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always get out of, notwithstanding his cabalistical grammar,” and his “audacious grammar*. Yet this great Caramuel, the critics have agreed, was nothing but a puffy giant, with legs too weak for his bulk, and only to be accounted as a hero amidst a “confusion of words."

Let us dread the fate of Caramuel ! and before we enter into discussion with the metaphysician, first settle what he means by the nature of ideas ; with the politician, his notion of liberty and equality ; with the divine, what he deems orthodox ; with the political economist, what he considers to be value and rent! By this means we may avoid, what is perpetually recurring; that extreme laxity or vagueness of WORDS, which makes every writer, or speaker, complain of his predecessor, and attempt, sometimes not in the best temper, to define and to settle the signification of what the witty South calls “those rabble-charming words, which carry so much wild-fire wrapt up in them.”

* Baillet gives the dates and plans of these grammars. The cabalistic was published in Bruxelles, 1642, in 12mo. The audacious was in folio, printed at Frankfort, 1654,Jugemens des Savans. Tome II. 3mo partie. VOL. II. (New Series.)

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POLITICAL NICK-NAMES.

POLITICAL calumny is said to have been reduced into an art, like that of logic, by the Jesuits. This itself may be a political calumny! A powerful body, who themselves had practised the artifices of calumniators, may, in their turn, often have been calumniated. The passage in question was drawn out of one of the classical authors used in their colleges. Busembaum, a German Jesuit, had composed, in duodecimo, a “ Medulla Theologiæ moralis,” where, among other casuistical propositions, there was found lurking in this old jesuit's “ marrow” one which favoured regicide and assassination! Fifty editions of the book had passed unnoticed; till a new one appearing at the critical moment of Damien's attempt, the duodecimo of the old scholastic Jesuit which had now been amplified by its commentators into two folios, was considered not merely ridiculous, but as dangerous. It was burnt at Toulouse, in 1757, by order of the parliament, and condemned at Paris. An Italian Jesuit pub

lished an " apology" for this theory of assassination, and the same flames deyoured it! Whether Busembaum deserved the honour bestowed on his ingenuity, the reader may judge by the passage itself,

“ Whoever would ruin a person, or a government, must begin this operation by spreading calumnies, to defame the person or the government; for unquestionably the calumniator will always find a great number of persons inclined to believe him, or to side with him; it therefore follows, that whenever the object of such calumnies is once lowered in credit by such means, he will soon lose the reputation and power founded on that credit, and sink under the permanent and vindictive attacks of the calumniator." This is the politics of Satan—the evil principle which regulates so many things in this world. The enemies of the Jesuits have formed a list of great names who had become the victims of such atrocious Machiavelism *.

This has been one of the arts practised by all

* See Recueil Chronologique et Analytique de tout ce qui a fait en Portugal la Société de Jesus. Vol. ii. sect. 406.

political parties. Their first weak invention is to attach to a new faction a contemptible or an opprobrious nick-name. In the history of the revolutions of Europe, whenever a new party has at length established its independence, the original denomination which had been fixed on them, marked by the passions of the party which bestowed it, strangely contrasts with the name finally established !

The first revolutionists of Holland incurred the contemptuous name of “ Les Gueux," or the Beggars. The Duchess of Parma inquiring about them, the Count of Barlamont scornfully described them to be of this class ; and it was flattery of the Great which gave the name currency. The Hollanders accepted the name as much in defiance as with indignation, and acted up to it. Instead of broaches in their hats, they wore little wooden platters, such as beggars used, and foxes' tails instead of feathers. On the targets of some of these Gueur they inscribed, “Rather Turkish than Popish !” and had the print of a cock crowing, out of whose mouth was a label Vwe les Gueur par tout le monde ! which was every where set up, and was the favourite sign of their inns.

The Protestants in France, after a variety of nick-names to render them contemptible, such as Christodins, because they would only talk about Christ, similar to our Puritans; and Parpaillots, or Parpirolles a small base coin, which was odiously applied to them; at length settled in the wellknown term of Huguenots, which probably was derived, as the Dictionnaire de Trevoux suggests, from their hiding themselves in secret places, and appearing at night, like king Hugon, the great hobgoblin of France. It appears that the term has been preserved by an earthen vessel without feet, used in cookery, which served the Huguenots on meagre days to dress their meat, and to avoid observation; a curious instance, where a thing still in use proves the obscure circumstance of its origin.

The atrocious insurrection, called La Jacquérie, was a term which originated in cruel derision. When John of France was a prisoner in England, his kingdom appears to have been desolated by its wretched nobles, who, in the indulgence of their passions, set no limits to their luxury and their extortion. They despoiled their peasantry without mercy, and when these complained, and

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