ALEXANDER TRALLIA'NUS ('ANÉE- / of the hair, &c., cutaneous affections of the avopos Tpalllavós), one of the most valuable scalp, different forms of cephalalgia, phrensy, of the ancient Greek physicians, was born lethargy, various kinds of paralysis, and me(as his surname implies) at Tralles, a city lancholy ; the second is devoted to diseases of Lydia. His date can be ascertained with of the eyes ; the third, to diseases of the ears, tolerable certainty, as he quotes Aëtius, nose, and teeth; the fourth treats of the (lib. xii. c. 8. p. 779. edit. Guinter,) who different species of cynanche ; the fifth, of disprobably lived at the close of the fifth or eases of the lungs; the sixth, of pleurisy ; the beginning of the sixth century after the seventh, of those of the stomach ; the Christ, and he is mentioned by Agathias eighth, of those of the liver, spleen, and in(Hist. lib. v. p. 149.), who wrote his history testinal canal; the ninth treats of the differabout the year 565, and also by Paulus ent kinds of dropsy, and diseases of the Ægineta (De Med. lib. iii. cap. 28. vii. 5. kidneys, and urinary and genital organs ; 11. 19.), who is supposed to have lived in the the tenth is devoted to the colic ; the eleseventh century.

His father, whose name venth, to the gout; and the twelfth, to the difwas Stephanus, was also a physician ; and ferent species of fevers. With respect to the Agathias mentions that he had four brothers, merits of this work, Mr. Adams remarks (Barall of whom were distinguished in their se- ker's edition of Lempriere, London, 1838), veral professions. Of the events of his life that Alexander Trallianus " is a most judiwe merely know that he visited Gaul and cious, elegant, and original author. No mediSpain, and finally settled at Rome, where he cal writer of ancient or modern times,” says attained to great eminence in his profession. he,“ has treated diseases more methodically; He was probably a Christian, and seems to for, after all the nosological systems prohave been a religious man, though (as was posed and tried, none is more advantageous the case with Aëtius) his piety often dege- to the student than the method adopted by nerates into gross superstition. One or two him of treating of diseases according to the examples of his faith in charms and amulets part of the body which they affect, beginning may be given, especially as it is surprising with the head, and proceeding downwards. that an author, who displays so much judg- The same plan is pursued in the third book of ment in other matters, should show so much Paulus Ægineta, who has copied freely from weakness in this. For epilepsy he recom- Alexander. Of the ancient medical writers mends a piece of an old sail-cloth taken from subsequent to Galen, Alexander Trallianus a shipwrecked vessel to be tied to the right shows the least of that blind deference to his arm for seven weeks together (lib. i. cap. 20. authority for which all have been censured ; p. 30.); for the colic he orders the heart of a in many instances he ventures to differ from lark to be fastened to the left thigh (vi. 6. him, apparently not from a spirit of rivalp. 165.); for a quartan ague, a few hairs ship, but a commendable love of truth. In taken from a goat's chin are to be carried his eleventh book he has given a fuller acabout (x. 6. p. 241.): several other equally ridi- count of the causes, symptoms, and treatculous instances might be given. By way of ment of gout, than any ancient writer ; it excuse he tells us that in his time many per- contains many things not to be found elsesons, particularly the rich, were very averse where, and deserves to be carefully studied. to medicine, and would by no means be per- He judiciously suits the treatment to the cirsuaded to persist in a proper method ; which cumstances of the case; but his general plan forced them, says he, to have recourse to of cure appears to have consisted in the adamulets and such things as were fondly ministration of purgative medicines, cathartic imagined to effect a cure in a more ex- salts, or drastic purgatives, scammony, aloes, peditious manner. (viii. 7. 10. p. 165. 198.) and hermodactylus. The last-mentioned meHe appears to have written several medi- dicine is most probably a species of colchicum cal works besides those which are still ex- autumnale, which forms the active ingretant, one of which, lepi Tây év 'Oplanuoîs dient of a French patent medicine called Talâv,On Diseases of the Eyes,” is mentioned • Eau Médicinale d'Husson,' which was much by himself (ii. 1. p. 122.), and was translated celebrated some years ago for the cure of into Arabic. (Al. Sprenger, De Orig. Medic. gout and rheumatism. · The writers, both Arab. sub Kalif, 8vo. Lugd. Bat. 1840, p. 24.) Greek and Arabian, subsequent to Alexander Another of his works,“On Pleurisy,” which Trallianus, repeat the praises bestowed by is said to have been also translated into Arabic, him on the virtues of hermodactylus ; and was probably only the sixth book of his great Demetrius Pepagomenus has written a promedical work, entitled Bubxía 'latpikà dvokai- fessed treatise to recommend this medicine dera, “Twelve Books on Medicine,” which is in gout. The style of Alexander, though less entirely devoted to this disease.

This was

pointed than that of Celsus, and less brilliant written, as he tells us himself, (xii. 1. p. 666.) than that of Aretæus, is remarkable for perin his old age, when he was no longer able spicuity and elegance.” He tells us himself to bear the fatigues of practice, and treats (lib. xii. cap. 1. p. 667.) that his aim was to of diseases in order, from head to foot. In be concise and plain, and to make use of comthe first book he notices the falling off mon words and expressions, and such as

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would be easily understood by ordinary per- knowledge, but also speaks in one passage as

This work first appeared in a Latin | if he were in the constant habit of himself translation (Lyon, 1504, 4to.) by Franc. Fra- administering remedies (lib. ii. probl. 11.); din, cum Expositione Glose interlinearis thirdly, he refers (i. 87.) to the second book Jacobi de Partibus et Januensis in Margine of a work by himself, entitled 'Alinyoplat posite (sic).” It was first printed in Greek των εις Θεούς Αναπλαττομένων Πιθανών Ιστοby Rob. Stephens, Paris, 1548, fol., edited by prwv, “ Allegories of the Credible Stories Jac. Goupyl, together with “ Rhazæ de fabricated about the Gods,” which is noPestilentia Libellus, ex Syrorum Lingua in where mentioned as belonging to Alexander Græcam translatus. The Greek original, Aphrodisiensis ; fourthly, he more than once together with a new Latin version of Jo. speaks of the soul to be immortal (lib. ii. Guinter, was published by Henr. Petrus, præf. et probl. 63. 67.), whereas Alexander Basel, 1556, 8vo. This Latin translation | Aphrodisiensis frequently argues against this has been several times reprinted ; it is in- doctrine, and says in one place (Comment. serted in H. Stephens's “ Medicæ Artis Prin- | in Aristot.Topic II.p. 72. ed. Ald.) that cipes,” Paris, fol. 1567.; and also forms two “ whoever declares the soul to be separable of the volumes of Haller's Collection, Lau- from the body and immortal, is as far from sanne, 1772, 8vo.

the truth as if he were to say that two and Besides this work of Alexander Trallianus two make five;" and fifthly, the style and there is extant a short treatise on Worms, language of these books plainly show that Περί Ελμίνθων, written by him in the form the author must have lived later than the of a letter, of which an Arabic translation is third century after Christ. Hieron. Mermentioned by Dr. Sprenger (loco cit.). This curialis, Gataker, Sprengel, Choulant, and was first published in Greek and Latin, others attribute the work to Alexander Venice, 1570, 4to., edited by Hieron. Mercu- Trallianus. This conjecture is somewhat rialis; it is inserted in Greek and Latin in the confirmed by the numerous explanations of twelfth volume of the old edition of Fabricius's different morbid symptoms contained in it, “ Bibliotheca Græca,” p. 602, sq.; the Greek which agree very well with the great value original is to be found in the first volume of which Alexander everywhere sets upon a Ideler's “ Physici et Medici Græci Minores,” correct diagnosis (lib. v. c. 3. p. 239. viii. Berlin, 1841; and a Latin translation is con- 4. p. 455. ix. 5. p. 512.); but as that writer, tained in Haller's edition of Alexander Tral- in his great work, refers to several of his lianus mentioned above. There is an account other treatises, it is rather singular that he of the life and works of Alexander Trallianus nowhere alludes to this ; besides that it published by Edw. Milward, M.D., London, does not seem very likely that a pious Chris1734, 8vo., with the title “ Trallianus Revi- tian, like Alexander Trallianus, should have viscens ; or an Account of Alexander Tral- written the mythological work mentioned lian, one of the Greek Writers that flourished above. Like the works on the same subject after Galen ; showing that these Authors are by Cassius, Theophylactus, and others, these far from deserving the Imputation of mere two books contain, along with much that is Compilers,” &c. (Freind's Hist. of Physic; trifling and frivolous, several curious and Fabricius, Biblioth. Græca, vol. xii. p. 600, interesting physiological and medical obsq., ed. vet. ; Sprengel, Hist. de la Méde- servations. It was first published in a Latin cine, tom. ii. ; Haller, Biblioth. Medic. Pract. Translation by George Valla, Venice, 1488, tom. i.)

fol. The Greek text is to be found in the Besides these two works, which are uni- Aldine edition of Aristotle's works, Venice, versally attributed to Alexander Trallianus, fol. 1495 ; and in that by Sylburgius, Frankthere are extant two others, the author of furt, 1585, 8vo. ; it was published with a which is not certainly ascertained, but which Latin translation at Paris, 1540-1, 12mo., may be noticed in this place. The first of edited by J. Davion; and it is inserted by these is a collection of Medical and Physical J. L. Ideler in the first volume of his “ PhyProblems, 'Iatpikà Kal Qvolkà Ipoeanuata, in sici et Medici Græci Minores,” Berlin, 1841, two books, which generally go under the 8vo. name of Alexander Aphrodisiensis, but which The other work is a short treatise on may be proved both from external and in- Fevers, llepi Tupetwy, which has also been ternal evidence to be the work of some other attributed to both Alexander Trallianus and author. In the first place, they are not Alexander Aphrodisiensis. It is not likely mentioned in the catalogue of his works to have been written by the former; for, in given by the anonymous author of the the first place, the whole of the twelfth book “Arabica Philosophorum Bibliotheca," quoted of his great work is taken up with the subby Casiri (Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp. Escur. ject of fever, and he would hardly have comtom. i. p. 243.); secondly, they appear to have posed two treatises on the same disease been written by a person belonging to the without making in either the slightest remedical profession, as he not only prefixes ference to the other ; secondly, the way of to the second book an encomium on physic, treating the subject is quite different from and everywhere displays much medical Alexander's usual

in his great


work, as this is merely a theoretical treatise, gedy of Darius ;” which was followed in 1604 without any directions about the use of by two other tragedies, “ Julius Cæsar” and drugs, while that on the contrary is almost “Cresus.” In 1604 he published “ A Paræexclusively practical, and abounds especially nesis to the Prince," the object of which was in pharmaceutical preparations; thirdly, the “to speak of princely things,” and especially writers quoted in the two works are quite to enforce the choice of patriotic and disindifferent, as Empedocles, Zenon, and Aretæus terested councillors. In the same year he (who are the only authors besides Hippo- also printed “ Aurora, containing the first crates mentioned in the treatise on Fevers), Faneies of the Author's Youth, William Alexare not once referred to by Alexander, while ander of Menstrie.” A collected edition of " the most divine” Galen (Ó DELÓTatos), whom his plays, including a fourth, called “The he notices so often, is not once named by the Alexandræan Tragedy,” was published in author of this treatise. The work bears the London in 1607, under the title of “ The name of Alexander Aphrodisiensis, but, as it Monarchicke Tragedies.” These were reis addressed to a medical pupil whom the printed in 1616, and again in 1637, when author offers to instruct in any other part of they appeared with “Doomsday,” a poem (orimedicine (p. 1. ed. Passow), and as it is not ginally published in 1614), containing somenoticed in the Arabic list of Alexander's thing more than ten thousand lines ; the works mentioned above, it is probably the “Parænesis ;” and “ Jonathan,” an unfinished work of some other person of the same name, poem. This collection was entitled “Rewho may be conjectured to have lived shortly creations with the Muses.” In these succes. before the time of Galen. It may be added sive editions of his works, Alexander took that it is the more improbable that Alexander very commendable pains to free them from Aphrodisiensis would have omitted to men- those Scotticisms with which they originally tion Galen, as we happen to know that he abounded. Langbaine, speaking of the “ Dawas personally acquainted with him, and that rius,” says:“ It was first composed in a mixed he nicknamed Galen “mule's head” on ac- dialect of English and Scotch, and even then count of “the strength of his head in ar- was commended by two copies of verses. The gument and disputation.” (Casiri, loco cit. ; author has since polished and corrected much Abú-l-fáraj, Hist. Dynast. p. 78.) The work of his native language.” In the last collected was first published in a Latin translation by edition of these plays it is almost imposGeorge Valla, at Venice, 1498, fol., which sible to detect any of this dialect, which was several times reprinted. The Greek Langbaine seems to have considered as antext first appeared in the Cambridge “ Mu

other tongue. seum Criticum,” vol. ii. p. 359—389., tran- The poems of Alexander can scarcely now scribed by Demetrius Schinas, from a ma- be regarded in a higher light than as literary nuscript in the Medicean library at Florence; curiosities. The quantity of verse which this it was published together with Valla's trans- author poured out in the course of ten years lation by Franz Passow, Breslau, 1822, is remarkable enough ; and this apparent fa4to., and also in Passow's “ Opuscula Aca- cility is more remarkable, when it is considemica,” Leipzig, 1835, 8vo. p. 521.; the dered that he was composing in a language Greek text alone is inserted in the first which in many respects was to him a foreign volume of Ideler's “ Physici et Medici Græci But to this circumstance may be attriMinores,” Berlin, 1841, 8vo. W. A. G. buted not only what the critics of a later ge

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM, Earl of neration would have called the correctness of Stirling, was the son of Alexander Alexan- his versification, but the circumstance that der of Menstrie. The date of his birth is not the author is always labouring to express the very satisfactorily fixed. His father died in commonest thoughts in the most high sound1594. Anengraved portrait of the Earl of Stir- ing words, and by the most wearisome circumling, found in a few copies of the collected edi- locutions. It is in vain that we turn over his tion of his poems published in 1637, bears the pages to find a single natural image expressed inscription “ætatis suæ 57.” According to this with force and simplicity. His genius, if genius very imperfect evidence, he would have been it can be called, was exclusively of the didacborn in 1580. But the print is of extreme rarity tic character. All his productions, whatever and very high value, being considered the form they assume, are a succession of the most finest production of William Marshall, the cumbersome preachments, unenlivened by any celebrated engraver of that day. The proba- variety of illustration ; without adaptation, bility therefore is, that it was not originally when they take the dramatic form, to the chaattached to the edition of 1637, and, bearing racter of his speakers, and altogether wantno date itself, does not fix the age of the per- ing in applicability to the habits and feelings son represented. William Alexander, having of mankind, and the practical business of succeeded to his father's landed property in human life. It is almost incomprehensible the counties of Clackmannan and Perth, tra- how such productions as the “Four Monarvelled for some time with Archibald the chicke Tragedies” could have appeared in seventh Earl of Argyle. After his return to the age of Shakspere and his great dramatic Scotland, he published in 1603, “ The Tra- contemporaries. Their author must



doubtedly have fancied that he was doing å passage:- -“ Cæsar also had Cassius in great higher and a better thing than presenting a jealousy, and suspected him much : wherepoetical view of real life, when he pro- upon he said on a time to his friends, * What duced such a tragedy as his “ Julius Cæsar,” will Cassius do, think ye? I like not his pale where the great interest of the action is ut- looks.' Another time, when Cæsar's friends terly lost in the tumid dialogues and inter- complained unto him of Antonius and Dolminable soliloquies, and the personages talk, labella, that they pretended some mischief not only unlike Romans, but unlike men. towards him, he answered them again, As Oldys, who has written his life in the “ Bio- for those fat men and smooth-combed heads, graphia Britannica,” says of his plays : “ He quoth he, I never reckon of them ; but these calculated them not for the amusement of pale-visaged and carrion-lean people, I fear spectators, or to be theatrically acted, so much them most,' meaning Brutus and Cassius.” as for readers of the highest rank ; who, by The Julius Cæsar of William Alexander the wisest counsels and cautions that could be thus addresses Calphurnia :drawn from the greatest examples, of the ill

“No corpulent sanguinians make me fear, effects of misgovernment, and confident reli

Who with more pain their beards than th' en’mies ance upon human grandeur, might be taught strike,

And do themselves like th' Epicurians bear to amend their own practices, to moderate

To Bacchus, Mars, and Venus borne alike; their own passions and their power over all Their hearts do always in their mouths remain, in subjection to them ; and if they have but As streams whose murmuring shews their course not

deep, this end with such readers, to term them his- Then still they love to sport, though gross, and plain, torical dialogues, or anything else, can be do And never dream of ought but when they sleep: discredit to them.” Alexander was evidently

But those high sprites who hold their bodies down,

Whose visage lean their restless thoughts records : composing these tragedies upon a totally false Whilst they their cares' depth in their bosoms drown,

I fear their silence more than th' others' words. theory of art; but it was one suited to his

Thus Cassius now and Brutus seem to hold natural powers and his acquirements. The Some great thing in their mind, whose fire oft character of a poet, with which he chose to in- smokes; vest himself, had in his view no regard to the

What Brutus would, he vehemently would;

Think what they list, I like not their pale looks." highest objects of poetry. Verse was for him a conventional thing, suited as he thought for Cæsar's fear of Cassius, simply and forcithe delivery of a series of lectures upon state bly expressed in the translation of Plutarch, policy and the moral virtues, in which the paraphrased and diluted in the version of introduction of historical names as the speakers Alexander, is thus presented to us by Shakof the said lectures might give the sentences spere, in his dialogue between Cæsar and a greater authority than if they appeared to Antony: come wholly from the mouth of William Alex

Cæsar. Let me have men about me that are fat; ander. In our great age of dramatic poetry, Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights: these tragedies, therefore, offer a remarkable

Yond' Cassius has a lean and hungry look ;

He thinks too much : such men are dangerous. contrast to the living spirit which informs the

Fear him not, Cæsar, he's not dangerous ; acting plays of even the humblest of Alex- He is a noble Roman, and well given.

Cæsar. 'Would he were fatter :- But I fear him ander's contemporaries. A singular notion has prevailed, nevertheless, that Shakspere Yet, if my name were liable to fear, borrowed from Alexander, particularly in his

I do not know the man I should avoid

So soon as that spare Cassius. He reads much; own“Julius Cæsar.” Malone suspects this, al- He is a great observer, and he looks though he has the good sense to observe that Quite through the deeds of men : he loves no plays, what he calls the parallel passages “ might Seldom he smiles ; and smiles in such a sort

As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music: perhaps have proceeded only from the two As if he mock'd himself, and scorn'd his spirit authors drawing from the same source.'

That could be mov'd to smile at any thing." Another critic, of whom it would be difficult “Of the affinity between these dramas a to say whether his presumption or his igno- few extracts will convince the most careless rance is the most conspicuous, affirms the re- reader,” says the writer in Lardner's Cyclosemblance more dogmatically : “ There is a

pædia. great similarity between the Julius Cæsar of

The poems of Alexander were sufficiently Shakespear and that of Lord Stirling. Which bepraised in his own day. One calls him was written the first ? In other words, which “ the monarch-tragic of this isle ;” another of these writers borrowed from the other ? | compares him with Sophocles, Euripides, and This, we fear, cannot be ascertained . Æschylus. Even Drummond addresses him The probability is, that Shakespear borrowed withfrom the northern poet.” (Lardner's. Cyclo

“Thy Phænix muse, still wing'd with wonders, flies." pædia :“ Literary and Scientific Men,” vol. ii.) One of the extracts given by this critic in John Davis of Hereford, in his Epigrams support of this position we shall subjoin, with published about 1611, thinks that Alexander the addition of a passage from the source from the Great had not won more glory by his which the two writers derived an incident sword than this Alexander with his pen. common to each.

Yet in less than forty years after his death In North’s Plutarch we find the following his poems were forgotten. Edward Phillips,

" Ant.



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the nephew of Milton, does not even mention book is the commendation of Scotsmen. The him in his “ 'Theatrum Poetarum,” although humour of the following passage is exquisite: Drummond is spoken of as writing in a style -" The purity of this gentleman's vein was sufficiently smooth and delightful.” quite spoiled by the corruptness of his courtier

Alexander began to pay to King James ship; and so much the greater pity, for, by all the homage of verse-adulation at the exact appearance, had he been contented with that moment when the king was in a condition to mediocrity of fortune he was born to, and not confer substantial benefits in return. In aspired to those grandeurs of the court which 1604, he addressed two poems to James, could not without pride be prosecuted normainwhich have not been reprinted in his col- tained without covetousness, he might have lected works: the “Monarchicke Tragedies' made a far better account of himself. It did not are dedicated to His Majesty in a poem of satisfy his ambition to have a laurel from the fourteen stanzas, in which the king is told — Muses, and be esteemed a king among poets,

but he must be king of some new-found land, “ The world long'd for thy birth three hundreth years."

and like another Alexander indeed, searching Honours and substantial offices were be- after new worlds, have the sovereignty of stowed by James on the man whom he called Nova Scotia !.... Had he stopped there, it “his philosophical poet.” Alexander became had been well ; but the flame of his honour gentleman usher, in 1613, to prince Charles; must have some oil wherewith to nourish it : and in the same year was knighted, and like another King Arthur, he must have his made master of the Requests. The subse- knights, though nothing limited to so small a quent public career of Sir William Alexander number, for how many soever who could is altogether very singular. In 1621, King have looked out but for one day like genJames, by charter, granted to him the whole tlemen, and given him but one hundred and territory of Nova Scotia, coupled with the fifty pounds sterling (without any need of a famous scheme of extending the order of key for opening the gate to enter through the baronets by granting purchased honours in temple of virtue which, in former times, was connection with the new colony. The scheme the only way to honour), they had a scale was however laid aside during the last years from him whereby to ascend unto the platforms of James's reign ; but it was revived by of virtue. ... Their king, nevertheless, not to Charles ; and Sir William Alexander held stain his royal dignity or to seem to merit out the greatest inducement to adventurers the imputation of selling honour to his subin his pamphlet, published in 1625, entitled jects, did, for their money, give them land, “ An Encouragement to Colonies.” In the and that in so ample a measure, that every first year of his reign Charles created Sir one of his knight baronets had for his hundred William Alexander lieutenant general of and fifty pounds sterling, heritably disponed New Scotland. In a few years after, he had unto him six thousand good and sufficient the remarkable privilege granted him of acres of Nova Scotia ground, which, being but coining small copper money. In 1626, he at the rate of sixpence an acre, could not be was appointed secretary of state for Scotland. thought very dear, considering how prettily, In 1630 he was created Viscount Stirling, in the respective parchments of disposition, and in 1633, Earl of Stirling. In addition to they were bounded and designed : fruitful his grant of Nova Scotia, he received a corn-lands, watered with pleasant rivers charter of the lordship of Canada in 1628, running along most excellent and spacious and obtained from the council of New Eng- | meadows ; nor did there want abundance of land another grant of a large tract of country, oaken groves in the midst of very fertile including Long Island, then called the Island plains, (for if they wanted anything, it was of Stirling. He applied himself with great the scrivener or writer's fault, for he gave energy, in concert with his eldest son, to colo- orders as soon as he received the three nise this island, and to found a settlement on thousand Scots marks, that there should be no the St. Lawrence. But he does not appear to defect of quantity or quality, in measure or have derived any permanent advantage from goodness of land,) and here and there most these projects, and the labours of his son delicious gardens and orchards, with whatbrought on a disease which terminated in his ever else could, in matter of delightful ground, death. Nova Scotia was sold by Sir William to best content their fancies.... But at last, the French, and its beguiled baronets lost the when he had enrolled some two or three territorial grants which were to have been at- hundred knights, who, for their hundred and tached to the dignity. As might be suspected, fifty pieces each, had purchased amongst a good deal of odium was attached to the them several millions of New Caledonian schemes of Alexander. In a very extraordi- acres, confirmed to them and theirs for ever nary book written by Sir Thomas Urquhart, under the great seal, the affixing whereof was the translator of Rabelais, and published in to cost each of them but thirty pieces more; 1652, under the title of “ The Discovery of a finding that the society was not like to bemost excellent Jewel, &c. found in the Kennel

come any more numerous, and that the of Worcester Streets,” he is spoken of with ancient gentry of Scotland esteemed of such great freedom, although the chief object of the a whimsical dignity as of a disparagement

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