the reigns of the Saxon and Norman kings, and for several succeeding centuries, Dover Castle was regarded as the key and barrier of the whole kingdom," and in every civil broil, the possession of this fortress was a first object with the cortending powers. Henry II. rebuilt the Keep on the Norman plan, and otherwise fortified the Castle, so that its strength was materially increased. Louis, the Dauphin, besieged it when he came to assist the discontented Barons; but it was so strenuously defended by the Governor with one hundred and forty soldiers only, that he was obliged to retire with loss. Many alterations in the fortifications were made by different sovereigns till the time of the Civil Wars, when it was wrested from the King, by a merchant named DRAKE, a zealous partizan for the Parliament, who took it by surprise, with the aid of ten or twelve men only. After the terrors of civil commotion had subsided, this strong pile was, for up. wards of a century, suffered to moulder into ruins ; but the effects of the French revolution, and the many threats of invasion thrown out by the successive rulers of the French empire, have occasioned great alteration in the defences of this coast. It was thought ad. viseable to put Dover Castle into a state of sufficient strength to withstand any attempt to carry it by coup. de-main, or any thing short of a continued siege. The alterations that have been made are but little qualified to afford pleasure to those who venerate the Castle for its antiquity; yet it is still one of the most interesting fortresses in the kingdom.

Dover Castle, in its present state, consists of an immense congeries of almost every kind of fortification which the art of war has contrived in order to

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make a place impregnable. It may be described as consisting of two courts, a lower one and an upper one, defended by deep, broad, and dry ditches, from which communications with the inner towers have been made by well-like subterraneous passages. The lower court is surrounded by an irregular wall, excepting on the side next the sea, where a considerable part of the cliff, with the remainder of the wall, was thrown down by an earthquake, which happened on the 6th of April, 1680. This wall is called the curtain, and is flanked, at unequal distances, by a variety of towers of different shapes, semi-circular, square, polygonal, &c. These are the workmanship of different ages: the oldest of them, which is on the eastern side of the Castle, is said to have been built by EARL Goodwin, and it still bears his name; though this, as well as most of the others, has been much altered since its original erection. Nine of the other towers are stated to have been built in the Norman times ; the gaol for debtors is situated in one of them, called Chilham Tower. The ascent from the lower court is pretty steep, and, winding round towards the south, it leads to a second bridge and gate, which form an entrance to the upper court. This, like the lower one, is surrounded by a strong wall, and various towers; near the centre stands the spacious Keep, erected in the first years of Henry III. This noble tower is still in fine preservation, and is now used as a magazine, the roof having been made bomb-proof, for additional security. The grand apartments were on the third story: the vestibule below communicates with an apartment which appears to have been the Chapel, embellished with Norman arches and sculptured mouldings and capitals: below it is the dungeon, In the thickness of the walls, which measure from eighteen to twenty feet, run the galleries ; these are so ingeniously contrived, as to render it nearly impossible for the arrows, or missive weapons of, an enemy, to do any execution within them. The same cautious policy is observable in those windows, or rather loop-holes, which preserve their original form, where the arches are so contrived, that no arrow, having the least elevation, could be shot into the apertures, without striking against the wal}.

The new works recently formed for the defence of this important fortress, consist of different batteries, furnished with a very formidable train of artillery, casemates dug in the solid chalk-rock, magazines, covered ways, and various subterranean communications and apartments for soldiery; the latter are sufficienily capacious for the accommodation of about two thousand men, and, with their inhabitants, form a very curious spectacle; light and air are conveyed into them by well-like apertures cut in the chalk, and by other openings carried through to the surface of the cliffs.

Near the edge of the cliff stands a beautiful piece of brass ordnance, twenty-four feet long, cast at Utrecht, in 1544, and called QUEEN ELIZABETH'S Pocket Pistol, it having been a present from the States of Ilolland to that Queen: it carries a twelvepound shot. The touch-hole is gold, and has suffered considerably by the hand of violence, in endeavouring to pick it out: it is entirely unfit for use. There are several curious devices upon it, and some lines in old Dutch, of which the following translation has been given :

O'er hill and dale I throw my ball,
Breaker my naine of mound and wall.


(Continued from page 46.) Adversity is not at all times an efficient teacher in the school of wisdom. Human pride, though galled by chastisement, too frequently rejects the admonition which parental kindness sees it necessary to enforce by stripes. Increasing obduracy, the consequence and punishment of such resistance, then renders more severe corrections indispensable; and stroke succeeds to stroke, until the stubborn heart is conquered, or judgment breaks the spirit which the discipline of mercy cculd not bend.

JEHOIAKIM, the King of Judah, was a memorable proof of the perverse insensibility induced by opposition to divine control. Instructed neitlrer by the wisdom of his father, the excellent Jostau, nor by the sufferings of Jeio A4%, his disobedient brother, no sooner was he placed upon the throne, by PhaRAOU-NECHO, King of Egypt, than he commenced a course of iniquity, which terminated only with bis life. This awful inattention to preceding judgments,, accelerated the destruction of the King, and his offending people ; but that their pride and obstinacy might be wholly inexcusable, JEHOVAH sent, by mang messengers, * the most explicit warnings of that dreadful yengeance which in the end should.overtake: their crimes. The Prophet JEREMIAH Was especially commissioned to sound the trumpet of alarny; and

* HABAKKUK and ZEPITANIAU prophesied at this time, as well as Uzziali, whom JEHOIAKIM caused to be put to desth.. fJer. xxvi. 20—23.).

that his voice might be distinctly heard, he was in. structed to go into the palace of the King, and there proclaim the judgments which would quickly overtake the Monarch and his family, unless averted by repentance, and the abandonment of all their sins. He was then commanded to go up into the Temple, and to denounce the threatenings of the Lory against that sacred edifice, which, with the city, whose boast and pride it was, was to be speedily brought to desolation, if they persisted to provoke the wrath of Heaven. The priests, . incensed at this unwelcome declaration, seized on the Prophet; and dragging him before the council, requested that he might be put to death: but Gov, who had appointed him to be the bearer of his message, permitted not their malice to prevail. Powerful and pious friends protected him from the devices of his enemies, and asserted, in the presence of his judges, the right of those to whom JEHOVAli made his revelations to declare them to the people in his uame.

These solemn admonitions were, however, equally neglected by the King and his rebellious subjects, who, perversely bent upon destruction, adhered to their delusions until the time allotted for repentance. was expired.

NEBUCHADNEZZAR, King of Babylon, who was oro dained to be the instrument of vengeance in the hand of the Almighty, was at this time exalted to the throne. His predecessors having desolated Ninevek, the ancient capital of the Assyrian empire, and trans. ferred to Babylon its glory and damiuion, this mighty prince exulted in the subjugation of surrounding potentates, and ill endured the rivalry of the King of Egypt, who had subjected Palestine and Syria to his sway. Not

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