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respective places; let the orator mount the rostrum, the judge between man and man ascend the bench, the naturalist be placed in the open fields of nature-let every member of society be placed in circumstances the most favourable for calling into full and delightful exercise all his talents and mental energies, and this divinely contrived machine of human society, with every wheel, every thing in its proper place, would work out an incalculable amount of happiness to mankind in general, and to individuals in particular; those whose ambition is now mortified because out of their proper element, would then be delightfully gratified; a vast amount of talent in all the departments of life, which now lies buried for want of action and motive, would be brought forth; and a host of Washingtons and Franklins, of Jeffersons and Adamses, of Shakspeares and Miltons, of Clays and Websters, of Lees and Henrys, of Fultons and Whit. neys, of Rushes and Blackstones, of Audubons and Davys, of Silli. mans and Hitchcocks, of Wests and Rubens, of Irvings and Percivals, who are now unnoticed and unknown, would be hunted up, and their talents brought to bear upon the general welfare of man. kind. But, alas! this machine is deranged, its wheels misplaced, and its product is misery; the natural mechanic is put into the study, and the scholar upon the farm, their natures crossed, their talents lost to themselves and the world, and their happiness greatly abridged, if not exchanged for misery. Now if phrenology be true, the natural talents even of children can be discovered with certainty, and their pursuits directed accordingly; and thereby these evils be avoided, as well as these blessings secured.
3. IT WILL INCALCULABLY ADVANCE THE ARTS AND SCIENCES. Only the very threshold of science is yet entered. For every discovery thus far inade, doubtless scores remain yet to be made. Future centuries, like those that are past, will unquestionably witness clusters of new sciences, as the present one has chemistry, geology, and phrenology, unfolding new truths and new worlds of facts, by means of which the knowledge and happiness of mankind will be vastly augmented. There are multitudes of minds calculated to bring to view the phenomena and laws of nature, and make scientific discoveries, which are now either wholly engrossed with other minor matters, or enter upon a literary course too late to make much progress; whereas, had their talents been early known, and their education conducted upon phrenological principles, such naturalists and mathematicians, such artists and mechanics, such statesmen and poets, such orators and divines, such philanthropists and such profound philosophers would rise upon our world as would completely eclipse every thing past and present—as would incalculably improve, adorn, and bless mankind. It would also throw out from under the wheels of science multitudes of those who now retard their progress, and clear the various professions of those drones who are now their bane and disgrace, besides being useful in making choice of our public officers.
4. IT WILL GREATLY PROMOTE MORALITY AND TRUE RELIGION. Phrenology, if true, unfolds the moral and religious nature of man. To this same moral nature of man, true religion is also adapted; so that each will confirm and strengthen the other, and both together do much more for man's moral elevation than either could do alone. Phrenology, more than any thing else, is calculated to do away sectarian prejudices, and wear off the edge of those asperities which grow out of them, and which are a deep disgrace to the Christian world. It also teaches forbearance and forgiveness, and does away with bigotry. It will teach natural theology and natural religion more clearly and forcibly than any other department of science whatever.
5. A knowledge of phrenology will give its possessor an almost unlimited command over the minds and feelings of his fellow-men. Are you a lawyer, phrenology teaches you, not only the laws of mind in general, but the particular qualities of individuals, and also how they may be reached. Has one of your jury large Benevo. lence, phrenology not only points out the developement, but also shows you how to arouse it powerfully in aid of your cause. The other faculties will then follow in its train, and he is gained. Has another large Comparison, or Causality, or Ideality, address these faculties respectively, and your end is gained; has another large Self-esteem and Firmness, humour him, and be careful not to excite them against you, or "it's a gone case ;” and so of the other faculties.
Are you a minister of our holy religion, wishing to "convert the sinner from the error of his ways," you must become “all things to all men.” Your success depends on your adapting truth to the sinner's mind. Has he small Conscientiousness and large Selfestecm and Combativeness, if you address your remarks to his conscience, and portray his guilt and desert of punishment, his small Conscientiousness and large Self-esteem will fail to perceive or feel his guilt; and his large Self-esteem will justify himself, and retort, “You come here nccusing me in this kind of style, do you? I've done nothing wrong. You talk as though I had committed some awful crime ; but, thank heaven, I have a clear conscience. I'm as good as you are, any day;" whilst Combativeness will resent the well-meant but ill-applied warning, and drive the intruder from his presence. Thus the sinner's heart becomes more hardened, and the door of repentance and reform barred and bolted. Whereas, this same sioner has, perhaps, large Veneration and Adhesiveness. Appeal to the former by portraying the majesty and the glory of God, and to the latter by descanting upon his infinite love to the children of men, and you strike cords that vibrate through his whole soul, prostrating him in adoration and love at the foot of the cross.
Another may have large Conscientiousness and small Veneration. By addressing to him what disgusted the first, you reach bis feel. ings, producing a broken heart and a reformed life; whereas, if you appeal to his Veneration, which produced the desired effect in the case first supposed, you disgust him, and the result is worse than a mere failure. Thus, “what is one's meat is another's poison;" and phrenology teaches you how and when to appeal to the reason, or to the scelings, or to the particular class of feelings required by the occasion, and also how to avoid arraying against you large Com. bativeness, or Firmness, or Self-esteem, or Destructiveness, and thus how to be always successful, "meting out to every man his portion in due season.
The principle here stated and illustrated, will apply to all our intercourse with our fellow-men, whether for persuading them to adopt our opinions or plans, or for instructing them, and especially children, or for pleasurable intercourse with them. But the application of this principle to the government of children, is productive of still greater good. Thus, has your child large Firmness, or Destructiveness, or Self-esteem, great care is requisite lest these three faculties become arrayed against you; in which event, obedience can be secured only by compulsion, the child becoming wilsul and insolent. But by understanding phrenology, you will know what will excite these faculties unfavourably, and can thus avoid rousing them, and appeal to some other faculties by which you gain your end at once, and with perfect ease.
Again, if Conscientiousness and Benevolence are large, when you do the child a favour, let it see and feel it to be an act of pure disinterested kindness on your part, and a strong feeling of gratitude and sense of obligation will spring up spontaneously in its little busom, which may be increased by every successive garment, and ride, and favour, which the child receives at your hands, until it will become a ruling emotion. A strong desire to return these favours will be the result; your ascendancy over the child has now become complete ; your will has but to be known to be obeyed, and that with delight. But this picture is usually reversed. Parents generally transmit to their children those mental as well as physical
qualities which predominate in themselves. These are often large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Acquisitiveness, Self-esteem, Firmness, &c. The little sufferer gratifies his innate Destructiveness by tearing a leaf from a book given him to play with, or by breaking some valuable article. The angered parent catches up the unconscious offender, and gives him a severe box on the ears, or resorts to some more violent punishment. Of course the child becomes enraged, and cries long and loud, and receives another scolding and whipping to make him “hush up.” Its outraged Conscientiousness revolis at this cruel and unjust treatment, and this increases the flame of its anger; Destructiveness, already too large, becomes still larger by being violently and protractedly excited; the child is rendered mise. rable; its temper spoiled ; its brain inflamed; its gratitude and affection checked; its parental respect destroyed; peevishness engendered;
health impaired; and by the frequent repetition of such scenes, hatred and rebellion take up their permanent abode in the infantile bosom.
Or perhaps the little one makes a noise, which is as natural to it as breathing, and almost as necessary for the developement of his lungs and muscles. The parent commands silence; the little offender wishes and intends to obey, but, in obedience to the irresistible promptings of his nature, he soon forgets, and continues his noise. The irritated parent, who ought to rejoice in, and even join his little ones in these healthy and intellect-producing amusements, becomes angry; chastises the offenders, thereby kindling their anger; again outrages their sense of justice ; and creates those hard feelings, which, by being often repeated, grow into a settled dislike; the child does nothing willingly, but every thing poutingly; parental favours are forgotten; and the entire intercourse between parent and child, which might and ought always to be of the most delightful character, is unpleasant and cross-grained throughout ; each blaming and disliking the other. Thus, thousands of things which are as natural to children as hunger, and no more deserving of punishment, receive either chastisement, or sharp rebuke, which harrows up and hardens their tender susceptibilities, thus exciting their animal propensities, and thereby weakening their intellectual and moral powers. Now phrenology, by teaching the parent what is the normal and what the depraved manifestation of the several powers, and hence what to cultivate and what to punish, and also how to awaken any desired cur. rent of feeling or line of conduct, becomes of infinite service in the goverment and management of children.
It might be added, that much of the crossness and bad temper of children is caused by the irritating and improper diet, either of the
mother or child, or both. By inflaming the stomach, and thereby the system generally, the organs in the base of the brain, and Destructiveness in particular, are preternaturally excited, which produces a peevish and contrary disposition. This kind of bad temper is the result of disease, and thereby to be pitied, not punished, though it generally subjects the little sufferer to scoldings or chastisements. Punish the nurse, if any one-reform the diet and regimen of your child, and you will thereby subdue his bad temper. Bad children are made so mainly by bad management. Phrenology will also teach how effectually to employ the principle of diversion, or counteraction, that is, when you wish to subdue the action of a large and excited organ, how to divert the mind from the aggrieved object, by calling into sudden and powerful action, and that without apparent design, another still larger organ, which may be exercised with impunity, thus leaving the first-named faculty to cool off.
But all these beneficial results, capable of being derived from an application of the principles of phrenology, sink into insignificance, when compared with its application to the modification, moulding, and formation of the minds and characters of children, and, indeed, of every individual in reference to himself. To state this principle, is all that can be done here; its full elucidation would require a volume. The principle is this: Every faculty has its own appropriate aliment and stimulant, by the presentation of which it is excited, and its organ thereby enlarged, and by the removal of which its action is diminished, and its size thereby reduced. By teaching us the true nature and proper aliment of every faculty, and thus how to excite and how to allay each at pleasure-by distinctly pointing out first the excess or defect, and then the remedy, phrenology directs us how to change their relative power, and thus how to produce perfect and well-balanced characters and intellects, which is the greatest of all other desiderata.
It is a well-established principle of phrenology, that the more evenly and uniformly the organs are developed and balanced, the more harmonious and perfect, and the less liable to vice and excess, will be the character and conduct; and also that the larger an organ becomes, the more delight is taken in its exercise, and the greater is its tendency to spontaneous activity, which re-augments the size, and this again re-increases the activity; and also that the smaller an organ becomes, the less pleasure is found in its exercise, the less frequently is it called into action, and the more it remains quiescent, this inactivity rendering it still smaller, illustrating the Scripture doctrine, that "10 him that hath shall be given, and he shall have