vintage of Marboa, and, in addition to these, a | be so until he returned from the presence of large supply of good white bread.

the king as just related, when suddenly a slight On the foilowing Sundav, being the 9th day fever seized him after having dined in the of January, the king sent us more presents, to company of, and at the table with, all the pil. wit, one hundred partridges, sixty hares, and grims on Saturday, the 5th of January. From five wild sheep, and they were of a truth right this fever he suffered three tertian fits, and on excellent things to behold.

the fourth it changed, and he believed himself Now King James was a prince who dearly quite cured. Nevertheless he continued in the loved the chase, and he had in his possession hands of the medical men of the town, who a little dog, no bigger than a fox, which was assured all the pilgrim gentlemen who came called Carabale, and there was no sort of to visit him in his sickness that there was no wild animal which this little dog would not illness from which death could ensue. Likehunt, more especially the above-mentioned wise my said lord told the pilgrims, and his kinds of game.

own friends, that he did not feel the least ill, In short the king made us first-rate cheer, except that he could not sleep at his ease. and sent us his best coursers to convey us to On the next day, which was Sunday, the 16th his presence. And when we entered his court of January, to all appearances he was as well he received us with the warmest welcome ; as if nothing had ever ailed him.

And he gave and, after conversing with us for a while, he orders for a litter to be borrowed to convey him sent for the queen to come into the reception to Limesso with the other pilgrims, who were hall, and forth with her Majesty appeared, con- on the eve of departure, and that night he slept ducted by a right noble following, to wit, her right well. four sons* and five daughters, together with a On the Monday following the king of Cygoodly trait of knights, lords, and ladies, and prus sent him the Order * by the hands of bis she saluted us most graciously.

knights, and he received the knights and the Moreover the queen of Cyprus was right Order most courteously, and discreetly begging well arrayed with a golden head-piece, rich the knights at the same time to commend him with precious stones and pearls. Her four to the king, and thank his Majesty for the sons were most graceful in their attire and order he had so graciously sent him. mien, and her five daughters were likewise After this audience with the knights was richly adorned with head-pieces of gold and concluded, and he had bid them adieu, scarcely precious stones. Before her departure the was he alone than he felt a sudden pain in his queen turned and saluted each pilgrim, and head, and so great a fever seized him that on after the audience the king took us to follow Tuesday, about noon, my said lord rendered the chase in the fields, and towards evening we up his soul to our Lord Jesus Christ with a returned to our lodgings right well pleased gladness and sweetness, which was apparent with our day's entertainment.

to all. He prayed for pardon for his sins, and Of a truth this kingdom of Cyprus, which is that he might be received into Paradise. His an island, is a most unhealthy spot, and dan remains were buried in the Church of the gerous for those to dwell in who are unaccus. Franciscan Friars in Nicosia with due respect, tomed to its climate. For there is a species and there is a well-executed tomb and an apof fever prevalent there which readily seizes propriate inscription over him. Above on the upon people, and it is a great chance if they walls were painted his arms, and his banner on recover from it.

a lance, and his coat of mail were hung over Now it happened that Monseigneur Simon bis grave. More than fifty knights and squires, de Salebruche, who in all our above mentioned together with all the pilgrim gentlemen, and travels had been hale and hearty, continued to those of the king's household who had visited

him in his illness, attended the corpse to the 1. Janus, born in Genoa, wlio succeeded his father. grave.

J. THEODORE BENT. 2. Philip the Constable. 3. Hugh the Cardinal. Henry, Prince of Galilee.

* The Order of the Sword, established by Peter I.



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SuperstITION IN JAPAN. — “In the garden dispense wealth and prosperity among his ben. of the Shihan Gakko at Nakanoshima stands efactors. If, however, these modest require. an old pine-tree called Takonomatsu, amongments were not attended to, the houses in the the roots of which a badger has taken up his ward would surely be destroyed by fire. The abode. One of the residents in the vicinity credulous people were much alarmed, and the had a dream lately in which the badger ap- wants of the badger are looked after very carepeared. He announced that as the winter is fully.” The above curious little story (trans. very severe he has no food, and that if fried lated from a native paper) appears in the Japan bean cake and boiled rice mixed with red beans Gazette of Feb. 8, 1381. were placed at his disposal nightly, he would


Fifth Series, Volume XXV.


No. 1935. - July 16, 1881.

From Beginning,

Vol. CL.



131 139 148


CONTENTS. I. THE UNITY OF NATURE. By the Duke of Argyll. Conclusion,

Contemporary Review, . II. THE SHUT-UP HOUSES. Conclusion,


Fraser's Magazine,

Temple Bar,

Temple Bar,

Nineteenth Century,


Saturday Review,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

Ah me,


And give forth speech of it as on the rack; In mist and gloom the daylight swiftly dies,

Speech urgent as the blood of grapes that The city lamps shine out along the street;

dyes No vesper glory charms the weary eyes,

His garments who must tread it out with No leafy murmurs make the gloaming sweet.

sighs, the tranquil evening hours," she And ceaseless feet that follow no fair track.

cried, “ Amid the rushes by the river-side!

Think of the manful work of those who bruise

The grape in setting free its life divine,

And if some favor they should thereby lose, “The busy feet forever come and go, The sounds of work and strife are never Which often for its sustenance must use

Count it no marvel that a soul should pine, still.

But dregs of that it pours thee forth as wine. Oh, for the grassy pastures, green and low, The strawberry blossom and the daffodil!

III. How peacefully the mellow sunshine died

Words that are idle with the songless crowd Amid the rushes by the river-side !

Are as the poet's ripest deed, the fruit

And flower of all his working davs, the suit “I loved the toil amid those reedy shades, He weaves about his soul, which, if endowed

At sunrise or at sunset, gay and light; Too richly, and so called to ends more proud, The song of waters and the laugh of maids Builds with his breath a house of high reCome back to me in happy dreams at pute, night;

Wherein he chants the office for the mute, Oh, blessed hours, when free from care and Appealing ones, who at his feet are bowed.

pride I bound the rushes by the river-side !

Yet let the Maker mould them as he will,

A spirit that he knows not to control “ This is no dwelling-place for hearts like Works in his words beyond his utmost skill, mine,

Making them yield his measure, and the Hearts that are born for freedom and for

whole rest.

Form of his being, be it good or ill, Ah me, to see the marshy meadows shine For no man's work is greater than his soul. In the low sunlight of the saffron west ! June, 1881.

Emily PFEIFFER. I will go home to find my peace,” she cried,

Spectator. “Amid the rushes by the river-side."

SARAH DOUDNEY. Sunday Magazine,

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From The Contemporary Review. kind. We do not know even approxiTHE UNITY OF NATURE.

mately the time during which he has existed. We do not know the place or the surroundings of his birth. We do

not know the steps by which his knowlTHE ORIGIN OF RELIGION CONSIDERED

All we IN THE LIGHT OF THE UNITY OF NA- edge “grew from more to more.” TURE (concluded).

can see with certainty is that the earliest

inventions of mankind are the most wonIn the beginning of this chapter I have derful that the race has ever made. The observed how little we think of the as. first beginnings of human speech must sumptions which are involved in putting have had their origin in powers of the such questions as that respecting the

highest order. The first use of fire and origin of religion. And here we have the discovery of the methods by which it come to a point in our investigations at

can be kindled ; the domestication of wild which it is very needful to remember

animals; and above all the processes by again what some of these assumptions which the various cereals were first develare. In order to do so let us look back

oped out of some wild grasses – these for a moment and see where we stand.

are all discoveries with which in ingenuity We have found the clearest evidence and in importance no subsequent discovthat there is a special tendency in re.

eries may compare. They are all unligious conceptions to run into develop- known to history all lost in the light of ments of corruption and decay. We have

an effulgent dawn. In speculating, thereseen the best reason to believe that the fore, on the origin of these things, we religion of savages, like their other pecul- must make one or other of two assumpiarities, is the result of this kind of evolu- tions - either that man always had the tion. We have found in the most ancient

same mental faculties and the same fun. records of the Aryan language proof that damental intellectual constitution that he the indications of religious thought are has now, or that there was a time when higher, simpler, and purer as we go back these faculties had not yet risen to the in time, until at last, in the very oldest level of humanity, and when his mental compositions of human speech which have

constitution was essentially inferior. come down to us, we find the divine being

On the first of these assumptions we spoken of in the sublime language which proceed on the safe ground of inquiry forms the opening of the Lord's Prayer. from the known to the unknown. We The date in absolute chronology of the handle a familiar thing; we dissect a oldest Vedic literature does not seem to known structure; we think of a known be known. Professor Max Müller, how

agency. We speculate only on the manner ever, considers that it may possibly take of its first behavior. Even in this process us back five thousand years.* This is we must take a good deal for granted probably an extreme estimate, and Pro

we must imagine a good deal that is not fessor Monier Williams seems to refer

easily conceivable. If we try to present the most ancient Vedic hymos to a period to our own minds any distinct image of not much more remote than 1500 B.c.f the first man, whether we supposed him But whatever that date may be, or the to have been specially created or gradcorresponding date of any other very ually developed, we shall soon find that ancient literature, such as the Chinese, we are talking about a being and about a or that of the oldest Egyptian papyri, condition of things of which science tells when we go beyond these dates we enter

us nothing, and of which the imagination upon a period when we are absolutely

even cannot form any definite conception. without any historical evidence whatever, The temptation to think of that being as not only as to the history of religion, but

a mere savage is very great, and this as to the history and condition of man

theory underlies nine-tenths of all specu

lations on the subject. But, to say the • Hibbert Lectures, p. 216. | Hinduism, p. 19.

very least, this may not be true, and valid

reasons have been adduced to show that resenting any reasonable probability. it is in the highest degree improbable. But at least such imaginings as these That the first man should have been born about our first parents have reference to with all the developments of savagery, is their external conditions only, and do not as impossible as that he should have been raise the additional difficulties involved born with all the developments of civiliza. in the supposition that the first man was tion. The next most natural resource we half a beast. have is to think of the first man as some- Very different is the case upon the thing like a child. But no man has ever other of the two assumptions which have seen a child which never had a parent, or been indicated above. On the assumpsome one to represent a parent. We can tion that there was a time when man was form no picture in our mind's eye of the different in his own proper nature from mental condition of the first man, if we that nature as we know it now - when he suppose him to have had no communica- was merely an animal not yet developed tion with, and no instruction from, some into a man on this assumption another intelligence other than his own. A child element of the unknown is introduced, that has never known anything, and has which is an element of absolute confunever seen example, is a creature of which sion. It is impossible to found any reawe have no knowledge, and of which soning upon data · which are not only therefore we can form no definite concep- unknown, but are in themselves unintelli tion. Our power of conceiving things is, gible and inconceivable. Now it seems of course, no measure of their possibility: as if many of those who speculate on the But it may be well to observe where the origin of religion have not clearly made impossibilities of conception are, or may up their minds whether they are proceedbe, of our own making. It is at least ing on the first of these assumptions or possible that the first man may not have on the second; that is to say, on the as. been born or created in the condition sumption that man has always been, in which we find to be so inconceivable. respect to faculty, what he now is, or on He may have been a child, but having, the assumption that he was once a beast. what all other children have, some inti- Perhaps, indeed, it would be strictly true mations of authority and some acquaint. to say that many of those who speculate ance with its source. At all events, let it on the origin of religion proceed upon be clearly seen that the denial of this the last of these assumptions without possibility is an assumption; and an avowing it, or even without distinctly assumption too which establishes an ab- recognizing it themselves. It may be solute and radical distinction between well, therefore, to point out here that on childhood as we know it, and the incon- this assumption the question cannot be ceivable conditions of a childhood which discussed at all. We must begin with was either without parents or with parents man as man, when his development or his who were comparatively beasts. Profes- creation had made him what he is; not sor Max Müller has fancied our earliest indeed as regards the acquisitions of exforefathers as creatures who at first had perience or the treasures of knowledge, to be "roused and awakened from mere but what he is in faculty and in power, in staring and stolid wonderment,” by cer- the structure and habit of his mind, in tain objects " which set them for the first the instincts of his intellectual and moral time musing, pondering, and thinking on nature. the visions floating before their eyes.” But, as we have also seen at the begin. This is a picture evidently framed on the ning of this chapter, there are two other assumption of a fatherless childhood – assumptions een which must of a being born into the world with all choose. Besides assuming something as the innate powers of man, but absolutely to the condition and the powers of the deprived of all direct communication with first man, we must also make one or other any mind or will analogous to his own. of two assumptions as to the existence No such assumption is admissible as repol or non-existence of a being to whom his


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