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and picturesque. To the north is seen the bold, commanding, castle on Holy Island ; and beyond it the town and fortifications of Berwick : to the southeast, are seen the whole group of Farn Islands: and to the south, on the nearest cliffs, Dunstanbrough Castle; behind which are seen the winding shore, with its creeks and bays, and multitudes of vessels, lying in their ports, or under sail. The extreme point of view is 'Tynemouth, whose ruined monastery gives an obelisk to terminate the landscape. The inland prospect gradually inclines towards the sea, displaying a fine cultivated country, with numerous villages and hamlets.

A strong fortress like Bamborough Castle, on the borders of two hostile kingdoms, has of course been the subject of many severe contentions, and has been owned by many masters. In the tenth year of QUEEN ELIZABETH it was governed by Sir John Foster, when it was escheated to the Crown. His grandson, John Foster, Esq., had a grant of it from King JAMES; but in 1715, it was forfeited, and purchased by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham. His Lordship, having no family, left the whole of the manor and castle of Bamborough, with other considerable estates, to the amount of several thousand pounds per annum, vested in trustees, to be applied to unconfined charitable uses. His will bears date June 24th, 1720, and he died September 18th of the same year, in the eighty-eighth, year of his age. After his death, the Castle underwent considerable repairs, under the judicious direction of the late Dr. Sharp, who fitted up a suite of rooms in the great square tower for him. self and his family, which has since been occupied by the successive Archdeacons; the rest of the apartments

ACCOUNT OF BAMBOROUGH CASTLE.

399

are appropriated to other useful purposes. The upper part is a large granary, from whence the poor, without distinction, even in the dearest times, are supplied with corn at four shillings per bushel : and a windmill is erected for their use. There are a meal-market and a grocer's shop for the use of the labouring poor, which are opened every Tuesday and Friday, to those who are deemed objects of charity, to whom a ticket is given at the beginning of each year, regulated according to the number of the family. The meal is sold at a reduced price, and the groceries at prime cost. As the extension of this charity is not limited by any distance of place, the annual number of persons on the list is about 1300; but in years of particular scarcity the number is much increased. There is also an infirmary here, kept at the expense of the trust, where a surgeon attends every Wednesday and Saturday, and gives advice and medicine gratis. From October 17th, 1809, to Oct. 17th, 1810, 1159 patients shared in the benefits of this institution.* Another part of the Castle is appropriated to a school, in which an unlimited number of scholars, boys and girls, are taught gratis, on Dr. BELL’s plan of education. Twenty poor girls, called boarders, taken at about nine years of age, are here provided with every requisite till they are sixteen, or fit for service. They are taught whatever is necessary to qualify them for useful life; and when put out to service are furnished with suitable clothing, and a sum of money, till their wages are due. At the end of the first year's service, on producing a good character from their master or mistress, they receive a handsome donation

* History of Northumberland.

of books, and a guinea, from LORD CREWE's Trustees, as a reward for well doing. There is an extensive Library, the books of which are lent out to any respectable person, without charge, within the distance of twenty miles. Other apartments are fitted up for shipwrecked sailors, and bedding is provided for thirty, in case such a number should be cast on shore at one time: they are maintained for a week, or longer, according to circumstances. There is a storehouse ready for the reception of every kind of wrecked goods; a book is kept for entering the description and marks of each article, with the date when they came on shore. When any vessel is observed in distress upon the Farn Islands, a nine-pounder is fired once,-twice if the vessel be to the north of the Castle,--and thrice if the vessel be to the south,—that the people may know in what direction to go, to afford assistance. In every storm, two men are sent from the Castle to patrol along the coast from sun-set to sun-rise, that, in case of an accident, one may remain with the ship, and the other return to alarm the Castle, when a flag is hoisted to inform the sufferers that their case is known, and that help will be afforded them. In the Castle is kept an abundant supply of screws for raising ships that are stranded; timber, blocks, cables, chains, &c., which are lent gratis to any person having occasion for them, within forty or fifty miles along the coast. In this manner the princely charity of the late pious Prelate is widely and extensively distributed ; and this ancient place, once the residence of Kings, and the scene of the most heroic acts of valour, has become as remarkable for its deeds of humanity and benevolence. Alnwick,

JAMES HOLROYD. April 23, 1822.

OBSERVATIONS OF A YOUTH WHO HAD JUST

RECOVERED HIS SIGHT. - [The following account of some observations made by a young gentleman who was born blind, or lost his sight so early that he had no remembrance of ever having seen, and who was couched between thirteen and fourteen years of age, was written in the year 1731, by MR. ROMLEY, master of the free-school of Haxey, in Lincolnshire. We have thought that some of our young readers would peruse this curious narrative with interest; and we hope that it may prove, not only entertaining, but useful also, by leading them to reflect with gratitude on their own obligations to Divine Providence for the uninterrupted enjoyment of the invaluable blessing of EYE-SIGHT. EDITOR.]

66 Though we say of this gentleman that he was blind, as we do of all people who have ripe cataracts, yet they are never so blind from that cause but that they can discern day from night, and, for the most part, in a strong light, distinguish black, white, and scarlet; but they cannot perceive the shape of any thing; for, the light by which these perceptions are made being let in obliquely through the aqueous humour, or the anterior surface of the crystalline, (by which the rays cannot be brought into a focus upon the retina,) they can discern in no other manner than a sound eye can through a glass of broken jelly, where a great variety of surfaces so differently refract the light, that the several distinct pencils of rays cannot be collected by the eye into their proper foci ; wherefore, the shape of an object in such a case cannot at all be discerned, though the colour may. And thus it was

with this young gentleman, who, though he knew
these colours asunder in a good light, yet, when he
saw them after he was couched, the faint ideas he had
of them before were not sufficient for him to know
them by afterwards, and therefore he did not think
thein the same which he had before known by those
names. He now thought scarlet the most beautiful
of all colours, and of others, the most gay were the
most pleasing ; whereas, the first time he saw black
it gave him great uneasiness; yet, after a little while,
he was reconciled to it. When he first saw, he was
so far from making any judgment about distance, that
he thought all objects whatsoever touched his eyes,
(as he expressed it,) as what he felt did his skin, and
thought no objects so agreeable as those which were
smooth or regular, though he could form no judgment
of their shape, or guess what it was in any object
that was pleasing to him. He knew not the shape of
any thing, or any one thing from another, however
different in shape or magnitude ; but, upon being
told what things were, whose form he before knew
from feeling, he would carefully observe, that he
might know them again : but having too many objects
to learn at once, he forgot many of them; and (as
he said) at first he learned to know, and again forgot,
a thousand things in a day. One particular only
(though it may appear trifling) I will relate: having
often forgot which was the cat and which the dog, he
was ashamed to ask, but catching the cat, (which he
knew by feeling,) he was observed to look at her
steadfastly, and then setting her down, said to puss,

I shall know you another time. He was much sure prised that those things which he had liked best did not appear most agreeable to his eyes, expecting those

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