 27th of the many new and fearful diseases of the throat and May and the 1st of June, respectively. The Chinese lungs which baffle all modical skill. ... The English fought with much courage and skill, but were totally Wesleyan Conference commenced its sessions at Livdefented, with comparatively a small loss to the English.erpool on the last Wednesday in July. The Rev. The latter, however, no longer speak of the Chinese as Francis A. West was chosen president, and the Rev. timid barbarians, incapable of prolonged and effective Dr. Hannah secretary. On the 7th of August the fighting. . It is reported that Persia, since the United States frigate "Niagara" and Her British MaIndian revolt, has refused to evacuate Herat, which jesty's ship “Agamemnon" commenced laying the the late treaty of peace with England required her to Atlantic telegraph cable in the bed of the ocean, the do. ... Turkey has beon made to feel that the Eu Niagara taking the lead. The failure of the expedition ropean powers are her masters. France, Prussia, we have alluded to above.
THE VALLEY OF THE NAUGATU C K.
New, can boast of a greater degree of greatly narrowed, and on the left of the
of the Housatonic; corresponding with this, merce of Derby was very considerable ; at on the opposite side of the village, is the one period it exceeded that of New Haven. Naugatuck River.
The people of Derby date the decline in Derby boasts an antiquity greater than their commerce to the building of the any other town of the Naugatuck Valley. Washington bridge at Stratford. As early as 1653, Governor Goodyear and In 1824 the first steamboat was placed others in New Haven purchased a con upon this route, the “General Lafayette," siderable tract at this place. The settle- running between Derby and New York. ment was commenced the following year; This was before the commencement of this was twenty-three years before the steam navigation between Bridgeport and settlement of Waterbury. The original New York. The General Lafayette" name of Derby was Paugasset.
was succeeded by the “Housatonic," The year succeeding the settlement the which was hauled off on account of the inhabitants presented a petition to the obstructions of the drawbridge. From general court of New Haven for the priv. this period to the present steamboats have ileges of a distinct town. This petition from time to time plyed upon these waters. was granted by the court, and also per Returning to the earlier history of the mission to purchase a considerable addi- Valley of the Naugatuck, its lower portion, tional tract. The inhabitants of Milford as well as the banks of the Housatonic were greatly dissatisfied with this proced- near its junction with the Naugatuck, were ure, as Paugasset had been a part of that favorite haunts of the aborigines. The town from its first settlement. Trumbull, relics scattered thickly over this region in his “ History of Connecticut,” says: are, perhaps, of as ancient origin as any to “ They therefore remonstrated against the
be found in the country. A few years doings of the court at its next session, and in- since specimens of pottery were found duced that body to reconsider its vote, at least deeply imbedded in the earth, which showed so far as to order that Paugasset should remain evidence of skill in manufacture unknown a part of Milford, unless the respective parties should mutually consent to have the act of in to the Indians who existed here at the corporation go into effect.
period of the settlement of this valley. “In 1657 and 1659 a further purchase was Within the bounds of the original settlemade of the chief sagamores, We-ta-na-mow and ment of Derby was a mound or hill, which Ras-ke-nu-te, and the purchase was afterward confirmed by the chief sachem, Okenuck."
contained a number of graves marked with
rude stones placed at the head and feet; The settlement seems to have continued some were of ordinary length, others of alvery small up to the year 1675, when, upon most gigantic size. No tradition could be a second application for town privileges, gathered respecting them, except that Paugasset was represented as numbering ** Indians were buried there ;" and they but twelve families, and that about the were supposed to be the remains of some same number were intending to remove long departed tribe, who, from their method there. The settlers had made at this time of placing their memorial stones, must a provision for the support of the Gospel, have been acquainted in some degree with having procured a minister and built a the customs of the white men. house for him. Upon this renewed appli Mr. De Forest, in his “ History of the cation the assembly granted them the privi- Indians of Connecticut,” designates the leges of a town, and it was called Derby. tribe who occupied the northern part of Birmingham and Ansonia are parishes of the original town of Derby, as the “NaugaDerby.
tuck Indians." Below the confluence of The antiquated appearance of the parent the Naugatuck River with the Housatonic, town, with its quaint old store-houses and the Indians living upon the borders of the other edifices, presents a striking contrast stream were known as the Paugussetts or to its youthful and vigorous offspring. Wepawaugs. The last sachem of this The illustration exhibits the greater part tribe was Konckapotanauh, who died at of the village known as Derby proper. his home, in Derby, about the year 1731. The river is navigable to the landing here Mr. De Forest says: for vessels of about eighty tons, there being ten feet of water.
• For the facts contained in the last two From the war of the Revolution to the paragraphs, I am indebted to Dr. T. A. Duttos early part of the present century, the com and Mrs. E. Stone.