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prétexts they may be introduced or recommended. To the law and to the testimony let us bring them ; and receive and practise nothing in the worihip and service of God but what is enforced with a Thus faith the Lord. And let us ever remember the extreme danger of all usages and innovations not contained in or authorised by the written word; and therefore let us from the heart abhor them.
In the second text we have the institution of bap. tism. And herein consider,
1. The ordinance itself; baptizing in the name of the holy blessed Trinity.. This is expressly instituted by Jesus Christ; Go ge therefore, and baptize, &c,
2. The administrators of baptilin; ye apostles and your fucceffors in teaching them to observe all tkings whatsoever I have commanded. And lo I am with you alway even to the end of the world,
3. The subjects of baptism; all nations which are taught, Gr. discipled, made disciples of Chritt. First they are to be discipled, and then baptized.
The doctrine of the text is,
Doct. The facrament of baptism is instituted by our Lord Jesus Chrift.
To open the nature of this sacrament, " let us confider,
1. The fignifying thing in it,
ly. The subjects of baptism, or those to whom it is to be administered,
V. The efficacy of it. .
1. Let us consider the signifying thing in this facra, ment. There is a fourfold baptifm fpoke of in fcripture. (1.) The baptism of light, which is taken for the doctrine, Acts xviii. 25. (2.) The baptism of blood, which is martyrdom, Matth. xx. 22. 23. (3.) The baptism of the Spirit, which is the pouring out of the Spirit, Matth. iii. 11. (4.) The baptism of water, which is baptism properly so called. So
The fignifying thing in baptism is water, Acts viii. 38. 39. Eph. v. 26. And there is no matter, as to the water, whether it be fountain-water or river-water, providing only it be pure clean water, Heb. x. 22. And it is an abominable practice of the Papists to add oil, falt, and fpittle to the waterin baptifın. Here I hall shew,
1. What is signified by the water in baptism.
2. What is the resemblance betwixt water and the thing signified by it.
Firf, What is fignified by the water in baptism? 1. The blood of Jesus Christ, Rev. i. 5. 2. The Spirit of Jesus Christ, Tit. iii. 5. If. xliv. 3: Secondly, What is the resemblance betwixt these? There is a sweet resemblance betwixt water, and the blood and Spirit of Jesus Chrift; the due consideration whereof shews the excellency of the grace
exhi. bited in baptism.
1. Water is a common thing, to be had freely by all those who will take it: it is what the poor as well as the rich have access to. So the blood and Spirit of Christ are free to all who will receive the same offered in the gospel, Il. lv, 1. Christ is not a sealed and clo: sed, but an opened fountain, for fouls to wath in, Zech. xiii. 1. Cant. ii. 1. And however unclean one be, he is welcome to this water, i Cor, vi. 9. 10. 11.
2. Water is a cleansing thing, taking out spots, ftains, and defilement. The blaod of Christ cleanses the defiled conscience, Heb. ix. 1. The Spirit of Christ purifies the foul, removing filthy luits that defile the foul, and fa renewing and fanctifying it, Tit. iii. 5. And unless we be thus washed, we have no part in Christ.
4. Water is a refreshing thing, when one is thirsty,
or scorched with heat. So is the blood of Christ and the outpouring of his Spirit to the thirsty soul, scorched under the fames of wrath, John vi. 35.
4. Water is of a fructifying virtue. So is Christ's blood and Şpirit, making the barren soul fruitful in the fruits of holinafs, ll. xliv. 3. 4. The foul lies naturally under the curse, and so can bring forth nothing but the briers and thorns of wickednels. But the blood of Chrift fprinkled on the soul, changes the nature of the soil. The soul is naturally dead, and therefore must wither: The Spirit of Christ brings life, and makes the wilderness to bloflom as the rose.
5. Water is moft neceffary, so necessary that we cannot live without it: to the blood and Spirit of Christ are absolutely necessary for our salvation, Heb. ix. 23. John' xiii. 8.
6. Lastly, Water must be applied ere it can have its effect; fo we must partake of Christ's blood and Spirit, ere our souls can be changed thereby, i Cor. i. 30.
II. Let us consider the signifying action in baptism. It is washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Here I shall shew,
1. How this washing with water is to be perforın. ed.
2. By whom it is to be performed, according to Christ's inftitution.
3. What is the meaning of the form of words u. fed in baptism.
First, I am to thew how this washing with water is to be performed. The dipping of the person into the water is not neceffary : but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person. The unlawfulneis of dipping is not to be pretended, fince it is not improbable that it was used by John, Matth. iii. 6. and Philip, Acts viii. 38.; but seems to have been used in the ancient church, and in some places is used to this day. But baptifin is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water, as we do. (1.) Because the apostles, at least sometimes, seem to have baptized that way; as when three thousand were baptized in one day, Acts ii. 41. which can hardly be imagined to be done in so short a space of time by dipping; and when some were baptized in the night, as in the case of the Philippian jailor and his family, Acts xvi. 33. (2.) Because baptizing in fcripture is used for wathing by infusion or sprinkling, as well as immersion, Mark vii. 4. Luke xi. 38. (3.) Because the thing fignified by baptism is called Sprinkling, and is reprefented thereby sufficiently, Heb. xii. 24. 1 Pet. i. 2. It is true, we are faid to be buried in baptisın, Rom. vi. 4. ; but even the sprinkling of the water, as well as dipping, represents that, according to the ancient way of burying, wherein they were not funk into the earth, but laid on the ground, and the mold cast over them.. Besides that in some cases dipping might endanger the life of the baptized, especially in our cold countries.
Secondly, I shall íhew by whom baptism is to be performed, according to Christ's institution. By a minister of the gospel lawfully called thereto. For to them only belongs the administration of baptism, to whom it belongs to preach the word, our Lord Jesus having knit these together in the institution, Matth. xxviii. 19. They are the flewards of the m;steries of God, 1 Cor. iv.i. into which office none can thrust himself with a good confcience, who is not called there. to. And it is the perverse opinion of the absolute neceflity of baptism, that niakes the Papists and others admit others, even women, to baptize in case of neceffity:
Thirdly, I shall next shew what is the meaning of the forın of words used in baptism. It denotes baptism to be administered by virtue of the authority of God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but especially that one is baptized into the profession, faith, and obedience of the holy Trinity, for the Greek is fignifies into the no.me.
And it is name, not
names, to fhew the unity of the Godhead in the Trinity of persons.
III. I proceed to fhew what are the particular uses and ends of baptisin. Besides the general uses and ends of the facraments, which are common to bap. tisin and the Lord's supper, the particular uses and ends of baptifm are these.
1. To be a rite of folemn admiffion into the visible church, Matth. xxvii. 19. I Cor. xii. 13. and fo to the visible church privileges, Rom. xi. 17. It supposes the party to have a right to these privileges before, and does not make them members of the visible church, but adinits them folemnly thereto. And therefore it is neither to be called nor accounted christening, i. e. makiag them Christians: for the infants of believing parents are born within the covenant, and so are Chriftians and visible church-members; and by baptism this right of theirs is acknowledged, and they are folemnly admitted to the privileges of church-membership.
2. To fignify and seal to the party faving privileges and benefits for his eternal salvation, which it actually doth in all those to whom it is effectual, though it is not effectual to all. These benefits are,
(1.) Ingrafting into chrift, or union with him, Gal. iii. 27. We are naturally branches of the old Adam, from whom we can derive nothing but fin and the curse. Christ the second Adan is the true vine into which we are ingrafted, or to whom we are united, John xv. 5. The Spirit is the ingrafter, who, by the knife of the law, cuts us off from the old stock, Gal. ii . 19. and puts us into Christ, winding us up with the band of the covenant of grace, and causing us to knit with him by faith, Eph. iii. 17.
This is signifi. ed and sealed by baptisın, while fo Christ does folemn. ly take possession of us, being baptized in the naine of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
(2.) Partaking of the benefits of the covenant of