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could not. Neither might I in reason presume to that go full all the parts together; and not these offer unto your Majesty dead lines, myself being ex- strange points of accord and discord. This I write cluded as I am; were it not upon this only argu- not, I assure your honour, officiously; except it be ment or subject, namely, to clear myself in point of according to Tully's Offices; that is, honestly and duty. Duty, though my state lie buried in the morally. For though, I thank God, I account, upon sands, and my favours be cast upon the waters, and the proceeding, in the queen's service, or not promy honours be committed to the wind, yet standeth ceeding, both ways; and therefore neither mean to surely built upon the rock, and hath been, and ever fawn nor retire; yet I naturally desire good opinion shall be, unforced and unattempted. And therefore, with any person which for fortune or spirit is to be since the world, out of error, and your Majesty, I regarded: much more with a secretary of the queen's, fear, out of art, is pleased to put upon me, that I and a cousin-german, and one with whom I have have so much as any election, or will in this my ab- ever thought myself to have some sympathy of nasence from attendance, I cannot but leave this pro ture, though accidents have not suffered it to appear. testation with your Majesty; that I am, and have Thus not doubting of your honourable interpretation been merely a patient, and take myself only to obey and usage of that I have written, I commend you to and execute your Majesty's will. And indeed, the divine preservation. Madam, I had never thought it possible that your From Gray's-Inn. Majesty could have so disinterested yourself of me; nor that you had been so perfect in the art of forgetting ; nor that after a quintessence of wormwood,

XLI. TO SIR ROBERT CECIL. I your Majesty would have taken so large a draught of poppy, as to have passed so many summers with- SIR, out all feeling of my sufferings. But the only com- Your honour knoweth, my manner is, though fort I have is this, that I know your Majesty taketh it be not the wisest way, yet taking it for the hodelight and contentment in executing this disgrace nestest, to do as Alexander did by his physician, in upon me. And since your Majesty can find no other drinking the medicine, and delivering the advertiseuse of me, I am glad yet I can serve for that. Thus ment of suspicion : so I trust on, and yet do not making my most humble petition to your Majesty, smother what I hear. I do assure you, Sir, that by that in justice, howsoever you may by strangeness a wise friend of mine, and not factious towards your untie, or by violence cut asunder all other knots, honour, I was told with asseveration, that your hoyour Majesty would not touch me in that which is

nour was bought by Mr. Coventry for two thousand indissoluble : that is, point of duty; and that your angels: and that you wrought in a contrary spirit to Majesty will pardon this my unwarranted presump- my lord your father. And he said farther, that from tion of writing, being to such an end : I cease in all your servants, from your lady, from some counsellors humbleness;

that have observed you in my business, he knew you Your Majesty's poor, and never so unworthy wrought underhand with me: the truth of which servant,

tale I do not believe. You know the event will ESSEX.

show, and God will right. But as I reject this report, though the strangeness of my case might make

me credulous, so I admit a conceit, that the last mesXL. TO SIR ROBERT CECIL.+

senger my lord and yourself used, dealt ill with your

honours; and that word, speculation, which was in Sir,

the queen's mouth, rebounded from him as a comI FORBEAR not to put in paper, as much as I mendation : for I am not ignorant of those little thought to have spoken to your honour to-day, if I arts. Therefore, I pray, trust not him again in my could have stayed ; knowing that if your honour matter. This was much to write ; but I think my should make other use of it, than is due to good fortune will set me at liberty, who am weary of meaning, and that I am persuaded you will ; yet asserviling myself to every man's charity. Thus to persons of judgment, and that know me other-I, &c. wise, it will rather appear, as it is, a precise honesty, and this same suum cuique tribuere,” than any hollowness to any. It is my luck still to be akin to

XLII. TO FOULK GREVIL.S such things as I neither like in nature, nor would willingly meet with in my course ; but yet cannot

SIR, avoid, without show of base timorousness, or else of I UNDERSTAND of your pains to have visited me, unkind or suspicious strangeness

for which I thank you. My matter is an endless Some hiatus in the copy.]

question. I assure you I had said, “ Requiesce, And I am of one spirit still. I ever anima mea :" but I now am otherwise put to my liked the Galenists, that deal with good compositions; psalter; “ Nolite confidere.” I dare go no farther. and not the Paracelsians, that deal with these fine Her Majesty had, by set speech, more than once separations : and in music, I ever loved easy airs, assured me of her intention to call me to her serrice; which I could not understand but of the place I had been named to. And now, whether “invidus XLIV. TO SIR ROBERT CECIL, AT HIS homo hoc fecit;" or whether my matter must be an

This shows this letter was wrote before the earl of Essex earl's going to Ireland, determines the date at the latest to had been reconciled to the queen; and our author not having the beginning of 1598. been called or advised with for some year and a half before the † Rawley's Resuscitatio. Ibid.

§ Ibid.

BEING IN FRANCE. I appendix to my lord of Essex's suit; or whether her

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOURABLE LORDSHIP, Majesty, pretending to prove my ability, meaneth lat to take advantage of some errors, which like I KNOW you will pardon this my observance in Enough, at one time or other, I may commit; or what writing to you, empty of matter, but out of the fulit is; but her Majesty is not ready to despatch it. ness of my love. I am sorry that as your time of And what though the master of the rolls, and my absence is prolonged, above that was esteemed at lord of Essex, and yourself, and others, think my your lordship's setting forth ; so now, upon this last case without doubt, yet in the mean time I have a advertisement received from you, there groweth an hard condition to stand so, that whatsoever service opinion amongst better than the vulgar, that the I do to her Majesty, it shall be thought but to be difficulties also of your negotiation are increased. ** servitium viscatum," lime-twigs and fetches to place But because I know the gravity of your nature to myself; and so I shall have envy, not thanks. This be not to hope lightly, it maketh me to despair the is a course to quench all good spirits, and to corrupt | less. For you are natus ad ardua: and the indisevery man's nature ; which will, I fear, much hurt position of the subject may honour the skill of the her Majesty's service in the end. I have been like workman. Sure I am, judgment and diligence shall a piece of stuff bespoken in the shop ; and if her not want in your lordship’s self: but this was not Majesty will not take me, it may be the selling by my purpose ; being only to signify unto your lordparcels will be more gainful. For to be, as I told ship my continual and incessant love towards you, you, like a child following a bird, which, when he thirsting after your return, for many respects. So is nearest flieth away, and lighteth a little before, I commend you ever to the good preservation of the and then the child after it again, and so in infinitum; Divine Majesty. I am weary of it, as also of wearying my good At your honour's commandment ever and friends: of whom, nevertheless, I hope in one course

or other gratefully to deserve. And so, not forget Gray's Inn, 1598.
ting your business, I leave to trouble you with this idle
letter, being but “justa et moderata querimonia :"
for indeed I do confess, primus amor will not easily XLIV. TO SIR ROBERT CECIL.
be cast off. And thus again I commend me to you.

The argument of my letters to your lordship

rather increaseth than spendeth ; it being only the XLIII. TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.*

desire I have to salute you; which by your absence IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP,

is more augmented than abated. For me to write I am very sorry her Majesty should take my mo

to your lordship occurrences, either of Scottish brags, tion to travel in offence. But surely under her Ma

or Irish plaints, or Spanish ruffling, or Low-Country jesty's royal correction, it is such an offence as it states, were, besides that it is alienum quiddam from should be an offence to the sun, when a man, to

mine own humour, to forget to whom I write; save avoid the scorching heat thereof, flieth into the shade.

that you, that know true advertisements, sometimes

desire and delight to hear common reports, as we And your lordship may easily think, that having now these twenty years, for so long it is, and more, since

that know but common reports desire to hear the I went with Sir † Amyas Paulet into France, from truth. But to leave such as write to your fortunes, ter Majesty's royal hand, made her Majesty's service

I write to yourself, in regard of my love to you, the scope of my life ; I shall never find a greater you being as near to me in heart's blood, as in blood grief than this, relinquere amorem primum. But of descent., || This day I had the contentment to sizce principia actionum sunt tantum in nostra po lordship’s countenance was not decayed, nor his

see your father, upon occasion : and methought his tertele, I hope her Majesty of her clemency, yea cough vehement; but his voice was as faint all the and justice, will pardon me, and not force me to pine while as at first. Thus wishing your lordship a bere with melancholy. For though mine heart be gord, yet mine eyes will be sore ; so as I shall have happy and speedy return, I commend you to the

Divine Majesty. no pleasure to look abroad: and if I should otherwise be affected, her Majesty in her wisdom will but think me an impudent man, that would face out

XLVI. A LETTER OF ADVICE TO THE EARL a disgrace. Therefore, as I have ever found you

OF ESSEX, TO TAKE UPON HIM THE CARE my good lord and true friend, so I pray open the

OF IRISH CAUSES, WHEN MR. SECRETARY matter so to her Majesty, as she may discern the

CECIL WAS IN FRANCE. 1598.ST necessity of it without adding hard conceit to her rejection; of which, I am sure, the latter I never

MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, de served. Thus, &c.

I do write, because I had no time fully to express • Rawley's Resuscitatio.

|| This seems to be written 1598, the time of lord Burghley's † This letter was therefore wrote about the year 1598. last sickness. Rawley's Resuscitatio.

Rawley's Resuscitatio.


my conceit to your lordship touching Irish affairs, ation of abuses; or of the joining of practice with considering them as they may concern your lordship; force in the disunion of the rebels. If your lordship knowing that you will consider them as they may doubt to put your sickle into another's harvest, yet concern the state. That it is one of the aptest par- consider you have these advantages : first, time ticulars that hath come, or can come upon the stage brings it to you in Mr. Secretary's absence : next, for your lordship to purchase honour upon, I am vis unita fortior: thirdly, the business being mixed moved to think for three reasons : because it is in with matters of war, it is fittest for you: and lastly, generate, in your house, in respect of my lord your I know your lordship will carry it with that modesty father's noble attempts : because of all the actions and respect towards aged dignity, and that good of state on foot at this time, the labour resteth most correspondence towards my dear kinsman and your in that particular: and because the world will make good friend now abroad, as no inconvenience may a kind of comparison, between those that set it out grow that way. of frame and those that bring it into frame: which Thus have I played the ignorant statesman; kind of honour giveth the quickest kind of reflec- which I do to nobody but your lordship; except I tion. The transferring this honour upon yourself do it to the queen sometimes when she trains me consisteth in two points : the one, if the principal on. But your lordship will accept my duty and person employed come in by you and depend upon good meaning, and secure me touching the privateyou ; the other, if your lordship declare yourself, ness of that I write. and profess to undertake a care of that kingdom. For the persons, it falleth out well that your lordship hath had no interest in the persons of imputa- | XLVII. A LETTER OF ADVICE TO THE EARL tion : for neither Sir William Fitz-Williams, nor Sir OF ESSEX, UPON THE FIRST TREATY WITH John Norris, was yours.

Sir William Russel was TYRONE 1598, BEFORE THE EARL WAS conceived yours, but was curbed. Sir Coniers NOMINATED FOR THE CHARGE OF IREClifford, as I conceive it, dependeth on you, who is LAND.* said to do well. And if my lord of Ormond, in this

MY VERY GOOD LORD, interim, doth accommodate things well, as it is said he doth, I take it he hath always had good under- CONCERNING the advertisements, which your lordstanding with your lordship; so as all things hither-ship imparted to me, touching the state of Ireland, to are not only whole and entire, but of favourable I hold them to be no more certain to make judgaspect towards your lordship, if hereafter you choose ment upon, than a patient's water to a physician : well: wherein in your wisdom you will remember therefore for me upon one water to make a judgment, there is a great difference in choice of the persons, were indeed like a foolish bold mountebank, or Dr. as you shall think the affairs to incline to compo- Birket: yet for willing duty's sake, I will set down sition or to war. Concerning the care of business, to your lordship what opinion sprang in my mind the general and popular conceit hath been, that upon that I read. Irish causes have been much neglected; whereby The letter from the council there, leaning to misthe very reputation of better care will put life into trust and dissuade the treaty, not much rely on, them. And I am sure her Majesty, and my lords for three causes. First, because it is always the of the council, do not think their care dissolved when grace, and the safety from blame, of such a council, they have chosen whom to employ : but that they to err in caution : whereunto add, that it may be, will proceed in a spirit of state, and not leave the they, or some of them, are not without envy towards main point to discretion. Then if a resolution be the person who is used in treating the accord. Next, taken, a consultation must proceed; and the consult because the time of this treaty hath no show of disation must be governed upon information to be had simulation ; for that Tyrone is now in no straits : from such as know the place, and matters in fact : but he is more like a gamester that will give over and in taking of information I have always noted because he is a winner, than because he hath no there is a skill and a wisdom. But for a beginning more money in his purse. Lastly, I do not see but and a key to that which shall follow, it were good those articles, whereupon they ground their susyour lordship would have some large and serious picion, may as well proceed out of fear, as out of conference with Sir William Russel, Sir Richard falsehood. For the retaining the dependence of the Bingham, the earl of Thomond, and Mr. Wilbraham; Vraights, the protracting the admission of a sheriff

, to know their relation of the past; their opinion of the refusing to give his son for an hostage, the holdthe present; and their advice for the future. Buting off from present repair to Dublin, the refusing I am of opinion much more would be had of them, to go presently to accord, without including Odonif your lordship shall be pleased severally to confer; nell, and other his associates, may very well come not obiter, but expressly upon some caveat given of an apprehension in case he should receive hard them to think of it before ; for bene docet qui pru- measure ; and not out of treachery : so as if the denter interrogat.

great person you write of be faithful, and that you For the points of apposing them, I am too much have not heard some present intelligence of present a stranger to the business to deduce them; but in a succours from Spain, for the expectation whereof general topic, methinks the pertinent interrogations Tyrone would win time, I see no deep cause of dismust be ; either of the possibility and means of ac- trusting this course of treaty, if the main conditions cord; or of the nature of the war; or of the reform

* Rawley's Resuscitatio.


may be good. For her Majesty seemeth to me to hath made me set down these few wandering lines, be a winner thereby three ways: first, her purse as one that would say somewhat, and can say nothing, shall have some rest: next, it will divert the foreign touching your lordship’s intended charge for Ireland: designs upon the place : thirdly, though her Majesty which my endeavour I know your lordship will acbe like for a time to govern but precario in the cept graciously and well; whether your lordship Dorth, and be not, as to a true command, in better take it by the handle of the occasion ministered from state there than before; yet, besides the two respects yourself, or of the affection from which it proceeds. of ease of charge, and advantage of opinion abroad, Your lordship is designed to a service of great before mentioned, she shall have time to use her merit and great peril; and as the greatness of the princely policy in two points to weaken them : the peril must needs include a like proportion of merit; one, by division and the disunion of the heads; the so the greatness of the merit may include no small other, by recovering and winning the people from consequence of peril, if it be not temperately governthem by justice: which of all other courses is the best. ed. For all immoderate success extinguisheth merit,

Now for the Athenian question : you discourse and stirreth up distaste and envy; the assured foreFell; “ Quid igitur agendum est ?" I will shoot runners of whole charges of peril. But I am at the my fool's bolt, since you will have it so. The earl last point first, some good spirit leading my pen to of Ormond to be encouraged and comforted. Above presage to your lordship success; wherein, it is true, all things, the garrisons to be instantly provided for. I am not without my oracles and divinations; none For opportunity maketh a thief: and if he should of them superstitious, and yet not all natural. For mean never so well now, yet such an advantage as first, looking into the course of God's providence in the breaking of her Majesty's garrisons might tempt things now depending, and calling to consideration, a true man.

how great things God hath done by her Majesty and And because he may as well waver upon his own for her; I collect he hath disposed of this great inconstancy as upon occasion, and wanton variable defection in Ireland, thereby to give an urgent occaDESS is never restrained but by fear, I hold it neces- sion to the reduction of that whole kingdom; as sary to be menaced with a strong war: not by words, upon the rebellion of Desmond there ensued the bat by musters and preparations of forces here, in reduction of that whole province. case the accord proceed not: but none to be sent over, Next, your lordship goeth against three of the lest it disturb the treaty, and make him look to be unluckiest vices of all others, disloyalty, ingratitude, Grerrun as soon as he hath laid away arms. And, and insolency ; which three offences, in all examples, but that your lordship is too easy to pass in such have seldom their doom adjourned to the world to cases from dissimulation to verity, I think if your lordship lent your reputation in this case ; that is, Lastly, he that shall have had the honour to know to pretend, that if peace go not on, and the queen your lordship inwardly, as I have had, shall find mean to make, not a defensive war as in times past, bona exta, whereby he may better ground a divinbat a full re-conquest of those parts of the country, ation of good, than upon the dissection of a sacrifice. you would accept the charge; I think it would help But that part I leave; for it is fit for others to be to settle Tyrone in his seeking accord, and win you confident upon you, and you to be confident upon a great deal of honour gratis.

the cause : the goodness and justice whereof is such And that which most properly concerns this action, as can hardly be matched in any example ; it being if it prove a peace, I think her Majesty shall do no ambitious war against foreigners, but a recovery well to cure the root of the disease ; and to profess, of subjects ; and that after lenity of conditions often by a commission of peaceable men, chiefly of respect tried; and a recovery of them not only to obedience, and countenance, reformation of abuses, extortions, but to humanity and policy, from more than Indian and injustices there ; and to plant a stronger and barbarism. surer government than heretofore, for the ease and There is yet another kind of divination, familiar protection of the subject. For the removing of the to matters of state ; being that which Demosthenes sword or government in arms from the earl of Or.

so often relied upon in his time; when he said, mord, or the sending of the deputy, which will That which for the time past is worst of all, is for eclipse it, if peace follow, I think it unseasonable. the time to come the best: which is, that things go

Lastly, I hold still my opinion, both for your ill, not by accident, but by errors ; wherein, if your better information, and the fuller declaration of your lordship have been heretofore an awaking censor, care, in meddling in this urgent and meriting service, yet you must look for no other now, but " Medice, that your lordship have a set conference with the

cura teipsum :" and though you shall not be the persons I named in my former letter.

happy physician that cometh in the declination of

the disease ; yet you embrace that condition which XLVIII. A LETTER OF ADVICE TO MY LORD

many noble spirits have accepted for advantage; OF ESSEX, IMMEDIATELY BEFORE HIS which is, that you go upon the greater peril of your GOING INTO IRELAND. 1599.*

fortune, and the less of your reputation; and so the

honour countervaileth the adventure; of which ho. MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD,

nour your lordship is in no small possession, when + Your late note of my silence in your occasions that her Majesty, known to be one of the most • Rawley's Resuscitatio. + Our author observes, his lordship's (namely, the earl of Essex's) going into [re. * I was not called or advised with some year and a half before / land,” which explains this passage. Apology, p. 135.


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judicious princes in discerning of spirits that ever the adventure of your person to be valiant as a private governed, hath made choice of you, merely out of soldier, rather than as a general : it may make you her royal judgment; her affection inclining rather to in your commandments rather to be gracious than discontinue your attendance, into whose hand, and ciplinary: it may make you press action, in respect trust, to put the command and conduct of so great of the great expectation conceived, rather hastily forces; the gathering the fruit of so great charge ; than seasonably and safely: it may make you seek the execution of so many counsels; the redeeming rather to achieve the war by force, than by interof the defaults of so many former governors; the mixture of practice : it may make you, if God shall clearing of the glory of her so many happy years' send prosperous beginnings, rather seek the fruition reign, only in this part eclipsed. Nay farther, how of that honour, than the perfection of the work in far forth the peril of that state is interlaced with the hand. And for the other point, that is, the properil of England; and therefore how great the ceeding, like a good protestant, upon express warhonour is, to keep and defend the approaches or rant, and not upon good intention, your lordship in avenues of this kingdom, I hear many discourse ; your wisdom knoweth that as it is most fit for you and there is a great difference, whether the tortoise to desire convenient liberty of instructions, so it is gathereth herself within her shell hurt or unhurt. no less fit for you to observe the due limits of them ;

And if any man be of opinion, that the nature of remembering that the exceeding of them may not the enemy doth extenuate the honour of the service, only procure, in case of adverse accident, a dangerbeing but a rebel and a savage, I differ from him ; ous disavow ; but also, in case of prosperous success, for I see the justest triumph that the Romans in be subject to interpretation, as if all were not refertheir greatness did obtain, and that whereof the red to the right end. emperors in their styles took addition and denomin- Thus have I presumed to write these few lines to ation, were of such an enemy as this; that is, people your lordship, in methodo ignorantie; which is, barbarous, and not reduced to civility, magnifying a when a man speaketh of any subject, not according kind of lawless liberty, and prodigal of life, hardened to the parts of the matter, but according to the moin body, fortified in woods and bogs, and placing del of his own knowledge; and most humbly desire both justice and felicity in the sharpness of their your lordship that the weakness thereof may be swords ; such were the Germans and ancient Britons, supplied in your lordship by a benign acceptation, and divers others. Upon which kind of people, as it is in me by my best wishing. whether the victory were a conquest, or a reconquest upon a rebellion or a revolt, it made no difference, that ever I could find, in honour. And therefore it

XLIX. TO MY LORD OF ESSEX.* is not the enriching predatory war that hath the pre-eminence in honour, else should it be more

MY LORD, honour to bring in a carrack of rich burden, than CONCEIVING that your lordship came now up in one of the twelve Spanish apostles. But then this the person of a good servant to see your sovereign nature of people doth yield a higher point of honour, mistress; which kind of compliments are many considered in truth, and substance, than any war times“ instar magnorum meritorum;" and therecan yield which should be achieved against a civil fore that it would be hard for me to find you: I enemy; if the end may be “ pacisque imponere have committed to this poor paper the humble samorem,” to replant and refound the policy of that lutations of him that is more yours than any man's; nation ; to which nothing is wanting, but a just and and more yours than any man. To these salutations civil government; which design, as it doth descend I add a due and joyful gratulation, confessing that unto you from your noble father, who lost his life in your lordship, in your last conference with me bethat action, though he paid tribute to nature, and not fore your journey, spake not in vain, God making it to fortune; so I hope your lordship shall be as fatal good ; that you trusted, we should say, a captain to this war, as Africanus was to the war tasset?” Which, as it is found true in a happy of Carthage, after that both his uncle and father sense, so I wish you do not find another “ Quis puhad lost their lives in Spain in the same war. Now tasset ?” in the manner of taking this so great a although it be true, that these things which I write, service. But I hope it is as he said, “ Nubecula being but representations unto your lordship of the est, cito transibit :” and that your lordship’s wisdom, honour and appearance of the success of the enter- and obsequious circumspection, and patience, will prise, be not much to the purpose of any advice; yet turn all to the best. So referring all to some time it is that which is left to me, being no man of war, that I may attend you, I commit you to God's best and ignorant in the particulars of estate. For a man preservation. may, by the eye, set up the white in the midst of the butt, though he be no archer. Therefore I will only add this wish, according to the English phrase, which L. A LETTER TO THE EARL OF ESSEX, IN termeth a well-willing advice, a wish; that your OFFER OF HIS SERVICE WHEN HE WAS lordship in this whole action, looking forward, would FIRST ENLARGED TO ESSEX-HOUSE. + set down this position ; That merit is worthier than fame; and looking back hither would remember this text, That obedience is better than sacrifice. For de- No man can expound my doings better than your signing to fame and glory may make your lordship in

" Quis pu

• Rawley's Resuscitatio.

+ Ibid.


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