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more abundantly ; but from him that hath not, shall be taken away even that which he hath." Thus the natural tendency is for the large organs to become still larger, and the small ones smaller—the very reverse of what should take place. Now, by teaching us what organs are already too large, and thus liable to become still larger, and also what is calculated to excite, and thus still further to enlarge them, the absence of which will allow them to remain al rest, and thereby to become smaller, and also what will excite the smaller organs, and thus supply defects; or in other words, by teaching the nature and the laws of action of each faculty, that is, how to excite and how to allay them, how to cultivate feeble ones and bring down predominant ones, phrenology will direct us how we may mould the budding, and modify the already matured character and talents, almost at pleasure. Is not this an object of the utmost moment ?

Many facts might be stated in illustration and confirmation of the above remarks. The writer is fully aware that he has not done this last topic justice, nor can he do so without dwelling more in detail upon the primary function of the respective faculties, and the precise kind of treatment required to excite and allay them. He might adduce any number of additional facts in illustration of this principle, but his present limits will not permit such a digression. Let it be remembered, that we have merely glanced at only a few of the beneficial results to be derived from the study and application of phrenology, and that it applies to man in all his physical, moral, and intellectual relations, both to his fellow.men and to his Creator. But even in this view of the subject, its importance far outweighs that of all the other sciences put together, and demands the serious investigation of every parent, every philanthropist, every Christian, and every scholar.

ARTICLE IV.

PHRENOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PRISONERS.

Phrenologists have repeatedly, both in Europe as well as in this country, visited prisons, jails, and penitentiaries, for the purpose of testing the truth of their science. An impartial account of many of these visits is already on record ; and as to the accuracy and correctness of the examinations, the facts in the case will speak for themselves. We take pleasure in adding to this class of facts the following account of a visit to the St. Louis jail, made by Dr. K. E. Burhans, and copied from the Missouri Argus :

A gentleman who was present at the jail, a few days since, during the phrenological examination of the prisoners by Dr. Burhans, has favoured us with the following report of the individual cases, as they came under his observation. We understand that the character, in each instance, is delineated with great accuracy.

What more is wanting to convince the incredulous of the high claims of the science to universal confidence ? Prisoner No. 1. The organs of this man's head are all

very

small. The animal organs predominate, and are unchecked by his moral ones. Naturally he is not disposed to commit crime, particularly murder. His organisation would make him extremely lazy, indolent, and idle; any offence that he would commit would not be essentially evil, but in the tendency of idleness, &c. Charge.--Passing coun. terfeit money.

No. 2. The organs of Combativeness and Destructiveness predo. minate in this head; there is some want of Conscientiousness. Under the influence of spirituous liquors, he is capable of great wil. fulness and cruelty to his friends, and even to nis children.

Free from artificial excitement, his conduct would not be very violent. Charge.-An assault, with intent to kill his daughter-it is said under the influence of spirituous liquors.

No. 3. This man has but little sense of justice; he has some shrewdness, although weak-minded. From his organisation, I would say he is not capabie of great violence or marked crime. I would suppose his offence was theft, under the influence of liquor. Charge.—Thest; committed in a state of intoxication.

No. 4. This man has no point or strength of character. He is mild, and could be led to crime by designing men. Naturally he is not capable of any great offence. Charge.-Petit larceny.

No. 5. Coloured man. This man is cunning, and is indisposed to tell the truth. He is hypocritical, deceitful, and secretive; he would steal to secrete ; although cautious, he would be capable of murder and midnight assassination. Crime.- Assault, with intent to kill.

No. 6. This man is timid and cowardly. His amative desires are strong, and would impel him, in the absence of danger, to violence in respect to the opposite sex. He is cunning and secretive; and in the absence of danger would steal-if pursued, would be unscrupulous of life. Crime.-Theft.

No. 7. Coloured man. He is mild, bonest, and faithful-truthful, and would make an excellent servant.- A long tried servant about the jail.

No. 8. Wants firmness, is very fickle, and possesses inordinate vanity. He would do any thing to gratify his vanity and pride; and would be more apt to steal clothing than money. Charged with stealing one rest worth $8, and a cap worth $20.

No. 9. A Spaniard. He has a large brain; his animal organs are all large; with great Amativeness. He is also dark and cunning. These are the two points of his character. He would be a bold operator in crime. Charge.-Grand larceny.

No. 10. This man has no marked character; is timid and natu. rally well disposed; is not inclined to steal. He might have been made a good citizen. If he should commit crime, it would be under excitement, and in the direction of his amative organ. Charge.Rape, under the excitement of intoxication.

No. 11. This man's character is low, coarse, and vulgar; no Selfesteem; would be violent and vindictive. He is combative and destructive; and his organisation would drive him to do any thing that his pleasure or wilfulness would suggest. Charge.--Petit larceny.

No. 12. This man's organisation is bad. His disposition is wilful. He is a dangerous man, cruel, gluttonous, and deceitful. Charge.Larceny.

No. 13. He is combative and destructive, more so than any one whose head has been yet examined. He is capable of great bravery and daring. He is bold and vigorous in his enterprises ; taciturn and gloomy, with little hope ; considerable Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness. His organisation would make him dangerous to others and to himself, in despondency. Crime.-Theft and assault, with intent to rob. No. 14. This young man is not naturally a bad character.

He could not commit a violent crime. His defects are, his vanity and devotion to women, and his capacity of being used and imposed on by others. Charged with passing counterfeit money.

No. 15. His brain is small and his capacity is limited. He is without any degree of conscience. His organisation would make him deceitful, cunning, and cruel; and he would be more disposed to steal than to commit any other crime. Charged with theft.

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Inches.

23 14 5 14 5

Circumference of the head around Philoprogenitiveness, De.

structiveness, and Individuality, From Occipital Spine to Individuality,

Ear to Ear, over Firmness,
Philoprogenitivenes to Individuality,
Destructiveness to Destructiveness,
Secretiveness to Secretiveness,
Cautiousness to Cautiousness,
Ear to Individuality,

Philoprogenitiveness,
Firmness,
Benevolence,

6 3 62 5 4 5 2 6 59

Developements on a scale of 7. Amativeness,

7 Combativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, 6 Destructiveness, Adhesiveness,

Alimentiveness, Inhabitiveness,

6 Acquisitiveness, Concentrativeness,

Secretiveness,

3 6

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Stephen Burroughs, whose life and character are so well known to the public, died at Three Rivers, L. C., in the winter of 1839–40. The above measurements were taken from the living head, and have since been corrected by Mr. Burroughs' bust, which may be found in Mr. Fowler's Phrenological Cabinet, No. 135 Nassau street, New York. The developements were given in the month of June, 1839, when Mr. Burroughs had his bust taken, and a phrenological examination by Mr. L. N. Fowler, which was wrote out at the time, and was in substance as follows:- This individual has a large and active brain, which is well sustained by a strong constitution. He has naturally much weight of character, and is capable of exerting more than ordinary influence. His brain is fully developed in every part, except in the organs of Conscientiousness, Marvellousness, and Veneration, and the largest of which are Amativeness, Cautiousness, Self-esteem, Firmness, Imitation, and Mirthfulness. Consequently, he possesses many strongly-marked traits of character-has a great versatility of talent, and is never in want of means to accomplish his ends. He has more excesses than deficiencies of character; lacks very much the restraining and regulating influences of Veneration and Conscientiousness. The following are the leading features of his character, which will be more or less developed, according as circumstances call his faculties into exercise. He is naturally very socialmis extremely fond of children and society generally, and is particularly extravagant in his love of the other sex. He is disposed to avoid, difficulty, and seldom, if ever, makes the first attack, because of his moderate Combativeness; yet having large Destructiveness, if provoked, he would be liable to be severe and desperate, and would never stop at trifles whenever he had an important object in view. The middle lobes of the brain, giving width between and above the ears, are very full, indicating great strength of the selfish propensities, which must have a marked influence. They would

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