be driven, but is contrary when opposed; enterprising; must do a big business or none, and charges high, not because he is fond of money, which he spends freely, but because he thinks his services worth more than those of others; radical; a doubter till he can see and know for himself; does his own thinking; speaks out his mind without disguise; not always judicious in his remarks; talks freely of himself; has much dont-care-ativeness, and treats with contempt those who cross his path ; a whole-souled friend, and will do any thing for those he likes, yet his indignation is powerful, and dislikes deep and lasting; all action and life; never one minute idle, but pushes his plans with great spirit, leaving no stone unturned; full of fun, yet his jokes are tart and cutting, and sting more than tickle; a first rate mechanic, but, having much taste, he should

engage in some nice mechanical business, or as an artist; gives strength and polish to all he does; so that his work looks well and lasts long; is one in thousands for his real native ingenuity and dexterity with tools, and can make any thing; carries a remarkable steady hand; excells in fitting every thing to its place, and giving proportion to all he makes. Here Mr. Ingram asked what sort of a Physician he would make; Mr. F. replied that he was too proud and not sufficiently affable for a doctor, but his very superior mechanical powers with Destructiveness, would enable him to excel as a Surgeon, and to stand foremost as a Surgeon Dentist. I say, unequivocally, that this is the ruling point of his character, and rarely equalled by any one. He must have every thing in order, is a great observer; can do his own talking; is full of apt comparisons, and can make himself agreeable. Observe distinctly, that my brother will emphasize this gentleman's mechanical talent, his Weight, Self-esteem, Firmness, and Combativeness.

By L. N. Fowler. This gentleman has an active mind; is liable to go to extremes ; Self-esteem large and active, and has been cultivated; has a good opinion of himself and what he can do; wishes to be at the head and take the lead; thinks he can do a little better than others; likes his own way best, and generally has it; if others think well of him, it is well, if not, just as well; can be set and stubborn is opposed; is fund of opposition; is radical and original in his views; is sarcastic and pointed in his jokes; is a strong positive friend or enemy; is no half-way man in any thing; has versatility of talent; can do almost any thing he wishes; loves variety and has a roving mind; is benevolent and obliging; not very devotional or spiritually minded, yet has no objection to others being very pious; is not marvelously disposed except when he is relating an anecdote where he had a hand in what was done, then the story loses nothing by passing through his hands; has much ingenuity; can use

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tools with facility; is a natural workman; has a correct eye; is fond of the fine arts, also of the perfect and beautiful; is a great observer of men and things; has much curiosity, and is anxious to see and know what is going on; is a matter of fact man, and has the news as early as any one; has a good local memory; would make a good marksman ; can carry a very steady hand, and keep his balance well; is quite fond of order; has a place for every thing; is much annoyed if others misplace or disturb his things ; can make money better than he can keep it; and charges high for his services, not because he loves money, but because he thinks they are worth it; as a physician, would be governed by experience and observation; would make a first rate dentist; is naturally qualified for that profession; is quite a talker; has fair powers of reflection, and is much disposed to criticise.




In the first place, let us take a brief retrospective survey of the different faculties, and attend to their relations to outward objects, and their relative dignity in the scale of excellence. The faculties are divided into Propensities common to man with the lower animals, Sentiments common to man with the lower animals, Sentiments proper to man, and Intellect. Every faculty stands in a definite relation to certain external objects; when it is internally active it desires these objects; when they are presented to it, they excite it to activity and delight it with agreeable sensations; and all human happiness and misery is resolvable into the gratification or denial of gratification of one or more of our faculties, including in these the external senses, and all the feelings connected with our bodily frame. The first three faculties, Amativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, and Adhesiveness, or the group of the domestic affections, desire a conjugal partner, offspring, and friends—the obtaining of these affords them delight—the removal of them occasions pain. But to render an individual happy, the whole faculties must be gratified harmoniously, or at least the gratifications of one or more must not offend any of the others. The animal faculties are all blind in their impulses, and inferior in their nature to the moral and intellectual powers; and hence,

* From number 11 of the Edinburgh Phrenological Journal.

if we act in such a manner as to satisfy them to the displeasure of the higher powers, the moment the animal excitement ceases, which, by the nature of the faculties, it will soon do, that instant unhappiness will overtake us. For example, suppose the group of the domestic affections to be highly interested in an individual, and strongly to desire to form an alliance with him, but the person so loved is improvident and immoral, and altogether an object which the faculties of Self-esteem, Love of Approbation, Benevolence, Veneration, Conscientiousness, and Intellect, if left dispassionately to survey his qualities, could not approve of; then, if an alliance be formed with him under the ungovernable impulses of the lower faculties, bitter days of repentance must necessarily follow when these begin to languish, and the higher faculties receive daily and hourly offence from his qualities. If, on the other hand, the domestic affections are guided by intellect to an object pleasing to the higher powers, then these themselves are gratified, they double the delights afforded by the inferior faculties, and render the enjoyment permanent.

The great distinction between the animal faculties and the powers proper to man is, that the former are all selfish in their desires, while the latter disinterestedly long for the happiness of others Even the domestic affections, amiable and respectable as they undoubtedly are when combined with the moral feeling, are, in their own nature, purely selfish. The love of children, springing from Philoprogenitiveness, when acting alone, is the same in kind as that of the miser for his gold; an intense interest in the object, for the sake of the gratification it affords to a feeling of his own mind, without regard for the object on its own account. In man, this faculty generally acts along with Benevolence, and a disinterested desire of the happiness of the child mingles along with and elevates the mere instinct of Philoprogenitiveness; but the sources of the affections are different, their degrees vary in different persons, and their ends are also dissinılar. The same observation applies to the affection proceeding from Adhesiveness; when this faculty acts alone, it desires, for its own satisfaction, a friend to love; but, if Benevolence do not act along with it, it cares nothing for the happiness of that friend, except in so far as his welfare is necessary to its own gratification. The horse in a field mourns when his companion is removed; but the feeling appears to be one of personal uneasiness at the absence of an object which gratified his Adhesiveness. His companion may be led to a richer pasture, and introduced to more agreeable society, yet this does not assuage the distress suffered by him at his removal; his tranquility, in short, is restored only by time causing the activity of Adhesiveness to subside, or by the substitution of another


object on which he may expend it. In human nature the effect of the faculty, when acting singly, is the same; and this accounts for the fact of the almost total indifference of many persons who are really attached, by Adhesiveness, to each other, when one falls into misfortune and becomes a disagreeable object to the Self-esteem and Love of Approbation of another. Suppose two persons, elevated in rank, and possessed of affluance, to have each Adhesiveness, Self-esteem, and Love of Approbation large, with Benevolence and Conscientiousness moderate, it is obvious, that, while both are in prosperity, they may really like each other's society, and feel a reciprocal attachment, because there will be mutual sympathy in their Adhesiveness, and the Self-esteem and Love of Approbation of each will be gratified by the rank and circumstance of his friend; but imagine one of them to fall into misfortune, and to cease to be an object gratifying to Self-esteem and Love of Approbation, suppose that he becomes a poor friend instead of a rich and influential one, the harmony between their selfish faculties will be broken, and Adhesiveness in the one who remains rich will transfer its affection to another individual who may gratify it, and also supply agreeable sensations to Self-esteem and Love of Approbation-to a genteel friend, in short, who will look well in the eye of the world.

Much of this conduct occurs in society, and the whining complaint is very ancient, that the storms of adversity disperse friends just as the winter winds strip leaves from the forest that gaily adorned it in the sunshine of summer; and many moral sentences are pointed and episodes finely turned on the selfishness and corruption of poor human nature. But such friendships were attachments founded on the lower feelings, which, by their constitution, are selfish, and the desertion complained of is the fair and legitimate result of the principles on which both parties acted during the gay hours of prosperity. If we look at the head of Sheridan, we perceive large Adhesiveness, Self-esteem, and Love of Approbation, with deficient reflecting organs and moderate Conscientiousness. He has large Individuality, Comparison, Secretiveness, and Imitation, which gave him talents for observation and display. When these earned him a brilliant reputation, he was surrounded by friends, and he himself probably felt attachment in return. But his deficient morality prevented him from loving his friends with a true, disinterested, and honest regard; he abused their kindness, and, as he sunk into poverty and wretchedness, and ceased to be an honor to them, or to excite their Love of Approbation, they almost all deserted him. But the whole connexion was founded on selfish principles; Sheridan honored them, and they flattered Sheridan; and the abandonment was the

natural consequence of the cessation of gratification to their selfish feelings. We shall by and by point out the sources of a loftier and a purer friendship, and its effects.

To proceed with the propensities—Combativeness and Destructiveness also are in their nature purely selfish. If aggression is committed against us, Combativeness draws the sword and repels the attack; Destructiveness inflicts vengeance for the offence; both feelings are obviously the very opposite of benevolent. We do not say that in themselves they are despicable or sinful; on the contrary, they are necessary, and, when legitimately employed, highly useful; but still self is the object of their supreme regard.

The next organ is Acquisitiveness; and it is eminently selfish. It desires blindly to possess, is pleased with accumulating, and suffers great uneasiness in being deprived of its objects. There are friendships,

. particularly among mercantile men, founded on Adhesiveness and Acquisitiveness, just as in fashionable life they are founded on Adhesiveness and Love of Approbation. Two individuals fall into a course of dealing, by which each reaps profit by transactions with the other; this leads to intimacy, and Adhesiveness probably mingles its influence, and produces a feeling of actual attachment. The moment, however, the Acquisitiveness of the one suffers the least inroad from that of the other, and their interests clash, they are apt, if no higher principle unite them, to become bitter enemies. It is probable that, while these fashionable and commercial friendships last, the parties may employ and profess great reciprocal esteem and regard, and that, when a rupture takes place, the party who is depressed, or disobliged, may recall these expressions and charge them as hypocritical ; but they really were not so; each probably felt from Adhesiveness something which they colored over, and perhaps believed to be dis.nterested friendship; but if each would honestly probe his own conscience, he would be obliged to acknowledge that the whole basis of the connexion was selfish; and hence, that the result is just what every man ought to expect who places his reliance for happiness chiefly on the lower propensities.

Secretiveness is also selfish in its nature; for it suppresses feelings that might injure us with other individuals, and desires to find out secrets that may enable its possessor to guard against hostile plots or designs. In itself it does not desire, in any respect, the benefit of others. Selfesteem is, in its very essence and name, selfish; it is the love of ourselves, and the esteem of ourselves par excellence. Love of Approbation, although many think otherwise, is also in itself a purely selfish feeling. Its real desire is applause to ourselves, to be esteemed ourselves, and if

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