Dr. Davidson says that one hundred of the later, cursive, MSS. contain it. Among these the more interesting is the Codex Leicestrensis, so called from the town, Leicester, to the council of which it belongs, which was written probably about the fourteenth century. In this codex, however, the Apocalypse is defective, extending only to the middle of ch. xix. Another is the codex known as No. 38 of the Apocalypse (Cod. Vat. 579), which is of “ peculiar merit for the close adherence to ancient authorities which it displays,” and which was written about the thirteenth century, and in which the Apocalypse is complete. The third is the Codex Montfortianus, so called from Dr. Montfort, one of its more recent possessors, in which the Apocalypse is evidently copied from Cod. Leicestrensis, and the chief value of which, consequently, is the supplying of the portions which are deficient in the original from which it was transcribed. This codex exhibits the work of three, or perhaps even more, copyists, and the date assigned to the copy of the Apocalypse is about the sixteenth century.

Passing to the Versions in which the Apocalypse is found, Dr. Tregelles says “there exists no MS. simply containing the old Latin (Ante-Hieronymian) version : the citations of Primasius in a great measure supply the want of such a copy, as they comprise the greater part of that book.” The Primasius here referred to is he of Adrumentum, who flourished in the sixth century, and who wrote, among other works, a "Mystical exposition of the Apocalypse," based, as it would appear, on the old Latin version, rather than on that which had been by Jerome, which last named had to encounter long-continued and bitter jealousy and violent opposition. It was not until the end of the sixth century, nearly two hundred years after Jerome's valuable recension was made, that his version, the Vulgate, had thoroughly established itself in the West. As might be expected, the Apocalypse is found in many of the older MSS. of the Latin Vulgate. Neither the Apocalypse, the Catholic Epistles, nor the history of the woman taken in adultery, John viii. 1-11, is found in the Peshito, the early Syriac version. It is questionable whether the Apocalypse was contained in the Philoxenian Syriac, written about 508 A.D., or whether it was embodied in the recension of this version made by Thomas of Harkel, a century later. The earliest Syriac version of the Apocalypse now known is a copy made by “ Caspar from the land of the Indians," about 1580 A. D., and which, it is supposed by Dr. Davidson and some others, may probably have been copied from the recension of Thomas


of Harkel. On this point, however, Alder, Tregelles, and others assert the negative. All that can here be said is that the ablest crities are not agreed. They all concur in ascribing to this version very little critical value. No fragments of either of the three Egyptian versions containing the Apocalypse have come down to us. The same must be said as to the Gothic version, and also as to the early Armenian, that made in the middle of the seventeenth century being, of course, a mere echo of the Latin. The early Æthiopic version, in the dialect of Axum, is equally barren for the critical student of the Apocalypse. The Arabic versions are too modern to afford any valuable help. My object in mentioning these facts is to show that very great importance, in a critical point of view, must attach to the two ancient codices which are cited below.

The absence of many ancient documents containing this book may prevent critics from disputing the text, but it need not at all affect our conviction that the book rightly forms a portion of the inspired Word of God. Even on the ground of external evidence alone the proof is sufficient to satisfy any thoughtful mind. As Sir Isaac Newton remarked, there is no other book of the New Testament so strongly attested, or commented on so early. The attacks made upon it in the fourth century, and in later times by Michaelis and Dr. Less on critical grounds, have been quite unable to shake the reverence with which it is properly regarded. Papias, Justin Martyr, Melito, Irenæus, Theo

. philus of Antioch, Appollonius, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian, in the second century either quote, refer to, comment upon, or speak of this book as undoubtedly inspired. The churches of Sardis, Smyrna, Laodicea, and Ephesus, four of the seven churches therein referred to, certainly held the book to be a portion of the Word of God; for it is interesting to notice that this evidence of the second century is intimately connected with these four churches,-Papias being bishop of Hierapolis, near Laodicea ; Justin Martyr cites the book in his disputation with Trypho held at Ephesus (A.D. 140), Melito was bishop of Sardis (A.D. 177), and he wrote a commentary on the book, and Irenæus, the bishop of Lyons in Gaul (A.D. 178) was personally acquainted with Polycarp, the discipline of John, and bishop of Smyrna, and he repeatedly quotes this book as “the Revelation of John, the disciple of the Lord.”

In the third century, Origen, Hippolytus, the disciple of Irenæus, Cyprian and the African churches, the presbyters of the Western Church, a string of Latin authors cited by Dr. Lardner, the Novatians, an


anonymous writer against the Novatians, Commodian, Victorinus, the writer of a poem against the Marcionites, Methodius, the Manicheans, the later Arnobius, the Donatists, Lactantius, and the Arians all accepted the book as a part of the Scriptures. Some quoted, some commented on, all received it. In the fourth century, Jerome and the Fathers of the Western Churches universally accepted it: it is supported, says Dr. Woodhouse, by testimonies from Athanasius, Basil, Epiphanius, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzen, all eminent Fathers of the Greek Church, among which there were, however, a few who rejected “the authority of the ancients," and denied or questioned the canonicity of the book. “The Apocalypse," says Bishop Tomline, “is omitted in the catalogues of canonical books formed by Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem (A.D. 340), and by the council of Laodicea (A.D. 364), and in one or two other early catalogues of the Scriptures; but this omission was probably owing, not to any suspicion concerning its authenticity or genuineness, but because its obscurity and mysteriousness were thought to render it less fit to be read publicly and generally.” Dr. Horne and Tregelles, however, find another, and perhaps more probable, reason, viz., the discussions which sprang up in Egypt in the end of the third century relative to the Millennium, &c., which were grounded on this book; “ which notions the opponents injudiciously and presumptuously endeavoured to discredit, by denying the authority of the book itself.” In any case, the doubts of a few in the end of the third and the beginning of the fourth centuries can in no wise outbalance the mass of evidence furnished by the previous centuries of its acceptance.

To the external evidence in favour of the authority of the Apocalypse may justly be added the name of Swedenborg, in the eighteenth century, who, from different, and indeed higher grounds than any

of the Fathers, has set to his seal on the book, as containing a serial and orderly spiritual sense, capable of being interpreted by the Science of Correspondences, and thus as being inspired. The testimony of Swedenborg adds an interesting and a most important confirmation to the weight of external evidence, which, however, I must regard as amply sufficient, even without it, to justify belief.

In the list which follows I only cite the “ various reading" with the authority, as in the list on the Gospels, leaving the reader to refer to the Authorized Version, and also to compare with E. S. as he renders each passage in A.E., and A.R.


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Ch. i.

Ch. iy.
6. and hath made us (for us A.) a king- 5. and voices and thunderings SA.
dom, priests unto SA.

6. there was as a sea of glass SA. 8. I am the Alpha SA. and I also the 7. like as a man S. Omega S.

8. and they have no rest, for rest not om. the beginning and the ending A.

day and night Tisch. Holy eight 11. om. I am Alpha and Omega, the first

times S. and the last : and SA.

9. for ever and ever, Amen. S. om. which are in Asia SA.

10. for ever and ever, Amen. S. 17. saying, I am the first S. saying, Fear 11. O Lord, our Lord and God S. our not, I am the first-born A.

Lord and God A. for thy pleasure 18. om. Amen SA. the keys of death and

they were SA. om. and were created of hell SA.

A. 19. Write thereforeSA. which must shortly

Ch. v. come to pass hereafter S.

1. in front (for within) S. Ch. ii.

3. om. neither under the earth. S. 2. which call themselves apostles SA. 9. om. us A. 3. and hast patience (and all afflictions 10. and hast made them SA. a kingdom S.) and hast borne for my name's

and priesthood S. a kingdom and sake, and hast not fainted SA.

priests A. and they shall reign S. 5. om. quickly SA.

and they reign A. 7. which is in the paradise of God SA. 13. om. and under the earth S. The bless8. the first-born A.

ing and honour and glory of the 13. my faith ; and in those days was Almighty be S. unto him that Antipas my witness, my faithful

sitteth upon the throne, the Lamb, one, who A.

for A. 15. of the Nicolaitanes in like manner, 14. And the elders (om. four and twenty) (om. which thing I hate) SA.

SA. om. him that liveth for ever 20. I have much against thee, that thou

and ever SA.
S. I have against thee, that thou

Chu vi.
A. that thy wife A. which saith

1. of the seven seals SA. om. and see A.
she is a prophetess and teacheth
and seduceth S.

2. conquering and he conquered S. 22. I cast her into a prison A. of her deeds

3. om. and see A. S.

5. om, and see A. 24. unto you I say, the rest SA.

7. om. and see A.

8. and over the fourth part of the beasts Ch. iii.

of the earth A. 2. that were ready SA. before my God 9. the souls of men that were S. SA.

10. wilt thou not judge and avenge S. 3. If therefore thou shall not repent S. 11. and there was given unto each of them 4. om. even SA.

a white robe SA. 5. overcometh thus shall be SA.

12. and the whole moon SA. 7. he that is true, he that is holy SA. 13. and the stars of God A. as a fig tree and no man shall shut SA. and no

casting S. man shall open S.

14. hill for island S. 8. door, which no man can shut SA. 15. the chief captains and the rich men 9. and thou shalt know S.

SA. 11. om. Behold SA.

17. of their wrath S. 14. of the church in Laodicea SA. begin

Ch. vii. ning of the church of God S. 20. my voice, I will both open the door

4. om. And I heard the number of them and come in S.

which were sealed A.

THE APOC. 5. om.

were sealed after Reuben, and

after Gad SA. 6. om. were sealed thrice SA. 7. om. were sealed thrice SA. 8. om. were seated after Zabulon and

after Benjamin SA. for Benjamin

read Joseph A. 9. stood at the throne A. 10. and they cry SA. The salvation of our

God unto him which sitteth A. to

our God upon the throne S. 14. My Lord for sir S. om. to me S. 15. throne knoweth them S. 17. unto fountains of waters of life SA.


uttered, I was S. thunders had spoken (om. uttered their voices) A. saying (om. unto me) SA. seal up

what things soever S. 5. his right hand S. 6. om. and the earth and the things that

therein are A. om, and the sea and the things which are therein SA.

there is time no longer S. 7. mystery of God was finished SA. ser

vants and the prophets S. 9. read heart for belly A. 10. my belly was filled S. 11. And they say unto me SA.

Ch. xi. 1. om. and the angel stood SA. 2. within the temple S. shall they mea

sure forty and two months A. 5. om. in this manner A. 7. read abyss for bottomless pit Tisch. 9. read see for shall see SA. 10. earth rejoice over them and make

merry and send SA. (shall send A). 15. the kingdom of this world is become

the kingdom of SA. 17. om. and art to come SA.

Ch. viii. 7. And the first sounded SA, and the

third part of the earth was burned up, and the third part of the trees

was burned up, and SA. 10. om. and upon the fountains of waters A. 11. died upon the waters A. 12. shone not for a fourth part of it A. 13. heard an eagle flying SA.

Ch. ix. 1, 2, 11. read the pit of the abyss for the

Ch. xii. 7. Michael (both Michael A.) and his

angels to war with the dragon SA. 9. called the Devil, Satan S. 12. Woe to the earth and the sea SA. 14. the two wings of the great eagle A. 17. the testimony of Jesus (om. Christ) A. testimony of God S.

Ch. xiii. 1. and he stood, and I saw SA. 4. because he gave the power SA. 5. and it was given unto him to do what

he will forty and two months S. 6. in blasphemies SA. blaspheme hin

and S. tabernacle, them that SA. 7. add and peoples after kindreds SA. 12. om. deadly A.

Ch. xiv. 1. and behold the Lamb SA. having his

bottomless pit Tisch. 2. om. And he opened the bottomless pit

S. a smoke over the pit S. om. as

A. 4. om. neither any green thing S. om.

only SA. in their foreheads SA. 7. And the likenesses of SA. 10. unto scorpions, and stings; and in

their tails was their power to hurt

11. They (om. And) have SA. their king,

the angel S. over them a king, the
prince of the abyss, the angel whose

name A.
13. a voice from the golden altar S. om.

four A. 15. om. and a day S. 18. By these three plagues A. by these

plagues S. 19. For the power of the horses is in their

mouths and in their tails SA. 21. for fornication read wickedness SA.

name and the name of his father

SA. 2. and the voice which I heard was as

that of harpers SA. 3. they sing a new song, and it was be

fore S, and before the elders S.

Ch. x.

1. the rainbow A. and the hair upon his

head, and his face S. 4. whatsoever the seven thunders had

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