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of the hill, she was nearly out of sight on the other side; and often went several miles in this way, ar. riving at the scheft or post-house to order horses before we came up. In' every thing relating to the herds, she seemed as much at home as her husband. In catching any that are refractory, the activity and the precision with which they cast a double rope at a considerable distance, open in such a manner as to pass over the head and avoid the horns, and catch it by the neck, are really astonishing. If the animal prove too powerful, or they think him likely to be hurt or thrown down by his exertions, by slackening. the rope it falls to the ground, and releases him in an instant. : .66 Among these people the men are employed in the business of cookery, so that the master of a family. has no occasion to speak a good word to his wife, when he wishes to give a hospitable entertainment to his guests. The dress of these Laplanders is as fol. lows: On the head they wear a small cap, like those used at my native place of Stenbrohult, made with eight seams covered with strips of brown cloth, the cap itself being of a greyish colour. This reachés na lower than the tips of the ears. Their outer garment, or jacket, is open in front half way down the-bosom, below which part it is fastened with hooks, as far as the pit of the stomach. Consequently the neck is bare, and, from the effects of the sun abroad and the smoke at home, approaches the complexion of a toad. The jacket, when loose, reaches below the knees; but it is usually tied up with a girdle, so as scarcely to chrea that far, and is sloped off at the bottom. The collar is of four fingers' breadth, thick, and stitched with thread. They wear no, stockings. Their breeches,
AND OF THE REIN-DEER.
made of the coarse and slight woollen cloth of the country, called walmal, reach down to their feet, tapering gradually to the bottom, and are tied with a bandage over their half-boots. All the needle-work is performed by the women. They make their thread of the sinews in the legs of the rein-deer, separating them, while fresh, with their teeth, into slender strings, which they twist together. A kind of cord is also made of the roots of spruce fir. The men make use of no razor, but cut their beards with scissars. They never cut the hair of the head, and only occasionally employ a comb, or any similar instrument. They have no laundress or washerwoman. The thread is made out of the tendons of reindeer fawns half a year old. Such thread is covered with tin foil for embroidery, its pliability rendering it peculiarly fit for the purpose. The tendons are dried in the sun, being hung over a stick. They are never boiled. .. . . . 2.66 of this race of extraordinary people, those who inhabit the mountains build no houses: their habitation is a simple tent of walmal-cloth, manufactured in Russia and Norway, supported by birch poles of the rudest workmanship; a hole is left in the top to allow the smoke to escape. The fire is made in the centre of the floor, and round it are spread the reindeer skins on a few birch twigs, on which they sit in the day and sleep at night: a flap of cloth is left loose, to cover at night the opening used for a door. The height of the structure is about eight feet in the centre, and the greatest diameter is but twelve. This small edifice often contains a family of twelve or eighteen persons, with their effects and furniture, which consists of a kettle of copper or brass, bowls, tubs, and baskets of wood, which are generally placed
on the ground behind the fire, opposite the door, or on one or two racks suspended from the roof, on which are also the cheese-vessels, and a few other culinary articles. Such is the residence which the people of the northern Alps occupy during the summer months. Those who inhabit the woody district, lower down, have fixed residences, but of so slender and fragile a texture, that it is really wonderful that human beings, sensible of the impression of heat and cold, can withstand the rigour of a polar winter with so slight a defence against the storms and piercing cold of such an atmosphere.
666 This Kodda, or hut, is formed of double timbers, lying one upon another, and has mostly six sides, rarely but four. It is supported within by four in. dining posts, as thick as one's arm, crossing each other in pairs at the top, upon which is laid a transverse beam, four ells in length. On each side, lower down, is another cross piece of wood, serving to hang pipes on. The walls are formed of beams of a similar thickness, but differing in length, leaving a hole at the top to serve as a chimney, and a door at the side. These are covered with a layer of bark, either of epruce, fir, or birch, and over that is another layer of wood like the first. In the centre the fire is made on the ground, and the inhabitants lie round it. In the middle of the chimney hangs a pole, on which the pot is suspended over the fire. The height of the hut is three ells, its greatest breadth at the base two fathoms.
66 Their huts are so low that it is impossible for 207 one to stand upright in them; and the whole defence against the inclemency of the weather is a single coat of birch bark, not the eighth of an inch thick. The Laplander is a carnivorous animal, and is
AND OF THE REIN-DEER.
said to consume ten times more flesh than a Swedish peasant; a family of four persons devour a deer in a week: they eat the glutton, squirrel, bear, martin, beaver; and, in short, every living creature they can catch, except wolves and foxes.
“The extreme difficulty and danger of travelling in the interior of Lapland is the cause of its being so little known to foreigners. The people are hospitable and kind to strangers when they arrive amongst them, and give the little they possess with pleasure ; but many have never seen a human face but those of their own country. When the great LINNÆUS, almost dead with fatigue and hunger, had travelled a considerable distance through the swamps and bogs, above his knees in water, his guide, who had left him, returned, accompanied by a person of whom he gives the fol. lowing account.
"Her stature was very diminutive; her face of the darkest brown from the effects of smoke;--hereyes dark and sparkling ;-her eyebrows black ;-her pitchy.. coloured hair hung loose about her head, and on it she wore a flat red cap. She had a grey petticoat; and her neck resembled the skin of a frog. Round her waist she wore a girdle, and on her feet a pair of half boots. Her first aspect really struck me with dread; but though a fury in appearance, she addressed me, with mingled pity and reserve, in the following terms:
“O thou poor man! what hard destiny can have brought thee hither, to a place never visited by any one before? This is the first time I ever beheld a stranger Thou miserable creature! how didst thou come, and whither wilt thou go? Dost thou not perceive what houses and habitations we have, and with bow much difficulty we go to church?'
“The people now in London are exhibited in the
full winter costume of their own country, with their summer and winter residences, and the principal objects of their household furniture.'
“ Since their arrival in England, they have behaved with the strictest propriety; they are elevated and delighted beyond measure with the kindness they have experienced fron the public, and will probably return the richest people in the country. They deposit their little accumulations in the Savings Bank every week, and are constant in their attendance to the duties of their religion at the Swedish Lutheran Chapel.
"Nothing, perhaps, in the growth of animated nature is more extraordinary than the sudden reproduction of the immense antlers of the rein-deer': the deer in London are at this time shedding them ; in a few weeks they will begin to shoot again, when so astonishingly rapid is the operation, that in a few days they attain their full size, covered with short hair, which remains on them till autumn, when it comes off by the bursting of the skin that surrounds the horn, which then appears smooth and polished.
“Plenty of the lichen rongeferinus, or rein-deer moss from Bagshot Heath, on which the animals feed, is in the room; the deer receive it with the greatest avidity, from the hands of the visitors, in preference to every other food. It is now known that most of the high tracts of uncultivated heath-land in the United Kingdom produce it in abundance, and it is hoped that those hitherto un productive wastes (for no other animal will eat of this moss) will shortly supply our table with the finest venison and most exquisite chines at a very moderate rate ; it having been ascertained that the climate that produces in luxuriance the lichen rongeferinus is congenial to the propagation of the rein.deér.??...