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pointed out the wretched organization and peculiar features in the skulls of many murderers, suicides, &c. Since that time, as you are aware, Seiler has procured a large collection of casts from Edinburgh and Paris, and all the phrenological works, including Vimont; which, added to the large collection of national skulls, those of suicides, murderers, and the insane, with numerous interesting cases of disease in the bones of the skull, form admirable means for carrying conviction to the minds of all desirous of studying the science. It was my wish, the first winter I passed in Dresden, to give public lectures on phrenology; but diffidence of my own powers, bad health, and the want of a collection of casts, in the first instance, and, latterly, the promise of Seiler to lecture himself, and the hope thus excited of seeing the science in the ablest hands, induced me to confine my efforts to private circles, and to visiting prisons, seminaries, and institutions for the deaf and dumb, the blind, &c.; on which occasions I succeeded in convincing many of the authorities, and most intelligent classes, of the sound foundation on which phrenology rests, and the truth of its leading principles. In short, phrenology became quite “the rage," and a great many lasting adherents, belonging to the most distinguished families, were gained. In all the circles in which I had an opportunity of judging--and these included nearly the whole of the educated classes I found phrenology at least spoken of with respect. Many of the first medical' men besides Seiler, as Drs. Hedenus, Choulaut, Von Ammon, Hille, Weigel, Reichenbach, Gunther, Schon, &c., either then or later have expressed to me their conviction of the truth of phrenology, or have confessed that they know not one sound argument to be brought forward against it.
With regard to the promised lectures by Seiler, they have not yet been given, and I fear never will, owing to his advancing age, extensive practice, duties as professor of anatomy, &c. There are, nevertheless, many young physicians and others in Dresden, who feel a warm interest in phrenology, if they do not take active steps to promote its progress ; and there is no fear that it will ever fall into oblivion. A friend of mine, a medical man, has lately written a short article entirely in favor of the science, and calling attention to the degree of cultivation it experiences in England, Scotland and America; this I have induced Mr. Brockhaus, in Leipzig, the editor of the “Conversations Lexicon der Gegenwart," to admit into that widely circulated work. Another friend, Dr. Cotta, a distinguished geologist, published in 1836, a translation of the article by Chenevix, with Spurzheim's notes, from the Foreign Quarterly Review. Many articles on phrenology have appeared in different periodicals since I have resided in Germany; but most of them
have been written in a spirit adverse to the science. In 1834, Heiker's Physiological and Medical Review contained a long review, in two of its numbers, of Dr. Hirschfeld's translation of your “System,” from the pen of Dr. Ideler. Upon the whole, it was written in an impartial tone; many of the principles of the science were warmly advocated, and it conveyed some admirable and profound reflections on the unfruitfulness of mere metaphysical speculations. Last year a long article on phrenology appeared in Most's “Encyklopadie der gesamniten Staatsarzeneikunde," a valuable work, now in the course of publication.
But I must now say a few words of Bohemia. In this country, the number of those who take an active part in promoting the diffusion of phrenological knowledge, is far greater than in Saxony. Among the first converts whom I was instrumental in gaining, were the Counts Francis and Leo Thun, members of one of the highest and most distinguished families of the land. Count Francis procured, last year, a large collection of casts from Deville, which, joined to the copies of those which Seiler and myself have taken in Dresden during the last seven years, and casts of the national skulls brought to Europe by the celebrated traveller Baron Hugel, enable him to produce a sufficient number of facts to carry conviction to every unprejudiced mind. His apartments in Prague are liberally thrown open to all who take an interest in the science, and during last winter upwards of thirty converts to phrenology, amongst whom were seven medical men, met in them at stated intervals to discuss and to communicate information on the subject. The science, too, received considerable encouragement in Prague last winter, owing to an acknowledgment which Dr. Hirtel, the professor of Anatomy in the University, made to his class at the conclusion of his lectures on the brain. His words, as reported to me by a person present, were as follows: “You see, gentlemen, that we are now well acquainted with the general appearance of the brain, but that, according to the method of investigation hitherto adopted, we know nothing whatever of the functions of this highly complicated organ. Many, therefore, say the anatomy of the brain is a fruitless study; fruitless, however, is only the way in which it is pursued. The phrenologists have pointed out to us another way, which will doubtless be followed out further. People are satisfied, in general, with laughing at their doctrines; beware of following such an example; for although I do not believe in all the details of the present system, yet I am satisfied it contains much more than is usually supposed, and that it is destined to throw much light on the functions of the different parts of this organ.”
PATHALOGICAL FACT CONFIRMATORY OF PHRENOLOGY.
MR. O. S. FOWLER—Believing that the following case would not only be interesting to yourself, but also to the public, I take pleasure in recording and communicating it.
About the first of March, 1835, I was called to see a lad, H. McA., aged eight years. He had been sick some twelve or fourteen days. His disease had approached very gradually and had been neglected, owing to the sickness of his father, who had lain at the point of death for some time, and finally died, but three days previous to my visit to the boy. I was informed by his mother, that he had for several days simply complained that he was unwell-next that his head ached—then that he could not sleep at night, he heard so many strange noises. In short, he had inflammation of the brain; and when I first saw him, had fever of a low grade; was pale, restless, wakeful, delirious, and was screaming, • Oh, dear! Oh, dear! My head! My head!" while his countenance was expressive of the utmost anguish. He would often seize upon a word that he heard, as when offered water, he would repeat the word “water ! water !" from five to twenty times in the same sharp key or tone, which was exceedingly painful to the attendants who were compelled to hear it. In order to obtain some relief to my own ear,
I would frequently pronounce some other word, that he might catch it, and thus change somewhat the sound, which had from its monotony become so painful. Before he became so much reduced, as he necessarily did, from the disease and treatment, when asked where his pain was, he would uniformly place his hands upon the sides of his head, over and in front of the ears and say, “my
head! head !” Notwithstanding he was treated very vigorously in the outset, yet no amendment of symptoms took place till his head was shaved and two large blisters were applied, one on each side of the head. These were kept open and discharging for two weeks. From their first application, he gradually grew better, and finally recovered.
As soon as he was sufficiently restored to be about his usual business, a remarkable change was observed in his character. Before his sickness, he was quite noted in his neighborhood for his manliness, kindness, integrity and obedience. The father being a very intemperate man, the mother chiefly supported the family with her needle. This boy was consequently employed to do a great many errands and other little domestic business, usually done by older persons, such as making purchases
at the market and groceries--procuring fuel, &c., all of which he did with correctness and fidelity. But after his sickness, when set about the same kind of business as formerly, he would keep part of the money given him from time to time to make purchases, and squander it for candy and trinkets. He would moreover borrow money in his mother's name, of the neighbors and grocery men, where he had been accustomed to trade, on pretence that his mother wanted it to pay rent, &c. In this way, too, he would obtain money and clandestinely go to the circus, contrary to express command; and thus was continually cheating and deceiving his mother-yet when accused of the falsehood or theft, he would never deny but readily acknowledge it, seem to be sorry and promise amendment, but would straightway go and do the same things, till he became quite as notorious for his deception and dishonesty, as he had formerly been for his candor and integrity. The mother, grieved and wearied out with his delinquences, determined to send him into the country in order to remove him from temptation and reclaim him if possible. He remained some time, and returned somewhat improved, but it was six months, as she informs me, before he was fully restored; since which time, to the present, he continues to be, as before his sickness, a good and honest boy. He is now fourteen years of age. The mother and boy are both still residents of this city, besides several other living witnesses, who can and will testify to the same facts.
To the Phrenologist, who has turned his attention to the subject and acquainted himself with the numberless facts of a similar kind, that abound in every community, this case is neither new, nor remarkable, nor inexplicable; but to those who reject phrenology and adhere to the old systems of Locke, Reid, Stewart, Brown, et ceteri, it will prove a sort of Gordian knot, that must be cut, not untied.
The above communication is at your service, to be used for the benefit of the science and the public.
I have several other cases of a different character, bearing upon other points of phrenology, which I may present at another time. Very respectfully yours, &c.
W. W. REID. Rochester, N. Y., Jan. 16, 1841.
IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION. As to the ADVANTAGES OF EDUCATION, Phrenology communicates precise and irresistable convictions on this important point. The human faculties consist of animal propensities, moral sentiments and intellectual
powers; they have a natural tendency to activity, greater or less in proportion to the size of their organs, and, being active, each serves to suggest certain desires, emotions, or intellectual conceptions, to the mind. The organs of the propensities, namely, Amativeness, Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, &c., are the largest; those of the moral sentiments, the next in size, and the intellectual organs, the smallest. Farther, the propensities and sentiments are mere blind impulses, which lead to happiness and virtue when well directed, and to misery and vice when misapplied. Thus, Combativeness and Destructiveness, when directed by Benevolence and Justice, give boldness, enterprise, and energy to the character, and fit a man for becoming the terror of the wicked and the foe of the oppressor; when left unguided, they may lead to furious contention, indiscriminate outrage, cruelty and murder. In like manner, the moral sentiments require direction; Benevolence, unenlightened by intellect, may lead to hurtful profusion; Veneration, unguided by reflection, may degenerate into superstition; and, lastly, the intellectual powers having the smallest organs, possess the least natural energy, and require not only the most assiduous cultivation to give them activity, but, being in their own nature mere general capacities for observation and reflection, demand a vast store of knowledge as materials for their exercise. The organ of Language, for example, requires not only to be vigorously exercised to produce facility in writing or speaking; but, as the mind is not informed by instruction of the meaning of words, labor and attention must be bestowed to acquire a knowledge of terms, as materials on which the faculty of Language may exercise its powers. In short, nature, by means of this organ, gives the mind a capacity to learn words, and after they are learned, to use them; but she does not inspire us with a knowledge of their signification, in the same way as she implants in the bee an instinctive tendency to resort to particular flowers that contain honey. By means of the organ of Causality, she enables the mind to reason and to anticipate results; but this also is a mere general power, and requires for its successful exercise, an extensive observation of their occurrences and their effects: it does not instinctively anticipate the future; but, after the mind has discovered, by observation, that fire communicated to gunpowder, produces explosion, it gives the feeling that the same train of occurrences will happen again, and enables the individual to regulate his conduct in the knowledge of this result.
An uneducated mind, therefore, is one in which animal impulses run riot-strong, vivacious and undirected; in which moral sentiments sometimes shed the benign influence of their proper nature, but oftener sug. gests wild wanderings by their misdirected energy, and in which the