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others, who measure a man's character by such signs, or who pretend to read in them his past history. A tendency to, does not imply actual indulgence in, crime or passion of any kind. A man may, and is often known to be naturally, or constiutionally, as it is sometimes termed, impetuous, impatient, choleric, prone to extreme measures, even of a violent nature, but who, nevertheless, by early and successful appeals made to his sentiments of Benevolence or of Veneration, or both, or of Conscientiousness (sense of justice), by the lessons and examples of pure morality and religion, has succeeded in keeping his erring or evil nature in subjection. But the particular tone, or colouring, as we might term it, of his character and disposition, dependent on the first mentioned causes, still remains, and can never be eradicated. Saul, at first the fierce and vindictive persecutor of the Christians, was subsequently, when enlightened and converted, and preaching and travelling as St. Paul, still warm and impassioned, but in a different guise, and with far different objects. Let elders, presbyters, deacons, and even pastors in the churches, tell of their early lives, and of their early passions, and it will be fuund that a phrenologist who would say, from their cerebral developements, that they evinced certain tendencies to evil, or had, for example, Combativeness, Destructiveness, or Acquisitiveness full, would not be accused by them of slander. But this person would not pretend to tell all their actual character and present conduct; any attempt to do so has been expressly disclaimed by Spurzheim, Combe, and all, we believe, of their school.

So, also, in regard to the intellectual faculties: it has never been contended that men are born painters, poets, or musicians, mathe. maticians or metaphysicians; nor that they have the organs of poetry, mathematics, &c. This is one of the exaggerations and fictions of anti.phrenologists. All that has been alleged by the advocates of innate faculties, and corresponding material instruments, is, that there is in some men an original aptitude for seeing and seizing the relations of various objects in nature, and of so combining them as to produce results in science and the arts of a novel and striking character, which, under the same external circumstances, others differently organised could not by any effort or labour, however long and laborious, altain.

We shall conclude with introducing a sentence of Dr. Sewall's, respecting the writers on phrenology. Earnestly do we wish that we could, with sincerity, give a like favourable opinion of the labours and success of the writers on ethics and metaphysics, whose works are the most approved in our schools and colleges. If there is truth in their philosophy, it is yet entirely hidden from mortal ken; facts with them are not illustrations, nor are their illustrations facts.

“ These writers (phrenologists] have intermingled with their doc. trines so much of philosophy and truth, have introduced so many novel facts and illustrations, and have exhibited the whole subject in such an aspect, as to render the study exceedingly captivating.”

ARTICLE II.

BRITISH PHRENOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.

An association with the above name has been formed in Great Britain for the cultivation of phrenology as a science. It was first suggested by Sir George Mackenzie in the year 1835, who then drew up a prospectus for such an organisation, and stated, in a general manner, what should be its leading objects. In accordance with this suggestion, a meeting of phrenologists was held at Newcastle, in the year 1838, when a phrenological association was instituted. A committee was then appointed to prepare a code of laws, and make necessary arrangements for the future meetings and government of the association. This body met the ensuing year at Birmingham, and continued its meetings for several days, with very interesting discussions and speeches. At this meeting, officers were appointed, laws adopted, and a more perfect organisation was secured.

This association held its last meeting (September, 1840) at Glas. gow, and we have just received, from a London correspondent, a large printed sheet containing a brief report of its proceedings. Mr. George Combe, president of the association, opened the meeting with an appropriate address, describing some of the leading principles and more important applications of phrenology, and detailing, at the same time, many interesting facts in the history and present state of the science. The association was in session one week; and its meetings are represented to have been attended by large and respectable audiences, of both ladies and gentlemen. Many valuable communications were made, and a new impulse given to the study and advancement of mental science. Some of the more interesting facts and items of intelligence, elicited at the several meetings of the association, we shall transfer to the pages of the Journal. As the prospectus referred to above, drawn up by Sir George Mackenzie,-one of the first phrenologists, and ablest writers in Scotland,-contains some valuable remarks on the importance of phrenology as a science, and a statement illustrating the extensive application of its principles, we are induced to present it here entire, copied from the forty-third number of the Edinburgh Phrenological Journal. It is as follows:

The establishment of an association for the advancement of phy. sical science, naturally led several persons who have paid attention to the state of mental science to desire the promotion of the latter by a similar association. Whether mental science be regarded as one hardly yet in existence, or as having advanced sufficiently to enable those who have particularly attended to it to perceive that it is minutely interwoven with human conduct and human institutions, it has been too long neglected. While physical science opens up to view many proofs of the immensity of creative power, and administers to the increase of human comfort, it likewise multiplies human wants, and contributes to the useless gratification, even to the extent of abuse, of appetites which were destined not to be the guides of human conduct, but to be subservient to the higher faculties, the exercise of which alone can direct mankind to the rational use of physical dis. covery. The rational enjoyment to which physical science can administer, can be rendered so only by a knowledge of the real constitution of man; and such happiness as it may be permitted to us to enjoy in this world, can be attained only by searching for the relation in which man stands to his fellow.men and to external naturein other words, for the laws which it has pleased Almighty Power to establish for that relation, and by obeying those laws as part of the Creator's will. No doubt it has been discovered that the mind is so closely connected with the body as to produce mutual influence; and to investigate this, is a branch of physiology; and thus mental science might appear capable of being connected with physical, in our present association. But, since the mental faculties have not yet been all discovered, nor those known defined with sufficient accu. racy, they have to be submitted to farther metaphysical inquiry; and it seems proper, from the wide extent of the subject, that a separate association should be established. While mental science is truly one of observation, inquiry being applied in the first instance to the discovery of faculties, much discussion will be required before the definitions of discovered faculties are settled. Seeing, therefore, that this is what may be called a mixed science, and that its results are applicable to legislation, the administration of justice, political science, education, and the treatment of the insane, and, in short, to

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every sublunary concern of human life, it would be improper 10 attach it to an association for the advancement of purely physical discovery, while its extent is ample for the full employment of a separate one.

The immense importance of mental science to mankind has been overlooked, because for a very long period no discovery of any importance had been made in it. Philosophers had speculated only on their own individual consciousness, and had made themselves standards for the whole human race, neglecting, or setting aside as not worthy of regard, the marked differences of human talent and character. Attention has been attracted to physical science, because discoveries were, to all appearance, more easily made, and every discovery opened the field still wider, so that every one found a range for his prevailing talent. Physiologists, however, have at last with. drawn the veil which had obscured and rendered uninviting the track of those who had embarked on the ocean of metaphysics, without a single fact to serve as a pilot.

Enough has been said to introduce what is proposed to be the manner of proceeding. As soon as a sufficient number of persons shall have announced their desire to be members, a general meeting will be held at such time and place as may appear convenient, at which officers will be selected, and rules for future government enacted. And, if they can be procured, reporis will be read on the following subjects :

1. On the present state of mental science.

2. On the present state of our knowledge of the causes of insanity, idiocy, and other aberrations of the faculties.

3. On the present state of the criminal law, in reference to the mode of trial and punishment, and as applicable to the human faculties.

4. On the present mode of administering justice in civil cases. 5. On the present state of education. 6. On the present state of political science.

7. On the present customs and usages of society, as affecting the faculties.

It is proposed that the inquiries to be instituted shall be remitted to different committees or sections, as follows:

1. Enumeration and analysis of the human faculties; the physiology of the brain ; the causes of difference in human talent and character; hereditary influences.

2. Education, in reference to health, and the discipline of the animal, intellectual, and moral faculties; the customs and usages of society, in reference to their influence on the human constitution.

3. Civil and criminal legislation; the relations of man to external things.

4. Political economy; colonisation; in reference to the moral faculties.

ARTICLE III.

CHARACTER OF COLUMBUS.

The most remarkable event of the fifteenth century was the discovery of the new world. The vast results of that discovery, and its important bearing upon the welfare of our race, have long made it the true epoch of the age. Compared with it, all the regal splendour of Ferdinand aud Isabella, all their proud achievementsthe expulsion of the Jews and the conquest of Granada—sink into insignificance. By far the most extraordinary man of those times-he whose genius conceived, and whose matchless energy accomplished, the lofty enterprise which shed so much glory around the Spanish throne, and rendered the reign of its monarch far more illustrious than could a thousand victories—was Christopher Columbus.

In the character of such a man, there must needs be much to impress even a casual reader, seeking only amusement to beguile a weary hour. For the more profound student of history, who loves to trace all events to their source, and estimate the wonderful influence of individual genius upon the destiny of nations, it possesses yet greater charms. And for the phrenologist, who delights to observe and reflect upon the operations of mind, in every age and country, and under every possible influence—to mark the fierce struggle between inborn energy of soul and the strong force of factitious circumstances—to see in the victory almost invariably achieved by the former, confirmatory evidence of the truth of his science—it has, indeed, peculiar attractions, and is full of deep and lasting interest. The following notice of his person, is from Irving's admirable biography. “ Columbus arrived at Lisbon about the year 1470. He was at that time in the full vigour of manhood, and of au engaging presence. He was tall, well formed, muscular, and of an elevated and dignified demeanour. His visage was long, and neither full nor meagre; his complexion fair and freckled, and inclined to ruddy ; his nose aquiline ; his cheek bones were rather high ; his eyes light gray, and apt to enkindle; his whole countenance had an

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