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were very limited, but during of his character, and he strove to inspire vacations he employed himself in teach- the young men of the institution with like ing, and during harvest seasons in farm habits, as also of self-reliance and courwork.

age. They were encouraged in athletic While at the seminary, he was brought exercises, football and cricket being the under the power of religion, and joined a games in which he excelled, and in which small branch of the Baptist body known he personally superintended their efforts.

“ Campbellites “Disciples,” of He drew them all towards him, so that, whom Alexander Campbell, an eloquent as one of them has said," a bow of recog. Scotch preacher, was the leader. The nition, or a single word from him, was to creed of the “ Disciples ” does not differ me an inspiration.” widely from that of the rest of the body, During this period Mr. Garfield added embracing belief in the divinity of Christ, to his labors as an educationist those of his atoning death, baptism (immersion) a preacher. Though not set apart to the on a profession of faith, and the New ministry, he was none the less a powerful Testament as the only standard of doc- and convincing preacher, and was not trine and rule of practice.

only acceptable but popular. He in The progress of the “ Disciples" in creased his popularity and influence, too, northern Ohio led to the establishment of by means of a public debate with a spiran academical school in the village of itualist lecturer who sought to overthrow Hiram, thirty miles from Cleveland. Here the truths of the Bible by the theories of the future ministers and elders of the geology. The lecturer took the ground church were educated. To this "school of Mr. Darwin in his doctrine of evoluof the prophets ” young Garfield went, tion, Garfield that of revelation. The first as a scholar, next as a tutor, and latter had only three days to prepare for finally as a teacher. His progress was the contest with his able opponent, who marked, and in a short time he was quali- was well versed in his theories, and had fied to enter Williams College, one of the a ready utterance. Garfield hit upon a oldest and most advanced of all the insti- novel expedient to complete his preparatutions of learning in New England. tion. He summoned six of his most adPresident Hopkins took kindly to the vanced students, placed before them the young western student, whose gigantic plan of his argument, and then turned size made him as conspicuous as his pro- them into the college library to select, ficiency in Greek and Latin made him dis- copy, and condense proofs of its chief tinguished. After two years at Williams parts. They completed their work in College, he went back to Hiram seminary twenty-four hours, when the whole plan as professor of ancient languages and of the discussion was gone through. The English literature, and at the end of a result was that Garfield so overwhelmed year he became president of the institu- his opponent that he abandoned his tion.

theory, and gave up the fight against the He was now (1857) twenty-six years of Bible. But other conflicts and successes age, and, while full of energy himself, had awaited him. a happy way of imparting that energy to The question of slavery was coming to all who came under his influence. There the front. Out of the discussions as to were three hundred students in the insti- whether Kansas and Nebraska should be tution at that time, and no one could be slave or free territory, there grew up a large indifferent to the great aims and purposes and powerful Free Soil party. Out of this of education who listened to his lectures. party again there was organized the great The early morning assembly, which usual. national Republican party, which, after ly extended over an hour, was a good start four years of great but effective work, refor the day. Proceedings commenced turned Abraham Lincoln as president in with prayer in the chapel, then a chapter 1860. Into these discussions Garfield of the Bible was read, followed by an ex- threw his strength, and in the extension temporaneous address, sometimes upon a and triumphs of the party and its cause Scripture subject, sometimes on some he bore a conspicuous part. In 1859, recent political event or some scientific when he was only twenty-eight years old, subject, or upon a new book. Once, it is he was elected á State'senator for Ohio. said, he took the newspaper report of the Soon after this the smouldering embers tragic death of Hugh Miller, setting forth of rebellion in the southern slave-holding the lessons of his noble life in words states broke out into a fiame. Garfield which made a profound impression. had already become one of the acknowl

Manliness is one distinguishing feature | edged leaders of the Radical branch of



the Republican party, forming with J. O. at General Buell's headquarters with a sketch Cox (afterwards governor of Ohio), and of his plans. Professor Munroe, of Oberlin College, Having read the paper carefully, Buell the “ Radical Triumvirate.” They saw made it the basis of an immediate order, the storm coming, but hoped it would placing Garfield in command of a brigade pass over without a general war, or, at of four regiments of infantry and a battalleast, without a conflict of so destructive ion of cavalry, ordering him to eastern and bitter a character as ensued. The Kentucky to expel Marshall's force in his disaster at Bull Run dispelled all such own way. The result of this appointhopes. Seven days after, Senator Gar- ment was that the battle of Middle field accepted a commission as lieutenant- Creek was won, the first Federal victory colonel of a regiment then organizing at gained, and the Confederates were driven Camp Chase. A few days after this he out of that part of Kentucky; and this received a commission as colonel, to by men inferior in numbers to their own, organize and command a new regiment, and who had never been under fire bethe Forty-second Ohio Infantry. A hun fore. For this service he was made brigdred students from Hiram College en- adier-general of volunteers. He took an listed as a company during the first week, important part in the battle of Shiloh, and and in a short time the regiment was after other valuable services he full. Arming and drilling went on vigor- ordered to join General Rosecrans at ously, the men inspired by the devotion Murfreesborough. In a recent letter of their colonel, who set himself vigor- Rosecrans says: “When Garfield arrived, ously to master all the details of military I must confess I had a prejudice against duties and war tactics. In three months him, as I understood he was a preacher they were ready for the field. The regi- who had gone into politics, and a man of ment was a remarkable one. There that cast I was naturally opposed to." were graduates and undergraduates, law. But he adds, " I found him to be a compe. yers, clergymen, teachers, carpenters, tent and efficient officer, an earnest and blacksmiths, engineers, farmers, printers, devoted patriot, and a man of the higbest and machinists serving in the ranks. honor." He was made chief of staff of

The State of Kentucky was not out of the Army of the Cumberland, and immethe Union, but there could be no doubt as diately he began to organize a “ Bureau to its general disloyalty. Its eastern fron- of Military Information," by which he tier was invaded by five thousand Confed- rendered essential service to the governerates under Marshall. In December ment and the army. Colonel Garfield was ordered to report The influence Garfield acquired over himself and his regiment to General Rosecrans, the manner in which a counBuell, at Louisville. The historian of the cil of war decided to act on his suggesForty-second Regiment relates his inter- tions and advance upon the enemy, con. view with Buell, and the result:

trary to the written opinion of seventeen On the evening of the 16th of December of his principal officers, are recorded at Colonel Garfield reached Louisville, and sought length by Whitelaw in his history, and General Buell at his headquarters. He found more briefly by Captain Mason in his a cold, silent, austere man, who asked a few sketch. The campaign of Tullahoma and direct questions, revealed nothing, and eyed the important battle of Chickamauga the new-comer with a curious searching ex

were followed by Garfield's promotion to pression, as though trying to look into the

be major-general. untried colonel, and divine whether he would succeed or fail. Taking a map, General Buell

While the war was proceeding, and be pointed out the position of Marshall's forces was thus rendering important service in in eastern Kentucky, marked the locations in the field, his native State had elected him which the Union troops in that district were to a seat in Congress. He was divided posted, explained the nature of the country and between the two most important calls. its supplies, and then dismissed his visitor with His regiment was still at the front, and this remark: “ If you were in command of the there he felt he ought to be; but when sub department of eastern Kentucky, what Rosecrans sent him to Washington to would you do? Come here to-morrow at nine report minutely to the president the state o'clock and tell me.” Colonel Garfield re- and necessities of the army of Chattanooturned to his hotel, procured a map of Kentucky, the last Census Report

, paper, pen, and ga, Lincoln strongly urged him to resign ink, and sat down to his task. He studied his commission, and take his place in the roads, resources, and population of every Congress. There was no lack of brave county in eastern Kentucky. At daylight he and competent generals in the field, but was still at work; but at nine o'clock he was there was a sad lack of men in Congress who understood the wants and require soon became almost the controlling influ. ments of the army, and who were capable, ence there. But this paper is far too and could be trusted, to deal with the im- limited to allow of even the slightest portant governmental questions then sketch of his multifarious labors both in pending. The question of emancipation and out of Congress. From the head of was coming up - a war measure ostensi- the Military Committee he became, after bly, but upheaved by a vast amount of the war was ended, chairman of the Compopular opinion and strong philanthropic mittee on Banking and Currency, and, still principle — with which there was strong later, chairman of the Committee of Apsympathy in Great Britain, especially in propriations. This committee deals with some circles. The Confederates were all governmental expenditures, including evidently resolved to fight to the bitter those of the army and navy, the postal end, and the question was, not whether service, the improvement of rivers and the North was stronger than the South, harbors, the consular and diplomatic and but whether Congress, the Treasury, and other services, preparing estimates and the War Department could bring up men schemes for the disposal of Congress. in sufficient numbers, backed with suffi. He strenuously opposed the false meascient resources, to strike the decisive ures in reference to paper money which blow. The early enthusiasm had declined produced the panic of 1873, and contended in some quarters, and the not infrequent for a measure which should restore money blunders and inexperience at Washington to its proper value. A passage from one had produced their effect on the army, of his speches has reference to one of our while the long lists of killed and wounded English sovereigns : served also to abate the zeal of some. Some of Garfield's fellow-officers joined

Mr. Speaker, -I remember that on the with the president in urging him to take monument of Queen Elizabeth, where her his seat in Congress, well aware of the glories were recited and her honors summed value of his experience, his sound judg- as the climax of her honors, was this — that

up, among the last and the highest, recorded ment, and his ready eloquence. He she restored the money of her kingdom to its yielded to their request from a sense of just value. And when this House shall have duty rather than from choice.

done its work - when it shall have brought The four counties in the north-eastern back values to their proper standard - it will corner of Ohio, lying along the southern deserve a monument. shore of Lake Erie, known as the “ Western Reserve,” were ceded in colonial of close study with him, especially En

This subject of finance had been one days to the “Connecticut Land Company;" and settled by pioneers from New glish finance. The entire record of BritEngland.

ish legislation on commerce and currency

for two hundred years had been so studThe conditions of settlement (says Captain ied that he had all their most important Mason] offered special advantages to officers facts at command. And therefore, when and soldiers who had served creditably in the several prominent statesmen brought patriot armies during the war of the Revolu. forward in Congress plans for meeting the tion; and thither, in the early years of the difficulties of the government which present century, came the flower of the encr. would amount to an absolute repudiation getic, educated, conscientious people of the of their promises, Garfield stood up and New England States. So distinctly have the descendants of these pioneers retained the char- fought the battle of justice and right. acteristics of their ancestors, that the “ West. His words on this occasion are worth reern Reserve” is to-day more like a portion of cording :Massachusetts or Connecticut than any other similar district west of the Hudson River. . It blow of the axe, every swing of the scythe,

The dollar is the gauge that measures every is a reading, thinking, praying community, which is remarkably fastidious in its choice of every stroke of the hammer, every fagot that political representatives, keenly watchful of blazes on the poor man's hearth, every fabric their conduct, and loyal to them against all that clothes his children, every mouthful that opposition so long as they are faithful to their feeds their hunger. The dollar is a substan.

tive word, the fundamental condition of every

contract, of every sale, of every payment, The honor this constituency conferred stand of the apple-woman in the street. Now,

whether from the national treasury or from the on the young major-general was soon what is our situation? There has been no reflected on themselves. On entering the day, since the 25th of February, 1862, when House, he was at once assigned to the any man could tell what would be the value of Committee of Military Affairs, and he l our legal currency dollar the next month or the

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next day. Since that day we have substituted that the secretary of the treasury had the for a dollar the printed promise of the govo two speeches of General Garfield printed ernment to pay a dollar. That promise we in pamphlet form and sent to the leadiog have broken. We have suspended payment; statesmen and financiers of Europe. A and have, by law, compelled the citizen to receive dishonored paper instead of money.

copy came into the hands of Mr. John

Bright, who showed it to Mr. Gladsione. After pointing out the errors and wicked. They marked their sense of appreciation ness of this system, he concluded by urg: of the speeches by nominating their auing the gradual restoration of the ancient thor as an honorary member of the Restandard of value, “which will lead us, form Club, a motion which was readily he said in conclusion, " by the safest and carried, and which General Garfield resurest paths to national prosperity and garded as a high compliment. the steady pursuits of peace.”

British economists may possibly take The obnoxious measure was defeated; exception to General Garfield's views on but in July of the following year a bill the tariff, but the result might be differwas introduced to tax the United States ent if they could look at the subject from bonds. Garfield was again a stout oppo his side as well as their own.

" As an nent. He concluded an able speech by abstract theory," he remarks," the docsaying, in tones which produced their due trine of free trade seems to be universally effect on the House:

true; but, as a question of practicability, Mr. Speaker, I desire to say, in conclu- in a country like ours, the protective sys. sion, that in my opinion all these efforts to tem seems to be indispensable.” The pursue a doubtful and unusual, if not dishon fact is, he takes a middle course, and conorable policy, in reference to our public debt, tends for protection, not for its own sake, spring from a lack of faith in the intelli- but as a means to an end. I am for ? gence and conscience of the American people. Hardly an hour passes when we do not hear it protection,says he," which leads to ul. whispered that some such policy as this must timate free trade. I am for that free be adopted, or the people will by and by repu- trade which can only be achieved through diate the debt. For my part, I do not share a reasonable protection.” that distrust. The people of this country have For other features of General Garfield's shown, by the highest proofs nature can give, public work, and for the steps which led that wherever the path of duty and honor may to his election by a good majority to the lead, however steep and rugged it may be, they presidential chair, reference must be had are ready to walk it. They feel the burden of to Captain Mason's excellent sketch. We the public debt, but they remember that it is the price of blood — the precious blood of will only add here that General Garfield half a million of brave men who died to save has a wife who is worthy of him, the to us all that makes life desirable or property choice of his early days, and one who is

I believe they will, after a full hear- not carried away from her simplicity of ing, discard all methods of paying their debts living by the sudden elevation of her husby sleight of hand, or by any scheme which band, and who is well fitted to be his pacrooked wisdom may devise. If public moral- tient helper and peaceful solace amid all ity did not protest against any such plan, en his weighty cares, as also to train their lightened public selfishness would refuse its five children to follow the worthy example sanction. Let us be true to our trust a few of their father. The mother of the presiyears longer, and the next generation will be here with its seventy-five millions of popula- dent, who fought so nobly the difficulties tion and its sixty billions of wealth. To them and endured so patiently the trials of her the debt that remains will be a light burden. early widowhood, still lives to meekly They will pay the last bond according to the share the blessings Providence has sent letter and spirit of the contract, with the same ber family. In the plain but comfortable sense of grateful duty with which they will pay brick house which the general built some the pensions of the few surviving soldiers of years ago in Washington, or in the neat the great war for the Union.

Gothic farmhouse, a few miles east of The matter was justly deemed to be of Cleveland, the country home of her son, so grave a character, and the fear was she spends her now declining days in with equal probability entertained that peace, contented and happy, but looking the sentiments of the inflationists would forward to that home above where there compromise the national credit abroad, I are no partings and no tears.


Fifth Series, Volume XXXV.


No. 1942. - September 3, 1881.


From Beginning,

Vol. OL.

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Blackwood's Magazine,
II. IN Trust. · A Story of a Lady and her Lover,
Part V.,

Fraser's Magazine,

Quarterly Review,
IV. The FRERES. By Mrs. Alexander, author of
“The Wooing O't.” Part XVII.,

Temple Bar,

Macmillan's Magazine,

St. James's Gazette, VII. THE LAST JOURNEY OF Pius IX.,


Pall Mall Gazette,


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