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Self-esteem, and Combativeness, will become worse under misfor. tune or injustice, and will think of revenge, and of making others as miserable as himself, where another, with a different combination, would submit with serenity and resignation. But the fact, that such a difference of result does take place, only shows more forcibly the necessity of knowing the functions and laws of the primitive faculties.
It may be asked if exercise increases the size of the cerebral organs ? Analogy would lead us to suppose that it did, but we have no positive information on the subject. But as agility or quickness may be acquired without increase of muscle or nerve, it is also pro. bable that the cerebral organs may be made to work with greater activity from exercise, even when they do not increase in size.
Having considered the laws of exercise, Dr. Spurzheim proceeds, in the fourth chapter, to treat of the mutual influence of the faculties in exciting each other to activity. Thus, from the influence of Philoprogenitiveness upon Combativeness, females defend their young with more energy and resolution than any thing else ; and thus Acquisitiveness often calls Cautiousness and Secretiveness into action to gain its object. And thus, also, the Love of Approbation excites the intellectual faculties, as is daily seen in schools and in society. The intellectual faculties also excite and assist each other. Thus a person, with moderate Language and large Locality, in try. ing to commit to memory, will often succeed by mentally dividing the page into compartments, and fixing a few lines in each. It thus becomes an object of some consequence to ascertain the mental constitution of the individual; because, as the faculties most largely possessed always tend to act along with each other, the one may be used, when necessary, as a means of exciting another. This know. ledge, which is only to be found in phrenology, lies at the bottom of the doctrine of motives, for one will exert himself for praise, which another despises ; and a second will act from the hope of gratifying his large Acquisitiveness; and a third from an innate sense of duty; and a fourth from excessive constitutional activity, making rest painful to him. The insight into human nature which phrenology bestows upon its disciples, thus supplies them with an engine of immense power in the education and management of youth.
PRACTICAL UTILITY OF PHRENOLOGY.
BY O. S. FOWLER.
Phrenologists are often asked for the "cui bono," the practical utility of their science. “ Admitting its truth," says an objector, “of what use is it?" To reply briefly to this question, is the object of the present article.
Men now worship two deities, Wealth and Fame, with more than pagan idolatry; and value things in proportion as they further these objects. But this standard of valuation is evidently erroneous. Whatever can be made to augment human happiness, or to promote morality or virtue-to diminish or alleviate human suffering, or in any way to improve man physically, or mentally, or morally, is useful in proportion as it is capable of effecting these important but difficult objects. All this phrenology is calculated to accomplish. It is therefore useful
1. AS A STUDY. “ Knowledge is power.” Man is so constituted, that to study the laws and phenomena of nature—to witness chemical, philosophical, and other experiments—to explore the bowels of the earth, and to examine the beauties, the curiosities, and the wonders of its surface to learn lessons of infinite power and wisdom, as taught by astronomy--but more especially to study living, animated nature-to observe its adaptations and contrivances-in short, to study nature in all her beauty, and variety, and perfection, constitutes a source of the highest possible gratification of which the human mind is susceptible.
But the study of Man, of his nature and duties, his destinies and relations, and especially of man intellectually and morally, is as much more useful and important than the study of physical nature, as mind is superior to matter. Man, the lord of creation, is the grand climax, the master-piece of all God's works within our know. ledge, and man's mind the master-piece of man; so that the study of man's mind towers far above all others. Now phrenology has to do exclusively with man's mind, and if true, developes, and that in a tangible and simple form, so that he thai runs may read, the laws and phenomena of mind. This is "par excellence," the peculiar prerogative of this science. Let those who have groped their way through the mists of metaphysics, and who have caught only a glimpse of the light thrown by phrenology on the study of mind, judge between it and them.
Again, this same mind of man is the fountain-head from which springs most of his sufferings and enjoyments. Both the happiness and the misery experienced by it, are far more intense and acute than those of a merely physical organ. Now, since obedience to the laws of our mental constitution is the sole cause and medium of all our mental enjoyments, since their violation is the only and inevitable cause of all man's mental misery, and since phrenology, if true, developes and elucidates these very laws, the observance and the violation of which cause most of man's happiness and misery, it is self-evident that a knowledge of this science is the key that opens up to man all the hidden capabilities of enjoyment belonging to his nature, and will also enable him to remove, to a great extent, those causes of mental anguish and suffering which afflict either mankind in general, or individuals in particular. By fully and clearly analysing and unfolding the primary powers of the human mind, and thereby showing what is, and what is not, their natural, legitimate, and healthy function, and thus what actions and feelings are virtuous, and what sinful, phrenology will teach every one how to exercise his faculties in accordance with their primitive constitution, or in other words, how to obey the laws of his mental and moral nature, and thereby how to become the recipient of uninterrupted mental enjoy. meot.
2. “Know THYSELF,” was written in golden capitals upon the splendid temple of Delphos, as the most important maxim which the wise men of Greece could hand down to unborn generations. The Scriptures require us to “search our own hearts and try ourselves ;" and the entire experience of mankind bears testimony, that selfknowledge is the most important of all knowledge. A thorough knowledge of one's own self-of his good properties, and how to make the most of them; of his defects, and how to guard against the evils growing out of them; of his predispositions to, and sources of, temptation to excess and error, and the means of keeping these desires quiescent; of what he is capable of doing and of becoming, and what not; and wherein he is liable to err, either in judgment or conduct-is more intimately associated with his virtue, and happiness, and success through life than any other, than all other know. ledge united. Before he can correct any defect, he must know precisely in what that defect consists-must know the precise faculty that is too strong, or too weak, or wrongly exercised.
Now this very knowledge, phrenology, if true, furnishes, and that with the certainty attending physical demonstration. It will enable every individual to place his own fingers upon every element of his character; and in case his predominant Self-esteem has rendered him proud and self-conceited, or its deficiency led him to underrate his capabilities or moral worth, and produced diffidence, it will correct these estimates, and teach men precisely what they are. This principle will be rendered still more plain and forcible by employing a comparison. It is with mental as with physical vision, that objects take their appearances from the media through which they are observed. If you look through glasses that are coloured, or that magnify, or that minify, the objects observed will appear accordingly. Appearances would lead you to think that the appa. rent colour was the real one, though changing with every change in the colour of your glasses. But by knowing what coloured glasses you look through, you easily correct the error. Now, phrenology tells you precisely what coloured glasses you look through. Does Hope predominate, you look through magnifying glasses, which exaggerate every prospect. Without being told by phrenology that these splendid castles are all ideal, and merely the workings of overdeveloped Hope, you would think them real, and act upon them; but with this knowledge, you will avoid the evils consequent upon such action. Thus phrenology, properly applied, would prevent much of the speculation, over-trading, extravagance, &c. which cause most of those failures that are spreading distress throughout our land.
Is Hope small, the picture is reversed; but by telling you that your spirits flag only because you look through dark-shaded glasses, phrenology will effectually dispel this borrowed trouble about nothing.
Are you, as a professor of religion, borne down with an overwhelming sense of guilt, and unworthiness, and desert of punishment, accompanied with but feeble hopes of pardon, and many doubts and fears as to your salvation, phrenology will impart the "oil of joy for the spirit of heaviness,” by telling you that these feelings are caused by your predominant Cautiousness and Conscientiousness, and small Hope and Self-esteem, and not by your actual danger of perdition ; and that were the relative size of these organs reversed, your feel. ings also would be reversed, although in a far poorer way of gaining heaven. You are only looking through coloured glass.
Are you an over-anxious wife or mother, worrying your very life out of you about your husband or children, by telling you that these feelings are caused, not by any actual danger that threatens your beloved ones, but by your own groundless and whimsical fears, produced by your predominant Cautiousness, Philoprogenitiveness, and Adhesiveness, phrenology will dispel those foolish fears, and make you laugh at your own folly; whereas, but for this science, you would think them well grounded. It shows that you are afraid only because you are looking through coloured glasses. In these and a thousand similar ways, phrenology, if true, may easily and con. stantly be applied to the correction not only of false estimates of ourselves and others, but also of erroneous impressions, as well as wrong judgments, of men and things.
Again ; ambition is one of the most powerful elements of man's nature, and its gratification a source of real pleasure. Hence to excel, even though in an humble sphere, is productive of far more enjoyment than mediocrity in a higher sphere. Thus, to excel in some ordinary mechanical branch renders one much more happy, and enables him to get a better living, than to be an ordinary lawyer, because in the former case his ambition is gratified, but in the latter, mørtified. Hence to a young person in particular, just starting in the world, and indeed to all, a knowledge of phrenology, or, in its absence, a correct phrenological examination, might be made incalculably valuable.
Still further. The Creator evidently intends and adapts one man to fill one sphere of action, and another, another sphere. As he has adapted one tree to one quality of soil, and another to another; as he has made one flower to grow luxuriantly under the burning sun of the vernal exquinox, another to bud and blossom in perfection in a colder climate, and still another to vegetate only in the frozen regions of the poles; and as, by transplanting them, they all wither and die-as one tree or vegetable is constitutionally adapted to flourish only in the marsh, another in the arid sandbanks, and a third in the clefts of the rocks—as the fish of the sca, and the fowls of the air, and the whole range of animate and inanimate nature have each assigned to them their respective locations and limits, within which they flourish, and without which they die, the inference is well founded that the same is true of man- -that different individuals are designed for, and adapted to, different occupations ; that the constitutional qualities of one man, both mental and physical, best fit him to become a “tiller of the ground;" those of another, to practise successfully one of the mechanical arts; of another, to sway the popular will by smooth-tongued eloquence ; and of still another, to explore the works and wonders of nature.
Let parents but apply the principles of phrenology to the choice of occupations adapted to their children-let the agriculturist be located upon his farm, the mechanic in his workshop, the artist in his studio, the merchant behind his counter, the statesman in the halls of legislation, the teachers of morals and of letters in their