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vain entreated Essex to desist from the proceedings which caused his ruin. They parted on bad terms in consequence. Bacon reckoned the last act of Essex no better than madness. When ruin closed around him, Bacon did not desert him. Risking and encountering the displeasure of the queen on behalf of a friend of whose conduct he did not approve, Bacon did every thing that ingenious remonstrance and affectionate entreaty could do with her majesty, in behalf of the ill-advised earl. It is true that, at the command of her majesty, Bacon appeared as one of her majesty's counsel against his former friend. But not to mention the compulsion laid upon him by the duties of his office, and the risk of implication in the treasons of his patron, consequent upon refusal, the opportunity which it gave him of mitigating the severity of accusation-of more effectually securing the interests of his friend at court-viewed as these things ought to be, in connection with the mildness of his manner of conducting the case, his choice of a part the least prominent possible, and the disinterestedness and dexterity with which he urged the queen for the pardon and restoration of Essex, appear to place his conduct on this occasion in a light less equivocal than that in which it has been generally displayed by many of those who have narrated the circumstances. When commanded by the queen and her council to draw up a declaration of the treasons of Robert Earl of Essex, it was found necessary to alter and embitter it considerably, the attachment of Bacon having softened down his statement so much, that it was reckoned too mild for the nature of the case, and her majesty remarked on first reading it, I see old love is not easily forgotten.'

Bacon's moral organs are not equal in size to his intellectual. Although not particularly deficient in this respect, as compared with average brains, his head is rather deep and broad, than high and elevated. A phrenologist would not select him as an illustration of great moral or religious endowments. He would not compare him with a Fenelon or a Melancthon, nor ascribe to him the sublime virtues of a Howard or a Washington. Neither would he liken him to the moral monsters of the race-to a Vitellius, a Caligula, or a Pope Alexander VI. He would suppose that, under the influence of very great temptation, such an individual might fall, but could not believe that there existed in him any inherent love of vice. In short, he would not pronounce him remarkably vicious or virtuous. And especially he would not, through any love of antithesis, call him “The wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind.” For without great injustice he could not thus denominate him. In no sense, indeed, can Bacon be called a mean man. A mean man is one that passes through life, absorbed in grovelling and selfish pursuits, without an elevated aim or object. But we see Bacon, from his youth upwards, from the hour, when a boy of sixteen, he detected the errors of the Aris!otelean philosophy and resolved to dissipate them, throughout his whole life, cherishing the sublimest thoughts, studious and medi. tative, and devoted to one great purpose—a student of law, resisting the allurements of pleasure, and bestowing his leisure hours upon that wonderful work from the publication of which he could antici. pate no accession to his fame or fortune during his own life—at the pinnacle of political greatness, seizing the favourable moment, though at some risk to his worldly prospects, to enlist the prejudices of man in the cause of truth ; and again, when the storm burst round him, and every selfish interest in life was for ever cut off-his fair fame blurred and blighted-himself poor and deserted—the same devotion to truth, the same desire to serve mankind, entirely possesses him, and he dedicates the remainder of his days to that posterity in whose service he had employed the vigour of his profound and brilliant mind. To that posterity he left his name and deeds, as if confident that the glorious disinterestedness which had in so great a degree marked the one, might perhaps wipe away the stain from the other, or at least cover it with the broad mantle of an enlightened charity.

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ARTICLE II.

A REMARKABLE INSTANCE OF MUSICAL POWERS IN A CHILD.

(Extracted from the Report of the British Phrenological Association, held at

Glasgow.]

Monday, Sept. 21, 1840.—The Hall was crowded with ladies and gentlemen.

Ma. Atkinson read a communication from Mr. R. Cull, of London, detailing a case of precocious musical talent, in the history of the Infant Sappho, Louisa Vinning, She was born at Kingsbridge, Devonshire, in November, 1836, being now (Sept. 1840) three years and ten months old. Her father, John Vinning, is a good musician: he sings, and plays well on the piano forte and violin, and, having also exhibited his musical talent at a very early period, he was educated for a musician, at the expense of Mr. Garrow.

Mr. Vinning has two brothers, of considerable musical talent, who have left their business to make music their occupation. One is a violinist,

the other an organist. Mr. Vinning's father possesses a natural talent for music, which he manifested by playing the Aute, in the baid of a volunteer regiment, for several years. He knows nothing of the technical language of music-he played entirely by ear, and he kept tune and time well.

Louisa Vinning, surnamed by Mr. Parry the Infant Sappho, enjoyed music at a very early age. “She was only nine months old,” her father states, “ when I first observed the intense delight she derived from music: when crying, the sounds of a musical instrument immediately soothed her, her whole frame moving in unison with the measure, and her face beaming with enjoyment. I played to her occasionally on the violin. I took the opinion of several medical men on the propriety of indulging her in this kind of amusement, lest she should be injured by too early excitement. Their advice was, to give her gentle exercise in singing, and to guard against late hours.” She sang before she could speak. Her passion for music increased, until she seemed to require an atmosphere of music to exist.

In the early part of 1839, she was discovered to have walked in her sleep, and to prevent accidents, she was afterwards put to sleep on a sofa in the sitting room until the family retired to rest ; she frequenly sang in her sleep, and one evening, when only two years and eight months old, she sang, sweetly and distinctly, a melody perfectly new to her father, and repeated it several times, so that he wrote it down, gave it to Mr. Blockley, who arranged it, wrote the poetry, symphonies, and accompaniments, and called it the Infant's Dream. Mr. Thalberg, the celebrated musician, in a letter dated 11th December, 1839, speaks of her astonishingly correct singing, and her pleasing voice. Sir George Smart, in a letter dated 3d April, says, “I beg leave to state that I consider her a most wonder. ful child, possessing strong feeling for music, with an extraordinary correct ear both for lime and tune; her singing is perfectly natural, without effort, and her infantine manners and childish appearanco prove her extreme youth.” Mr. Moschelles says, in a letter dated 29th March, 1840, “She appears to me, not only to be most liberally gifted with a voice of unusual compass, but also with a sensitiveness of organisation, whether as concerns the power of correctly retain. ing melodies, or of reproducing intervals, very remarkable, being only three years and a half old.”

She sung before the queen and court at Buckingham Palace, on the 3d of August, 1840, and received substantial proofs of the queen's delight at her talent. She is now singing three nights a weeks in the Lecture Theatre of the Polytechnic Institution. She sings the musical sounds of the melodies without words; and repeats any Italian air, after hearing it only three or four times. Her style of singing is very remarkable for similarity to our first opera singers. It is appropriately supported by the adoption of the natural language, gesture, &c. to express the sentiment of the air she sings. In her graceful, though infantine action, she is often very expressive; but, like most public singers, there is commonly a redundancy of action, and that, too, of an exaggerated nature. Her public singing at the Polytechnic Institution commonly comprises the following :

1. An Italian air.
2. The Infant's Dream.

3. The proof of her power to sing passages struck on the piano on the instant, which frequently terminales in some Italian air.

4. Her power of changing the style and key of music, without the usual preparation, in which she passes at once from some Italian to an English, thence to a Scottish, and finally to an Irish air.

5. An Italian air.

6. Finale, 'part of a harmony in the National Anthem of God save the Queen.

All her talent is natural, for hitherto she has received no technical instruction in music. Her voice is two octaves in compass; the lower notes are very sweet in quality, and she possesses great power of voice. She can introduce occasional sharps aud flats with great precision and elegance. When false notes were purposely played to try her, she invariably ceased, and evinced some anger.

She is an engaging child, and, from her elegant movements, is much admired. She has a great talent for dancing, also. She is very energetic, her general activity is great, her feelings powerful, and very exciteable. She is self-willed, destructive, very ready to talk, and very arch.

The essay then stated the phrenological measurements of the head, all of which were very large for a child of her age. She is of dark complexion, dark brown eyes, brown hair, slender form, restless movement of body and eyes, and rapidity of action, which denote great cerebral activity. The temperament is bilio.nervous. The basilar region of the brain is large, but the coronal predominates. The lateral is very large at Destructiveness and Secretiveness. The anterior is also large. The profile much resembles the profile portrait of Clara Fisher. In so large a sized head there are no

Those very large, are Secretiveness, Destructiveness, Benevolence, Firmness, Love of Applause, Imitation, Melody, Tune, Comparison ; the others are large.

This head is interesting, musically, as an example of the energetic

small organs.

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manifestation of musical talent. It is also interesting, as it so nearly corresponds, in its present powers, with the infantine powers of Mozart, Crotch, and Kelloer, as quoted in the Phrenological Journal, new series. The case is interesting, as pointing towards a circumstance in the production of precocious talent. Mozart, Crotch, Kellner, and this child, are each offspring of musical fathers; and the two latter, of musical paternal grandfathers. Other circumstances also operate as causes, for the offspring of all musicians are not musical, and but few are precocious musicians.

After the reading of the case, some interesting remarks were made by Mr. Atkinson, Dr. Gregory, Mr. De Ville, Mr. Simpson, and Mr. Combe, and several other cases of precocious talent were alluded to by the different speakers. Dr. Gregory said it was a great pity that this child should be subjected to such increased activity of brain, which, it was well known to phrenologists, was very liable to produce disease, and lead to premature death ; and Mr. De Ville stated that he had intimated to the parents of the infant Lyra, another musical child, that the exertion of brain to which she was subjected, in consequence of her public exhibitions, would infallibly bring on premature decay; and, as her parents did not listen to his advice, which was agreeable to the phrenological doctrines, the child, by the continued and severe exercise of her brain, fell into disease and died at an early age.

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The origin, character, and destiny of the aborigines of this country, have always excited great interest and inquiry. Various have been the means resorted to by historians and philosophers, in order to understand their history, modes of living, and peculiar mental cha. racteristics. With what success these inquiries and researches have been attended, it is unnecessary here to speak. It may, however, suffice to state that one of the most important means of understarding the true nature and character of the American Indians, has been entirely neglected till within a few years. We refer to a knowledge of their physiology and phrenology. This mode of investigation is calculated to throw new light on their habits, customs, and mental

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