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tion of society to remain profligate and uninstructed, in the idea that their rank places them above the reach of public opinion. The legitimate remedy for this evil, is to refine and instruct to the highest possible degree the industrious classes of the community; and when they are able to exhibit elegant manners and enlarged understandings, nature will assert her own superiority, and factitious pretensions will sink in public estimation like the tattooed face and pendant nasal ornaments of the savage. We believe it quite possible to render a merchant or manufacturer a gentleman, in the proper sense of that term, by a judicious course of moral and intellectual cultivation.

On another point also we differ from Mr. Campbell. He proposes that the education of boys should be finished before they begin to learn a trade; and proposes four years, from fourteen to eighteen, as a period for study, adding, that on inquiry he is informed that a young man may continue his education till the latter age consistently with learning his business. Looking at the order in which the organs of the faculties are developed, and at the changes in the condition of the brain by which the exercise of mental energy is affected, we perceive that prior to eighteen, the organs of the propensities, sentiments and perceptive or knowing powers, such as Individuality, Language, Locality, Form, Number, and Tune, are in the highest state of maturity; and that it is not till twenty or upwards that the reflecting organs have attained their full size; and farther, that it is not till after majority that the constitution of the brain has been perfected, so as to render it capable of the most powerful manifestations. Following the order of nature, therefore, we would teach children morality and virtuous conduct, and also initiate them in all the varieties of simple knowledge, before the age of fourteon; we would send them to learn a trade from fourteen to eighteen, and from eighteen to twenty-two we would combine attendance on classes of philosophy with the practice of the duties of their profession. The details of business do not require a greater portion of understanding than is possessed from fourteen to eighteen, while the higher branches of moral and physical science require a mature intellect and some experimental knowledge of the relations of society to enable the mind to enter upon them with delight, and draw practical benefits from their study. Farther, one great cause of the education that is at present bestowed being partially lost, is the entire separation of learning from business. The boy is a scholar till he goes to the shop or counting-house; and when he goes there he is a merchant or trader, and lays aside all his literature, science, and school acquirements, as obsolete exercises of boyhood. He never thinks of study as a relaxation from business, or as an agreeable recrea

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tion for leisure hours; and, until this habit shall be attained, education will not have triumphed. The great object ought to be to keep the intel lect and higher sentiments of the industrious classes habitually awake, and to give them an interest in every thing that is calculated to support the activity of those powers, and afford them gratification; and this will never be accomplished till they are trained to look on themselves not only as individuals pursuing exclusive and personal objects, but as citizens of the world, interested in the great principles which regulate the happiness or misery of the species. They must be taught to pass from the counting-house to classes of philosophy, and from the halls of science to the ware-house, as transitions natural, useful and becoming; and to regard personal industry and elevated reflection as fitted each to confer grace, dignity and usefulness on the other. There is no degradation in labor; and the highest intelligence is not incompatible with the most animated exertions in the duties of life. A conviction of the truth of this observation cannot be too widely diffused among the inhabitants of Britian; for its practical application would constitute their glory and their strength.Edinburgh Phren. Jour.

MISCELLANY.

Religion and Phrenology.- *** It appears to me to be by no means desirable that Phrenologists should pay any attention to that class of objectors who reiterate the charge that their system is opposed to Religion. Every science has in some stage of its progress received a similar attack, and the friends of Phrenology will surely be enabled to bear their fate, in this respect, with tolerable equanimity when they call to mind the fact that the individuals who in the present day accuse them of promulgating doctrines subversive of Religion, are the worthy descendants and representatives of the class who some few centuries back brought a similar charge against the teachers of Astronomy, and who in later days, when religion still survived, although the first principles of Astronomical Science had become familiar truth, transferred the charge to the students of Geology. Undismayed by the attack, the Geologists steadily continued their observations and multiplied their proofs. Religion still survived, and their accusers (who seem tenaciously to cling to the belief that they must eventually succeed in discovering some science which shall be subversive of religion) unwilling to let the charge lie idle, immediately directed it against Phrenology. The probability is, that, like its predecessors, this science will survive the attack, and as it has already resisted its force for thirty or forty years, it seems likely, judging from past experience, that some new discovery will shortly rise up, against which the old piece of artillery will be required, that it will therefore be considered expedient to withdraw it from Phrenology, and that although the system will then be suffered quietly to progress, Religion will still retain its vitality and extend its influence.

Let us hope, therefore, that the field of science may yet be enlarged by many new discoveries, sufficient to afford constant employment to these worthy persons; while at the same time we need not necessarily relinquish the belief that the day will never arrive which will enable them to afirm that they have at length met with the object of their persevering search !”—Communicated by M. B. Sampson, London.

Head-ache caused by over-excitement of certain mental faculties.The following is an extract from a letter directed to Mr. L. N. Fowler, while recently lecturing on Phrenology in one of the N. England states. The letter was written by a very intelligent lady-the wife of a clergyman; and, we are assured, that the facts here stated, may be relied upon as strictly correct. Such facts, we presume, are by no means of unfrequent occurrence: were the attention of persons properly directed to the subject, almost any number might be collected. Mrs. R-writes thus—“For some months past, I have experienced a very great degree of pain in my head which I have endeavored to account for phrenologically, for this reason, viz: that it was always attendant upon unusual excitement of mind. This pain has been so severe at times, that I have feared it might terminate in dropsy of the brain. Still I cannot be satisfied with this conclusion, because the pain, though severe, frequently shifts its position, which I think would not be the case in dropsy. Since Lecture last evening, I have examined the subject more fully, and called to mind more distinctly, the particular location of the distress, which I was better able to do from the extreme acuteness of suffering that I have lately experienced. Allow me first to ask one question, viz: if pain be produced in the region of one organ which is overexcited, is it unreasonable to suppose that, where there is great nervous excitability of temperament, several organs may be excited and cause pain at the same time, or successively? Now this is the fact respecting myself—when I suffer pain in any part of my head, there is perfect correspondence on both sides of it. I have felt it distinctly at these various points. In the region of Constructiveness, this has frequently been the case, after I have been cutting out a large quantity of work, and racking my invention

do it in the best and most economical manner; and also whenever I have been contriving plans or inventing games of amusement, or any thing of the kind, for my children's profit or pleasure. Again: Such are my circumstances, that great care devolves upon me the education of my children, the management of my domestic concerns, the control and disposal, to a great extent, of our finances; add to this, the absolute necessity of keeping up my spirits whether sick or well, in sunshine or in storm, in prosperity or in adversity. At such times, the pain has been directly through the head, as it seemed to me, where the organs of Combativeness and Destructiveness are located; and I have felt like this: “Die I may, but go forward I must." When attending closely to any discourse or reading argumentative subjects that require deep thought, my forehead is subject to distress and sometimes severe pain. I frequently suffer pain in the regin", ..

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ality and Ideality; and could enumerate many instances of this kind. One more fact only will I now mention. I am troubled often with pain over the eyes, and have noticed that whenever my children have disarranged every thing about the house, I am exceedingly annoyed, and after going about and replacing every thing in order, my head is very sensibly relieved."

Appeal to the Clergy.-A correspondent sends us a communication from Upper Canada, under the signature of “ Clericus,” which contains some very good remarks upon the bearing of Phrenology on religion, with an answer to the objections that the science leads to Materialism, Fatalism, &c. As the same topics have been somewhat fully discussed in the Journal, we have room only to present a single paragraph of the present communication. Says this writer: Upon the clergy, above all others, does the voice of suffering call

to them does every principle of duty appeal, that putting on the whole armour of righteousness, they should inquire into the nature and bearings of a discovery—which is to the mind what the discovery of the circulation of the blood is to the body, and which, if true, as much as the interests of the soul exceed those of the body, and as much as the salvation of the former surpasses the preservation of the latter—is of so much more importance to man-it behooves the clergy, I say, to inquire with careful, patient and impartial examination, whether it be true-taking care, above all things, that they do not lightly reject the handywork of the Almighty. The only conclusion which any reasonable or thinking man can arrive at, after such an investigation, is that the grand principles of Phrenology are truethat they are founded in nature, and are the work of Nature's God."

Phrenology in Vienna.-R. R. Noel, Esq., who has recently spent several years in Germany and Austria, mentions the following interesting fact in relation to his visit at Vienna. “Of Vienna I could say much too-of interest which Prince Metternich (one of Gall's earlest pupils) and many members of the first families there, take in Phrenology. Indeed, it was principally owing to my being a phrenologist, that I received great attention from Prince Metternich, and introductions to the heads of the different institutions to facilitate my observations in Vienna."

The Chinese, Craniologists.- In a descriptive catalogue of the Chinese Museum, in this city, drawn up by Professor E. C. Wines—who is well acquainted with the character of that people we find this statement: “ The Chinese put faith in the external developements of the skull, and are, therefore, to a certain extent, phrenologists. They look for the principal characteristics of a man in his forehead, and of a woman in the back of the cranium."

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Mr. Geo. Combe intends visiting Germany the present season: one of his leading objects is undoubtedly the advancement of Phrenology in the interior of Europe.

Dr. Charles Caldwell is now on a visit to Great Britain and France.

Mr. Combe's tour in the United States is just published in two volumes, and will be farther noticed in the Journal.

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ARTICLE I. PARENOLOGY AND ANTI-PAREXOLOGY; or Review of Select Discourses on the func

tions of the Nervous System in opposition to Phrenology, &cı, by Dr. Smith, of New York.

(Continued from page 309.) Having now stripped the proposition laid down by Professor Smith as the embodiment of Phrenology, of irrelevant matter, corrected their errors and exposed their misrepresentations, we will re-state them in such form as to represent correctly phrenological doctrines.

1. The brain is the organ of the mind.
2. The mind is endowed with a plurality of innate faculties.

3. Each of these faculties manifests itself through the medium of a particular organ; of which organs the brain is a congeries. 4. The power

of manifesting each faculty bears a constant and uniform relation, other things being equal, to the size of the organ of such faculty.

5. The outer surface of the skull corresponds so neatly with the form of the brain, that the relative size of these different organs can be ascertained during life.

On comparing these propositions with those laid down by Professor Smith, it will be seen that they differ very materially. The argument is therefore “virtually concluded,” for his attack is made not upon the science in which we believe, but on a so-called phrenology of his own 'invention. We will proceed, however, and in the first place examine two objections which the professor brings forward against the logical correctness of phrenologists.

On page 94 he commences his attack on the doctrine of distinct organs, by demanding the evidence on which it is based. We confidently refer him to nature, to collections of casts and busts, and to the plates and writings of phrenologists. But to them he declines to go. This doctrine, he says, " is an inference and has to be adduced (?) so far as it can

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