The first is, touching the recusant magistrates of twenty, or the like number ; in respect the greatness the towns of Ireland, and the commonalties them of the number doth both embase the authority of selves their electors, what shall be done? Which the council, and divulge the business. Nevertheconsultation ariseth from the late advertisements of less, I do hold this proposition to be rather spethe two lords justices, upon the instance of the two cious and solemn, than needful at this time; for towns, Limerick and Kilkenny ; in which advertise certainly it will fill the state full of discontentment: ments they represent the danger only, without giv- which in a growing and unsettled estate ought not ing any light for the remedy; rather warily for to be. themselves, than agreeably to their duties and This I could wish ; that his Majesty would applaces.

point a select number of counsellors there, which In this point I humbly pray his Majesty to re-might deal in the improvement of his revenue, being member, that the refusal is not of the oath of a thing not fit to pass through too many hands, and allegiance, which is not enacted in Ireland, but of that the said selected number should have days of the oath of supremacy, which cutteth deeper into sitting by themselves, at which the rest of the counmatter of conscience. Also, that his Majesty will, cil should not be present; which being once settled, out of the depth of his excellent wisdom and provi- then other principal business of state may be handled dence, think, and, as it were, calculate with himself, at those sittings, and so the rest begin to be disused, whether time will make more for the cause of reli- and yet retain their countenance without murmur gion in Ireland, and be still more and more propi- or disgrace. tious; or whether deferring remedies will not make The third proposition, as it is wound up, seemeth the case more difficult. For if time give his Ma- to be pretty, if it can keep promise; for it is this, jesty advantage, what needeth precipitation to ex- that a mcans may be found to reinforce his Ma. treme remedies ? But if time will make the case jesty's army there by 500 or 1000 men; and that more desperate, then his Majesty cannot begin too without any penny increase of charge. And the

Now, in my opinion, time will open and fa- means should be, that there should be a command. cilitate things for reformation of religion there, and ment of a local removing, and transferring some not shut up and lock out the same. For, first, companies from one province to another; whereupon the plantations going on, and being principally of it is supposed, that many that are planted in house protestants, cannot but mate the other party in and lands, will rather lose their entertainment, than time : also his Majesty's care in placing good bishops remove; and thereby new men may have their pay, and divines, in amplifying the college there, and in and yet the old be mingled in the country for the looking to the education of wards and the like ; as strength thereof. they are the most natural means, so are they like In this proposition two things may be feared ; to be the most effectual and happy for the weeding the one, discontent of those that shall be put off ; out of popery, without using the temporal sword ; the other, that the companies shall be stuffed with so that, I think, I may truly conclude, that the ripe-Tirones, instead of Veterani. I wish therefore that ness of time is not yet come.

this proposition be well debated ere it be admitted. Therefore my advice in all humbleness is, that Thus having performed that which duty binds me this hazardous course of proceeding, to tender the to do, I commend you to God's best preservation. oath to the magistrates of towns, proceed not, but

Your most devoted and bounden servant, die by degrees. And yet, to preserve the authority and reputation of the former council, I would have

FR. BACON. somewhat done; which is, that there be a proceed- Gorhambury, July 5, 1616. ing to seizure of liberties; but not by any act of power, but by Quo warranto, or Scire fucias ; which is a legal course ; and will be the work of three or four terms; by which time the matter will some

CLIV. TO THE KING.* what cool. But I would not, in any case, that the proceeding

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, should be with both the towns which stand now in According to your commandment, I send encontempt, but with one of them only, choosing that closed the preface to the patent of creation of Sir which shall be thought most fit. For if his Ma. George Villiers. I have not used any glaring jesty proceed with both, then all the towns that are terms, but drawn it according to your Majesty's in the like case will think it a common cause ; and instructions, and the note which thereupon I framed that it is but their case to-day, and their own to- and your Majesty allowed, with some additions morrow. But if his Majesty proceed with one, the which I have inserted. But I hope your Majesty apprehension and terror will not be so strong; for will be pleased to correct and perfect it. they will think it may be their case as well to be Majesty will be also pleased to remember, that if spared as prosecuted: and this is the best advice the creation shall be at Rough ford, your pleasure that I can give to his Majesty in this strait ; and and this draught be speedily returned: for it will of this opinion seemed my lord chancellor to be. ask a sending of the bill for your Majesty's signa

The second proposition is this: It may be his ture, and a sending back of the same to pass the Majesty will be moved to reduce the number of his seals, and a sending thereupon the patent itself; council of Ireland, which is now almost fifty, to

* Stephens's Second Collection, p. 9.



it must twice be sent up and down before the day. God evermore preserve your Majesty.

CLVI. TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ON SEND. Your Majesty's most devoted and most bounden

ING HIS PATENT: servant,


FR. BACON. 28 July, 1616.

I have sent you now your patent of creation of lord Blechly of Blechly, and of viscount Villiers. Blechly is your own; and I liked the sound of the

name better than whaddon; but the name will be CLV. TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS ON SEND. hid, for you will be called viscount Villiers. I have ING HIS BILL FOR VISCOUNT.* put them both in a patent, after the manner of the

patent of arms where baronies are joined: but the I SEND you the bill for his Majesty's signature, chief reason was, because I would avoid double prereformed according to his Majesty's" amendments, faces, which had not been fit: nevertheless the both in the two places, which, I assure you, were ceremony of robing, and otherwise, must be double. both altered with great judgment, and in the third And now, because I am in the country, I will send place, which his Majesty termed a question only. you some of my country fruits, which with me are But he is an idle body that thinks Majesty asks good meditations : which, when I am in the city, are an idle question ; and therefore his Majesty's ques choked with business. tions are to be answered, by taking away the cause After that the king shall have watered your new of the question, and not by replying.

dignities with his bounty of the lands which he inFor the name, his Majesty's will is law in those tends you, and that some other things concerning things; and to speak truth, it is a well-sounding and your means, which are now likewise in intention, noble name, both here and abroad; and being your pro- shall be settled upon you ; I do not see but you may per name, I will take it for a good sign that you shall think your private fortunes established; and theregive honour to your dignity, and not your dignity to fore it is now time, that you should refer your acyou. Therefore I have made it viscount Villiers : tions chiefly to the good of your sovereign and your and for your barony, I will keep it for an earldom ; country. It is the life of an ox or a beast always for though the other had been more orderly, yet that to eat, and never to exercise; but men are born, is as usual, and both alike good in law.

especially christian men, not to cram in their forFor Roper's place,f I would have it by all means tunes, but to exercise their virtues; and yet the other despatched : and therefore I marvel it lingereth. It have been the unworthy, and sometimes the unlucky were no good manners to take the business out of humour of great persons in our times; neither will my lord treasurer's hands; and therefore I purpose your farther fortune be the farther off: for assure to write to his lordship, if I hear not from him first yourself, that fortune is of a woman's nature, that by Mr. Deccomb. But if I hear of any delay, you will sooner follow you by slighting than by too much will give me leave, especially since the king named wooing. And in this dedication of yourself to the me, to deal with Sir John Roper myself; for neither public, I recommend unto you principally that which I, nor my lord treasurer, can deserve any great I think was never done since I was born ; and which thanks of you in this business ; considering the king not done, hath bred almost a wilderness and solitude hath spoken to Sir John Roper, and he hath pro- in the king's service; which is, that you countenmised: and besides, the thing itself is so reasonable, ance, and encourage, and advance able and virtuous as it ought to be as soon done as said. I am now men in all kinds, degrees, and professions. For in gotten into the country to my house, where I have the time of some late great counsellors, when they some little liberty to think of that I would think of, bare the sway, able men were by design and of purand not of that which other men hourly break my pose suppressed; and though now since choice goeth head withal, as it was at London. Upon this you better both in church and commonwealth, yet money, may conclude, that most of my thoughts are of his and turn-serving, and cunning canvasses, and imporMajesty ; and then you cannot be far off. God ever tunity prevail too much. And in places of moment, keep you, and prosper you. I rest always

rather make able and honest men yours, than adYour true and most devoted servant,

vance those that are otherwise because they are

yours. As for cunning and corrupt men, you must,

FR. BACON. I know, sometimes use them, but keep them at a Aug. 5, one of the happiest days, 1616.

distance ; and let it appear, that you make use of them, rather than that they lead you. Above all,


Stephens's Second Collection, p. 10.

he was upon the third of October, 1616, commanded to desist * Sir John Roper, who had for many years enjoyed the from the service of his place, and at last removed from it upon place of the chief clerk for enrolling of pleas in the court of the 15th of November following. His successor Sir Henry kiag's bench, esteemed to be worth about 40001. per annum, Montagu, third son of Sir Edward Montagu, of Boughton in being grown old, was prevailed with to surrender it upon being Northamptonshire, recorder of London, and king's serjeant, created lord Teynham, with a reservation of the profits thereof being more complaisant, Sir John Roper resigned towards to bitnself during life. Upon which surrender Sir George the latter end of the same month; and Mr. Shute, and Mr. Vilhers was tu hare the office granted to two of his trustees for Heath, who was afterwards the king's solicitor-general, being their lives, as Carr earl of Somerset was to have had before. But the deputies and trustees of Sir George Villiers, were admits the bord chief justice Coke not being very forward to accept ted. Stephens's Introduct. p. 37. of the surrender, or make a new grant of it upon those terms, Rawley's Resuscitatio.

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depend wholly, next to God, upon the king; and be may do for himself: now good counsel helpeth a ruled, as hitherto you have been, by his instructions; man to help himself; but you have so happy a for that's best for yourself. For the king's care master as supplieth all. My service and good will and thoughts concerning you are according to the shall not be wanting. thoughts of a great king; whereas your thoughts It was graciously and kindly done also of his concerning yourself are, and ought to be, according Majesty towards me, to tell you that you were beto the thoughts of a modest man. But let me not holden to me; but it must be then for thinking of weary you: the sum is, that you think goodness the you as I do; for otherwise, for speaking as I think, best part of greatness; and that you remember it is but the part of an honest man.

I send you whence your rising comes, and make return accord your patent, whereof God give you joy; and I send ingly. God ever keep you.

you here enclosed a little note of remembrance for Your true and most devoted servant,

that part of the ceremony which concerneth the paFR. BACON. tent; for as for other ceremonies, I leave to others.

My lord chancellor despatched your patent preGorhambury, Aug, 12, 1616.

sently upon the receipt; and writ to me, how glad he was of it, and how well he wished you. If you

write to him a few words of thanks, I think you CLVII. TO THE KING, OF SIR GEORGE VIL

shall do well. God keep you and prosper you. I LIERS'S PATENT.*

ever rest

Your true and most devoted servant, IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY,

FR. BACON. I HAVE sent Sir George Villiers's patent drawn

Gorhambury, Aug. 19, 1616. again, containing also a barony; the name Blechly, which is his own, and to my thinking soundeth better than whaddon. I have included both in one patent, to avoid a double preface, and as hath been used in CLIX. TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ACKNOW. the patents of earls in the like nature : nevertheless LEDGING THE KING'S FAVOUR. I the ceremony of robing and otherwise is to be double, as is also used in the like case of earls.

Sir, It resteth, that I express unto your Majesty my I am more and more bound unto his Majesty, great joy, in your honouring and advancing this gen- who, I think, knowing me to have other ends than tleman ; whom to describe, not with colours, but with ambition, is contented to make me judge of mine true lines, I may say this; your Majesty certainly own desires. I am now beating my brains, among hath found out and chosen a safe nature, a capable many cares of his Majesty's business, touching the man, an honest will, generous and noble affections, redeeming the time in this business of cloth. The and a courage well lodged, and one that I know great question is; how to miss, or how to mate the loveth your Majesty unfeignedly, and admireth you Flemings; how to pass by them, or how to pass as much as is in a man to admire his sovereign upon

over them. earth. Only your Majesty's school, wherein he In my next letter, I shall alter your style : but I hath already so well profited, as in this entrance shall never whilst I breathe alter mine own style, upon the stage, being the time of the greatest dan in being ger, he hath not committed any manifest error, will

Your true and devoted servant, add perfection to your Majesty's comfort and the

FR. BACON. great contentment of your people. God ever pre

Aug. 22, 1616. serve your Majesty. I rest in all humbleness, Your Majesty's most bounden and devoted subject and servant,


CLX. TO THE KING.Ş Gorhambury, Aug. 12, 1615.

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, First, from the bottom of my heart I thank the

God of all mercy and salvation, that he hath preCLVIII. TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ON served you from receiving any hurt by your fall; SENDING HIS PATENT SEALED.+

and I pray his Divine Majesty ever to preserve you

on horseback and on foot from hurt and fear of hurt. SIR,

Now touching the clothing business ; for that I I took much contentment in that I perceived by perceive the cloth goeth not off as it should, and your letter, that you took in so good part the freedom of that Wiltshire is now come in with complaint, as my advice, and that yourself in your own nature and well as Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, so that judgment consented there with. There is no service this gangrene creepeth on; I humbly pray your comparable to good counsel ; and the reason is, be- Majesty to take into your Majesty's princely concause no man can do so much for another, as a man sideration a remedy for the present stand, which * Rawley's Resuscitatio.

#Rawley's Resuscitatio. † Rawley's Resuscitatio, with corrections from the original.

§ Stephens's First Collection, p. 179.


certainly will do the deed ; and for any thing that I the work impossible or inconvenient, which I do know will be honourable and convenient, though not yet believe, I know his Majesty and the state joined with some loss in your Majesty's customs, will not suffer them to perish. which I know in a business of this quality, and be- I wish what shall be done were done with resolụing bat for an interim till you may negotiate, your tion and speed, and that your lordship, because it is Majesty doth not esteem: and it is this:

a gracious business, had thanks of it next the king; That your Majesty by your proclamation do for- and that there were some commission under his bid, after fourteen days, giving that time for suiting Majesty's sign manual to deal with some selected men's selves, the wearing of any stuff made wholly persons of the old company, and to take their anof silk, without mixture of wool, for the space of six swers and consent under their hands; and that the months. So your Majesty shall supply outward procuring the commission, and the procuring their vent with inward use, specially for the finer cloths, offers to be accepted, were your lordship's work. which are those wherein the stand principally is, In this treaty my lord chancellor must by no and which silk weavers are likest to buy ; and you means be left out; for he will moderate well, and shall show a most princely care over thousands of aimeth at his Majesty's ends. the poor people ; and besides, your Majesty shall Mr. Solicitor is not yet returned, but I look for blow a horn, to let the Flemings know your Majesty him presently. I rest will not give over the chace. Again, the winter

Your lordship’s true and most devoted servant, season coming on is fittest for wearing of cloth ; and

FR. BACON. there is scope enough left for bravery and vanity by lacing and embroidery, so it be upon cloth or stuffs

Monday, October 14, of wool.

at 10 of the clock. I thought it my duty to offer and submit this remedy, amongst others, to your Majesty's great wisdom, because it pleased you to lay the care of this CLXII. REASONS WHY THE NEW COMPANY business upon me; and indeed my care did fly to

IS NOT TO BE TRUSTED AND CONTINUED it before, as it shall always do to any knots and

WITH THE TRADE OF CLOTHS. † difficulties in your business, wherein hitherto I have been not unfortunate. God ever have you in his First, The company consists of a number of most precious custody.

young men and shop-keepers, which not being bred Your Majesty's most faithful and most bounden in the trade, are fearful to meddle with any of the

dear and fine cloths, but only meddle with the coarse servant,


cloths, which is every man's skill; and besides, Sept. 13, 1616.

having other trades to live upon, they come in the sunshine so long as things go well, and as soon as they meet with any storm or cloud, they leave trade,

and go back to shop-keeping; whereas the old comCLXI. TO THE LORD VISCOUNT VILLIERS. pany were beaten traders, and having no other

means of living but that trade, were fain to ride out MY VERY GOOD LORD,

all accidents and difficulties, which, being men of It was my opinion from the beginning, that this great ability, they were well able to do. company will never overcome the business of the Secondly, These young men being the major part, eloth; and that the impediments are as much or and having a kind of dependence upon alderman more in the persons which are instrumenta animata, Cockain, they carry things by plurality of voices; than in the dead business itself.

and yet those few of the old company, which are I have therefore sent unto the king here enclosed amongst them, do drive almost three parts of the my reasons, which I pray your lordship to show his trade: and it is impossible things should go well, Majesty.

where one part gives the vote, and the other doth The new company and the old company are but the work ; so that the execution of all things lies the sons of Adam to me, and I take myself to have chiefly upon them that never consented, which is some credit with both ; but it is upon fear rather merely motus violentus, and cannot last. with the old, and upon love rather with the new; Thirdly, The new company make continually such and yet with both upon persuasion that I understand new springing demands, as the state can never be the business.

secure nor trust to them; neither doth it seem that Nevertheless I walk in via regia, which is not they do much trust themselves. absolately acceptable to either; for the new company Fourthly, The present stand of cloth at Blackwould have all their demands granted, and the old well-hall, which is that that presseth the state most, company would have the king's work given over and is provided for but by a temporary and weak and deserted.

remedy, is supposed would be presently at an end, My opinion is, that the old company be drawn to upon the revivor of the old; in respect that they are fucceed into the contract, else the king's honourable men and united amongst themselves. suffereth, and that we all draw in one way to effect Fifthly, In these cases opinio estreritate major, and that. If time, which is the wisest of things, prove the very voice and expectation of revivor of the old • Stephens's First Collection, 181.

† Stephens's First Collection, p. 182.


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company will comfort the clothiers, and encourage them not to lay down their looms.

CLXIV. TO THE LORD VISCOUNT VILLIERS. Sixthly, The very Flemings themselves, in regard

MY VERY GOOD LORD, of the pique they have against the new company, are like to be more pliant and tractable towards his I think his Majesty was not only well advised, but Majesty's ends and desires.

well inspired, to give order for this same wicked Seventhly, Considering the business hath not gone child of Cain, Bertram, to be examined before he on well, his Majesty must either lay the fault upon was farther proceeded with. And I for my part, the matter itself, or upon the persons that have before I had received his Majesty's pleasure by my managed it; wherein the king shall best acquit lord chamberlain, went thus far; that I had aphis honour, to lay it where it is indeed ; that is, upon pointed him to be farther examined, and also had the carriage and proceedings of the new company, taken order with Mr. Solicitor that he should be which have been full of uncertainty and abuse. provided to make some declaration at his trial in

Lastly, The subjects of this kingdom generally some solemn fashion, and not to let such a strange have an ill taste and conceit of the new company, murder pass, as if it had been but a horse-stealing. and therefore the putting of them down will dis- But upon his Majesty's pleasure signified, I forthcharge the state of a great deal of envy.

with caused the trial to be staid, and examined the party according to his Majesty's questions; and also sent for the principal counsel in the cause, whereupon Sir John Tyndal's report was grounded,

to discern the justice or iniquity of the said reCLXIII. TO THE LORD VISCOUNT VILLIERS.*

port, as his Majesty likewise commanded.

I send therefore the case of Bertram truly stated MY VERY GOOD LORD,

and collected, and the examination taken before Now that the king hath received my opinion, myself and Mr. Solicitor; whereby it will appear to with the judges' opinion, unto whom it was referred, his Majesty that Sir John Tyndal, as to his cause, touching the proposition for inns, in point of law ; | is a kind of martyr: for if ever he made a just reit resteth that it be molded and carried in that sort, port in his life, this was it. as it may pass with best contentment and conveni- But the event since all this is, that this Bertram ency. Wherein I that ever love good company, as being, as it seemeth, indurate, or in despair, hath I was joined with others in the legal point, so I de- hanged himself in prison; of which accident, as I sire not to be alone touching the conveniency. And am sorry, because he is taken from example and therefore I send your lordship a form of warrant for public justice, so yet I would not for any thing it the king's signature, whereby the framing of the had been before his examination; so that there may business, and that which belongeth to it, may be re- be otherwise some occasion taken, either by some ferred to myself with serjeant Montague and serjeant declaration in the king's bench upon the return of Finch, and though Montague should change his the coroners' inquest, or by some printed book of place, that alteration hurteth not the business, but the fact, or by some other means, whereof I purpose rather helpeth it. And because the inquiry and to advise with my lord chancellor, to have both survey touching inns will require much attendance his Majesty's royal care, and the truth of the fact, and charge, and the making of the licences, I shall with the circumstances, manifested and published. || think fit, when that question cometh to me, to be † to For the taking of a toy of my lord chief justice the justice of assise, and not to those that follow this before he was placed, it was done before your letter business: therefore his Majesty may be pleased to came; and on Tuesday Heath and Shute shall be consider what proportion or dividend shall be allotted admitted and all perfected. to Mr. Mompesson, and those that shall follow it My lord chancellor proposeth to be at the hall at their own charge, which useth in like case to be to-morrow, to give my lord chief justice his oath; a fifth. [ So I ever rest

and I pray God it hurt him not this cold weather.

God ever prosper you. Your lordship’s true and most devoted servant,


Your true and most devoted servant, Nov. 13, 1616.

FR. BACON. Sunday night, Nov. 17, 1616.

Stephens's First Collection, p. 181.

ing to their demerits : the manner of which may be seen in the † Here (referred) or some word of the like import is journals of that parliament, and the histories of those times. omitted.

Stephens. II suppose after the judges and attorney-general had given Stephens's First Collection, p. 186. the opinion above mentioned, that a patent was soon granted This Bertram, who according to Camden in his Annals of for licensing of common inns; whence Sir Giles Mompesson king James, was a grave man of above 70 years of age, and of levied several sums by fines, and annual rent, and from ale- a clear reputation, pistolled Sir John Tyndal, a master in houses also by a subsequent patent: proceeding therein with chancery, on the 12th of November, for making a report so much rigour, that it was complained of in the parliament against him, in a cause where the sum contended for did not which begun in 1620-21, as one of the great grievances of the exceed 2001. nation; the patent declared illegal, and recalled by the king's By his examination taken the 16th, he confessed it to be proclamation ; Mompesson and Michel, the chief projectors as foul a murder as ever was: under the sense of which he of this and some other oppressions, severely censured accord hanged himself the next day. Stephens.

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