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special sense. Hence, according to Dr. Foville, it is in the external and convex surfaces of the hemispheres that the motive influence is chiefly originated ; whilst their plane surfaces, and the inferior part of the temporal lobe, minister to the sensory actions. It would also seem that the commissural fibres are entirely derived from the posterior fasciculi, and thus that the sensory nerves may maintain their connection with both hemispheres, when the motor being connected only with one, are paralysed by an injury to it; and thus loss of motion in hemiplegia is much more common than loss of sensation. He is fully convinced that the fibrous portion of the brain, like the tissue of the nervous trunks, is to be regarded only as a conductor ; and that the cortical substance is the material substratum, by the intervention of which the will directs the movements.

The reporters advert to the researches of M. Gerdy on the same subject, published some time ago, as corresponding in many particulars with those of Dr. Foville. Both seem to have arrived at the same general conclusions; and they differ only in particulars. The former has investigated most carefully the annular disposition of the fibres already adverted to; the latter has devoted his chief attention to the substantiation of the fact, most curious, if true, that these fibrous circles proceed from, and terminate in, the posterior part of the medulla, and are thus a portion of the sensory tract; and that to this system of fibres the commissures belong.

We are disposed to feel much confidence in these statements, because we know Dr. Foville to be a most patient observer and excellent anatomist, as well as a philosopher in the most enlarged sense of the term. Moreover, they fall in rather curiously with some views we formerly propounded, as to the parallelism between the cortical structure of the brain and the granular matter surround. ing the termination of the sensory nerves. (Vol. ix. p. 99.) We there contrasted motor nerves, originating in the vascular plexus of the cortical substance, and having no free terminations in the muscles, but returning by a series of loops, with the sensory nerves, which originate in the peripheral vascular plexus, and run towards the brain, where they were supposed to terminate. But the researches of Foville seem to show that they do not terminate there, but return by a series of loops in the cerebral substance, coming into relation with the cortical structure, on which they may be supposed to act, as the sensory fibres do with the muscular tissue.

The second part of Dr. Foville's memoir is occupied with some curious observations upon the relation between the osscous protuberances on the cranium and the retreating points of the brain beneath. Thus, he remarks, if we were to make an incision through the frontal eminence, perpendicular to its surface, and pursue this to some depth, we should arrive at the anterior cornua of the ventricle. In the same manner, we shoùld be conducted from the occipital protuberances to the posterior cornua ; and from the parietal eminences to the large central cavity of the ventricles, in which the cornua meet; and that thus the form of the osseous covering is influenced by the condition of the ventricles to a great extent. He carries out this position in a very interesting manner; showing that where the convolutions are large, and the brain solid, the bony casing takes their form and impression ; but that where the ventricles have been distended with fluid, as in chronic hydrocephalus, they exercise an influence on the bony casing far greater than the convolutions, and the frontal, parietal, and occipital eminences are very large, whilst the impressions of the convolutions are faint. This fact, which many of our readers have doubtless remarked, has an important bearing on che general question as to the influence of the condition and developement of the brain upon the size, form, &c. of the cranium. We shall look forward with much interest to the appear. ance of Dr. Foville's memoir.

ARTICLE IV.

THE SUPERIORITY OF THE CAUCASIAN RACE.

[Extracted from a review of Morton's Crania Americana in the Western Journal

of Medicine and Surgery, published at Louisville, Ky.]

Our author offers on the comparative size of the brains of the five races, the following interesting and important observations. The facts they embrace are the result of admeasurements; and, as far as they extend, they put at rest the question of the relative magnitude of the Caucasian brain. We feel persuaded that, as soon as they shall be made known to him, even Tiedemann himself, and his stubborn adherents, hostile as they are to the doctrines of phrenology, will cease to contend that the brain of the African is equal in size to that of the Caucasian. With equal truth may they contend for identity in the colour of the skin, the figure of the nose, and the entire character of the lips and hair of the two races.

Never were the blindness and deceptiveness of professional prejudice more dog. gedly manifested. The following are the observations to which we allude:

On the Internal Capacity of the Cranium in the different Races of Men.-Having subjected the skulls in my possession, and such, also, as I could obtain from my friends, to the internal capacity measurement already described, I have obtained the following results. The mean of the American race (omitting a fraction) is repeated here merely to complete the table. The skulls of idiots, and of persons under age, were of course rejected.

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"1. The Caucasians were, with a single exception, derived from the lowest and least educated class of society. It is proper, however, to mention that but three Hindoos are admitted in the whole number, because the skulls of these people are probably smaller than those of any other existing nation. For example, seventeen Hindoo heads give a mean of but seventy-five cubic inches."

The Caucasians are in all respects the masters of the world, though they do not, we believe, constitute a fifth part of its inhabit. ants, nor cover, perhaps, more than one-eighth or tenth part of its surface. It is curious, as well as instructive, in a special manner, to compare the diminutive size of Great Britain with the measure. less dimensions of the nations and territories she has conquered and sways. She occupies on the map we have referred to, but little more than a mere speck of space, which those who know not its position have difficulty in finding; while her fleets cover every sea and ocean, her arms are almost uniformly and every where triumph. ant, and her power is felt in every corner of the peopled globe. Nor can even the inferior animals in the north, the tropics, or the soutli, and whether they wing the air, cleave the waters, or move on solid ground, escape either by flight, concealment, or resistance, the devices of her artfulness, the snares of her hand, or the unlimited sweep and mightiness of her arm. And what is the source of this power and influence ? We reply unhesitatingly the functions of the brain-of the largest, best developed, and best conditioned brain belonging to man. And if this brain be accompanied by bodies of the best size and shape, and the most adroil and vigorous in action, let it not be forgotten that brain and nerves, being the master tissue of the system, have no little concern as well in the production of those excellencies of quality and endowment, in other portions of the body, as in their superintendence, maintenance, and regulation when produced. For that the brain, when of the highest order and in the best condition, imparts to the other tissues and organs of the body somewhat of the tone and character of its own distinguished qualities, is as certain as that moisture and sunlight, warmth and atmospheric air, co-operating with each other in a well-adjusted union, contribute to the growth and excellence of vegetables.

In a word, Great Britain is peopled chiefly by Anglo-Saxons, the most highly endowed variety of the Caucasian race. Their brains are superior in size, and more perfect in figure, than the brains of any other variety; and, from temperament and exercise, they are in the best condition. In function, therefore, they are the most power. ful at least, if not the most active. And hence the surpassing strength and grandeur at home, and the influence and sway over the others nations of the earth, of those who possess them. The vast and astonishing productions of art in Great Britain, her boundless resources of comfort and enjoyment in peace, and her unequalled means of defence and annoyance in war, are as literally the growth of the brains of her inhabitants, as her oaks, and elms, and ash trees are of her soil. We shall only add, that the inhabitants of the United States, being also of the best Caucasian stock, and youthful, elastic, and vigorous, as a nation, and enjoying the influence of other circumstances as favourable to the production and perfection of mental and corporeal excellencies as nature can frame, or imagina. tion conceive-in the midst and under the immediate agency of such advantages, the people of the United States promise to be even more than the Britons of future ages.

ARTICLE V.

CHARACTER OF OLIVER CROMWELL.

The life of Oliver Cromwell has yet to be written, and a faithful and comprehensive view of the stirring scenes in which he moved, yet to be drawn. Historians of kings and courts have burlesqued his character, blackened his memory, assailed and impugned his motives. Religious and political prejudices have conspired to make him odious to posterity. Novelists, borrowing their facts from those questionable sources, have supported falsehood and calumny by all

He was

the charms of high wrought and ingenious fiction, and gratified the lovers of legitimacy by disparaging a republican, and depicting in the darkest colours the evils of a republic.

We shall not adopt, therefore, without considerable qualification, the statements generally met with in popular works, in regard to the commonwealth and its leader. We have always found it best, when wishing to form a correct estimate of an individual, to seek among his cotemporaries for some one who, possessing in himself a measure of the man, was capable of doing him justice; and we believe John Milton to have been precisely such a person.

He was himself a republican, and could appreciate a republican's motives. the friend and companion of Cromwell, and enjoyed the best oppor. tunity for studying his character. We altogether prefer, therefore, Milton's notions of the Protector to those of David Hume, or any of his followers. We look upon Oliver Cromwell neither as a fanatic, a heartless soldier, nor as an unprincipled usurper. But as a great and wise man, a brave and successful general in a noble cause, and as the lawful ruler over England. As a general who will not suffer in comparison with any of the worthies of antiquity-as a statesman of enlarged views and wonderful resources, directing an empire in one of the most trying periods of its history-and as a man justly elevated to great station, and clothed with the power of the Stuarts, by a people of whose right to make or expatriate kings, but more especially the latter- we have never entertained a doubt. But let us look at him phrenologically.

In very many points, his organisation is peculiar and interesting, being a rare union of general power, sensitiveness, and strength;an amply.developed muscular system, broad and expanded chest~a large, dense, and active brain, with a deep and massive forehead. His temperament appears to have been principally crania thoracic, or that in which the head and chest predominate over other parts of the system. This temperament, together with the other conditions which he possessed, has been pronounced by Professor Caldwell, the most profound of American phrenologists, to be the very best com.bination for the bolder and more vigorous manifestations of mind. Mark how those favourable conditions harmonise with the character of the man. In one of the stormiest periods of history, in a monarchial government, an individual of humble birth, without wealth, without influence, but such as he created for himself, gradu. ally advanced from his low estate, and became the centre and ruling spirit of a great people, contending for their social and political rights. As a soldier, led them on to victory; as their governor, swayed the sceptre with wisdom and energy, extorting by his ability

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