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above half of the twenty-four hours, and employ the other half in sitting over the fire, all business being at an end, and a constant darkness prevailing.

" The cause of this phenomenon, as it affects the northern and southern regions of the earth, may be readily understood. The sun always illumines half the earth at once, and shines on every side ninety degrees from the place where he is vertical. When he is vertical over the equator, or equidistant from both poles, he shines as far as each pole; and this happens in spring and autumn. But, as he declines to the north in summer, he shines beyond the north pole, and all the countries near that pole turn round in perpetual sunshine : he, at the same time, leaves the south pole an equal number of degrees, and those parts turn round in darkness. The effect is contrary at each pole in our winter, the sun then declining southward of the equator.

66 About three miles from the North Cape lies Masö, the northernmost part of Norwegian Lapland. It is formed of a very fine bay, in which ships may winter with the greatest security.”

THE COLISEUM AT ROME. “On approaching the majestic ruins of this vast amphitheatre, the most stupendous work of the kind which antiquity can boast, a sweet and gently-moving astonishment is the first sensation which seizes the be. holder; and soon afterwards the grand spectacle swims before him like a cloud. To give an adequate idea of this sublime building, is a task, to which the pen is unequal; it must be seen to be duly appreciated. It is upwards of 1600 feet in circumference, and of such an elevation that it has been justly observed by a writer, AMMIANUS, the human eye scarcely measures its height.' Nearly the one half of the external circuit still remains, consisting of four tiers of arcades, adorned with columns of four orders, the Doric, Ionian, Corinthian, and Composite. Its extent may, as well as its elevation, be estimated by the number of specta

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tors it contained, amounting, according to some accounts, to eighty thousand, and, agreeably to others, to one hundred thousand.

" Thirty thousand captive Jews are said to have been engaged by VESPASIAN, whose name it occasionnally bears, in the construction of this vast edifice; and they have not discredited their forefathers, the builders of Solomon's temple, by the performance. It was not finished, however, until the reign of his son Titus, who, on the first day of its being opened, introduced into the arena not less than 5000, or, according to Dio CASSIUS, 9000 wild beasts, between whom, and the primitive Christians held captive by the Romans, combats were fought. At the conclusion of this cruel spectacle, the whole place was put under water, and two feets, named the Corcyrian and the Corinthian, represented a Daval engagement. To render the vapour from such a multitude of persons less noxious, sweet-scented water, and frequently wine mixed with saffron, was showered down from a grated work above on the heads of the spectators.

66 The Roman Emperors who succeeded Titus were careful of the preservation of this superb monument ; even the voluptuous HELIOGABULUS caused it to be repaired after a great fire. The rude Goths, who sacked the city of Rome, were contented with despoiling it of its internal ornaments, but respected the structure itself. POPE PAUL II., however, had as much of it levelled as was necessary to furnish materials for building the Palace of ST. MARK, and his exam, ple was followed by CARDINAL RIAR10, in the construction of what is now called the Chancery. Lastly, a portion of it was employed by Pope PAUL III. in the erection of the Palace Farnese, Notwithstanding all these dilapidations, there still exists enough of it to inspire the spectator with awe. Inmense masses appear fastened to and upon one another without any mortar or cement; and these alone, from their structure, are calculated for a duration of many thousands of years. Occasionally, where the destroyers have not effectually attained their object, the half-loosened masses appear

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THE JUVENILE NATURALIST.

355

to be holden in the air, by some invisible power; for the wide interstices among them leave no other support than their joints, which seem every moment as if about to yield unavoidably to the superior force of gravitation. They will fall ;' they must fall;'

they are falling ;' is, and has been, the language of all beholders, during the vast periods through which this stupendous edifice has thus hung together in the air.”

ANECDOTE OF THE LATE MARQUIS CORN

WALLIS. The following fact was related by the famous BUONAPARTE, as an instance of the high honour and integrity of LORD CORNWALL13, who negotiated, on the part of the British Government, the Treaty of Peace between England and France, concluded at Amiens in 1802,

“ He never broke his word. At Amiens, the treaty was ready: and was to be signed by him at nine o'clock. Something happened, which prevented him from going ; but he sent word to the French Ministers, that they might consider the Treaty as having been signed, and that he would sign it the next day. A courier from England arrived at night, with directions for him to refuse his consent to certain Articles, and not to sign the Treaty. Though CORNWALLIS had not signed it, and might hare easily availed himself of this order, he was a man of such strict honour, that he said he considered his promise to be equivalent to his signature ; and wrote to iell his Government that he had promised, and that having once pledged his word, he would keen it ;-adding, that if they were not satisfied, they might still refuse to ratify the Treaty:"-" There,” exclaimed BUONAPARTE, "was a man of honour,-a true Englishman!""

(" Voice from St. Helena :vol.i. p. 497.)

THE JUVENILE NATURALIST,

FOR OCTOBER, 1822.

(From Time's Telescope for 1822.") “ As the Spring and Summer seasons have their distinguishing excellencies, so it is, in an especial manner, with respect to Autumn. The reviving freshness of the Spring is long past, and the Summer is declining; Autumn succeeds, and its rich blessings Ajay be considered as pleasing to the sight and gratifying to the palate.

About the middle of the month, the common martin disappears, and, shortly afterwards, the smallest kind of swallow, the sand-martin, migrates. The Royston, or hooded crow, arrives from Scotland and the northern parts of England, being driven theace by the severity of the season. The woodcock returns, and is found on our eastern coasts. Various kinds of waterfowl make their appearance; and, about the middle of the month, wild geese leave the fens, and go to the rye-lands, to devour the young corn. Rooks sport and dive, in a playful manner, before they go to roost, congregating in large numbers. The starling sings.

“The flowers which are usually in blow in this month, are, the holyoak, Michaelmas daisy, stocks, nasturtium, marigold, mignionette, lavender, wall-flower, China rose, Virginia stock, heart's-ease, laurustinus, rocket, St. John's wort, periwinkle, &c.

“Hips and haws now ornament the hedges : an abundance of the latter was considered by LORD BACON to foretell a severe winter. This prognostick, however, is often known to fail ; and there is indeed little foundation for the remark. An attention to the rules of Lord BACON's own philosophy would have taught him to regard it as the effect of a genial and favourable spring, which allowed the blossoms to set and mature into fruit. --The berries of the bryony and the privet, the barberry, the blackberry, the holly, and the elder, with sloes, bullaces, and damsons, are now in great plenty.

- The principal harvest of apples is about the beginning of this month; and in this month also is the great potatoe harvest.

« The sowing of wheat is generally completed in this month : when the weather is too wet for this occupation, the farmer ploughs up the stubble fields for winter-fallows. Acorns are sown at this scason, and the planting of forest and fruit trees takes place.”

BRIEF ASTRONOMICAL NOTICES,

FOR OCTOBER, 1822. “ The Moon rises, on the 1st, about eight minutes before sunset, under the four stars in square. On the 2d, Saturn will be seen rising under her in a little more than three quarters of an hour, and she will pass him about sun-rise. On the 3d, she is still followed in her rising by Saturn, and will be seen advancing towards the Pleiades, which she will have passed before her next appearance. She directs her course above Jupiter, below them to the east. On the 4th, she rises under and near to the Pleiades to the west of her, and will pass Jupiter before sun-rise. On the 13th, she rises under Venus to the east of her; and on the 15th is New Moon, at thirty-two minutes past one in the morning. On the 30th is Full Moon, at forty-one minutes past nine in the morning.

“ MERCURY is an evening star. « VENUS is a morning star.

“ Mars is an evening star. He is seen at first, soon after sunset, to the west of south-west.

" JUPITER rises about eight at night on the 1st, and on the 25th at half past six.

“SATURN rises about seven at night on the 1st, and about three quarters past five on the 20th.

“ HERSCHEL is an erening star.". (Evening Amusements.)

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