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have been highly cultivated. Whether or not the approximation of the eyes indicates a deficiency of the perceptive organs, which are the foundations of all art and science—it is clear, when we take an enlarged view of the matter, that the approximation of the eyes in front is characteristic of human superiority to animals. As we descend the scale of animal life from man and the monkey, through all the mammalia, birds, reptiles and fishes, we find the inter-orbitar mass more developed, while the eyes are more and more separated and thrust to the side, as we see in alligators, frogs and fishes. As the forehead is most prominent along the median line, it follows, necessarily, that the more the eyes are separated from the median line, the more (relatively) prominent they must become-hence we find in the lower and even in many of the higher orders of animals, the eye projects from the socket. In like manner in man the eyes may be prominent and widely separated without even a full developement of Language or of Form. I have seen a striking illustration of this in a half-witted negro boy in whose singular features might be observed a faint approximation to those of the horse. His nose was elongated and flattened, while his eyes were separated until they seemed to look in different directions.

As the eyes become separated, they sometimes partially assume the oblique position which is seen in the cat. This is the form which was first adopted by Dr. Gall as the indication of the faculty of Form—or rather the memory of persons. This feature, too, was considered by the great painter Le Brun, characteristic of the approximation of man to animals and indicative of a soul controlled by low or selfish propensities. Great men, heroes and sages, he thought, should be characterized by the opposite form—the elevation of the internal and depression of the external angle of the eye. There may be some truth in the suggestions of each—but Le Brun could not go beyond the empirical observationGall arrived at the rationale of the matter, and modified his first suggestion. In this and other details of the science we may still hope to attain a more satisfactory knowledge than has been given us by Gall and Spurzheim. Phrenologists should ever bear in mind, like the great English philosopher, that they have merely been gathering pebbles on the shore of the great ocean of Truth.

ARTICLE VI.

EXAMINATION OF PRISONERS IN GAOL.

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Mr. Barber, who was formerly Professor of Elocution in Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.,) and who is well known as a popular lecturer in various parts of the U. S., has, for the last two years, been delivering lectures on Phrenology in Great Britian. The Bath Herald of Feb. 13th, 1841, gives the following account of a visit made by Mr. B. and others, to the gaol located in that city.

Wednesday morning Mr. Barber, in company with a magistrate and several other gentlemen, made a visit to this prison; Mr. Barber examined the heads of a number of the prisoners in the presence of the parties before referred to, and of the gaoler and turnkey. We forbear, for obvious reasons, to mention names of prisoners; but the gaoler and turnkey were referred to in the cases that will be mentioned, after Mr. Barber's examination of each head. Necessarily a few only are selected :

No. 1. Mr. Barber pointed out the large size of Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness, the small size of Conscientiousness, Caution and Hope ; Firmness and Self-esteem were large. Inference: Mr. Barber thought this boy might have been often committed, and was gloomy and desponding in his character. The organization found in notorious thieves.

Each specification mentioned, confirmed by the gaoler and turnkey.

No. 2. Aged 12 years. A large head; active temperament; intellect large. The moral region in this head was fairly developed, but very inferior in size to Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness and Amativeness. Mr. Barber intimated that his plans for theft would be contrived, distinguished by address and cunning, and that the size of his head and intellect would give him a lead in iniquitous practices.

The gaoler stated that he was a leader of a gang of boys, that his skill and cunning were marked, and it was found that he was addicted to other vices connected with his organization, which had been particularly pointed out by Mr. Barber.

No. 3. Aged about 10 years. A superior lad to No. 1. A funny character, and capable of being reformed; committed for the first time.

His tendency to fun and tricks confirmed by the gaoler.

No. 4. A fair intellect, good-natured and funny; Acquisitiveness large; Cautiousness and Conscientiousness small; very capable of reformation.

Every particular confirmed by the gaoler and turnkey-committed for the first time.

No. 5. Mr. Barber requested to express his opinion of this character as violent, ruthless, sanguinary, and probably incorrigible.

Stated by the gaoler as a most dangerous character, and from whom he should expect personal violence more than any other person in the prison.

Many other heads were examined.

It was shown as a general fact, applicable to a large majority of the cases, that the organs of Self-esteem and Firmness, Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness, were large; Conscientiousness and Caution, and the reflective organs, decidedly small. In every case examined, the gaoler and turnkey confirmed Mr. Barber's opinion, with the exception of one notorious character, in whom, however, the organ of Conscientious was small, but whose career was ascribed by Mr. Barber and two other phrenologists who were present, to the dominating influence of circumstances. Those present at this examination were struck with the importance of phrenology as furnishing an efficient means for a classification of prisoners, founded on their respective developements; and great regret was expressed that the corrigible and incorrigible, as estimated by palpable differences in organization, should not be separated from each other. Speaking on grounds of probability, the differences in the above respect were great in several instances; and it

appears

that among about thirty individuals, two or three classes might be formed requiring differences of discipline, and especially of association of each other.

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EXTRACTS FROM MR. COMBE'S TOUR IN THE UNITED STATES.

Developement of the Brain in the Inhabitants of Boston.—New England was peopled chiefly by individuals who left their native homes for the sake of enjoying religious liberty in their new abodes; and the cerebral organization which such dispositions imply, appears to have descended to their posterity. In all countries which I have visited, I have remarked that the female head, although less in size, is more fully developed in the region of the moral sentiments, in proportion to the other regions, than that of the male; and Boston presents no exception to the rule. Here the female head is in general beautifully developed in the moral and intellectual departments, and the natural language of the countenance is soft, affectionate and rational. In the men, also, large moral and intellectual organs are very general; but Benevolence and Veneration are more frequently large than Conscientiousness. The cerebral organization of this people, taking them all in all, appears really to have been enlarged in the moral and intellectual regions by long cultivation, added to the influence of a favorable stock. Vol. i. p. 86.

November 17. Dr. Spurzheim's Skull and Brain.— In conversation Dr. Spurzheim more than once said to me, “ I hope that when I am dead they will not bury my skull. I wish it to be preserved as evidence of my natural dispositions. Posterity will judge by it whether I am a quack and a charlatan, as your Edinburgh Reviewer called me." His wish has been fulfilled; the Phrenological Society of Boston has preserved his skull, and his brain also, in alcohol; both are locked up in an iron safe, and form a very interesting addition to their collection of casts and skulls. The safe was opened to-day in presence of a committee of the society, and I inspected its contents. The skull is rather thicker than the average of British healthy skulls; the diploe presents large cells, but the surfaces are dense. It is thickened over Combativeness and Conscientiousness. The superorbiter plate of the skull is both broad from side to side, and long from the front backwards, indicating a large anterior lobe of the brain. The convolutions have left strong indentations in the bone, particularly those of the organ of Language. Under them the skull is very thin. The skull is thin also at Constructiveness, and there is a considerable sinus at Individuality and Size; but these organs are nevertheless large in the brain. I have heard Dr. Spurzheim converse fluently in German, French and English, and he wrote these three languages grammatically. I am not certain whether he spoke Italian, but rather infer from some incidental remarks of his that he did. He lectured without notes; and his language was exceedingly appropriate and pregnant with meaning. The brain is in perfect preservation; it is large, and shows a large anterior lobe and large coronal region, the convolutions here being plump and round. The base also is well developed ; but as it is floating in alcohol and hermetically sealed, I could examine it only through the glass. I perceived, however, that Coloring is deficient. The convolutions of Language and Form are large.

The convolutions of the Love of Life and Destructiveness are large. Those of Alimentiveness are less, and he was extremely temperate in his habits.

He was in his fifty-sixth year at the time of his death, and apparently changes had already begun to take place in his skull. During life he used to complain of his deficiency of Combativeness. The rude and

illiberal attacks that were made by the press, not only on his opinions, but on his character as a man, roused his Destructiveness and made him angry; but his deficiency in Combativeness rendered it extremely disagreeable to enter the lists as a combatant, in his own defence. He had a perfect command over his Destructiveness, but he felt its power. I have heard him say, “ I am too angry to answer this at present; I must wait till I am cool ;" and he would wait for weeks or months, until he could give a calm and philosophical reply. Vol. i. p. 135.

December 6. Colonel Burr.-I examined an authentic cast from nature, taken after death, of the head of the celebrated Colonel Burr, who killed Gen. Hamilton in a duel, and afterwards attempted to get up an insane expedition from Blannerhassett's Island in the Ohio, the precise object of which is not well ascertained. He died at an advanced age, and the brain may have shrunk; the head at death was of average size; the intellectual region was moderately well developed; the organs of Individuality, Size and Weight predominating. The organs of Amativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, Self-esteem and Firmness, were large. Those of the moral sentiments, particularly Conscientiousness, were remarkably deficient. The moral region was shallow, and also narrow. In short, it was that kind of head which is generally found in criminals. It indicated sensual, fierce, vindictive, cunning, and selfish dispositions, unrestrained by justice or humanity, but combined with great courage, determination, and perseverance. The intellect is acute, but neither profound nor comprehensive. Burr was an infamous and heartless seducer; a vindictive duellist; and an adept in plausibility and falsehood. He enjoyed some degree of intellectual reputation, but his general conduct showed that he was a shallow politician, a nonentity as a statesman, and a thirdrate lawyer. He loved his daughter dearly, and this was almost his only virtue. Vol. i. p. 144. .

Martin Van Buren. On the same occasion, I saw a cast from nature of the head of Mr. Martin Van Buren, the present President of the United States. The head is large; the anterior lobe is of ample dimensions in both regions. The base of the brain is largely developed; the coronal region is both broad and high. Secretiveness, Cautiousness, and Love of Approbation are very large, and Self-esteem is large. Acquisitiveness and Ideality are fully developed. Benevolence and Veneration are large. Firmness is rather less than Veneration, but not deficient, and Conscientiousness is only rather full, being the smallest of the moral organs.

This head indicates power, and on the whole presents many of the elements of an estimable character, The combination of great

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