[ocr errors]

Bye House.


RYE HOUSE, which has become me- mind the law which enacts that any ex. morable in English history, from the cir- ertion of skill, by which fortunes are told cumstance of its having been the place or stolen goods recovered, may be punished where a conspiracy was formed for the as the act of a rogue and a vagabond. assassination of Charles II., was situated Marvellous, indeed, are the perils which about two miles distance from Hoddesdon, attend the violation of this prohibition, in Hertfordshire. As the Papists had been Many a weird sister, who could sail to generally accused of the plot to destroy Aleppo in a sieve, has been fettered, the king and parliament, known by the without bail or mainprize, by the spells name of the gunpowder plot—as well of of the parish beadle; and many a wizard setting fire to London in 1666, it is said who, like Michael Scott of old, could that they formed an accusation against bind the weary demons to their endless the Protestants of a conspiracy, to destroy task of twisting ropes of sand, has been Charles II., and his brother, in 1683, compelled by the Rhadamanthine Justice, which was known by the name of the Rye to beat hemp for six calendar months in House plot.

the house of correction. It was said that the conspirators in- We can now sport with these superstitended to way-lay and murder the king tions. They have ceased to alarm us. near Rye House, ir his way to New- but they afford a direful exemplification market. Historians entertain great doubts of the calamities to which human nature that any such plot existed, although may be subjected; nor can the history of several persons were arrested on suspicion, witchcraft be contemplated without horror and it was made a pretext for the legal As the rites of the sect are noticed by the murder of those virtuous patriots, Lord earlier schoolmen and divines, they apWilliam Russel, and Algernon Sidney. peared incorporated in a delusive dream,

and connected with the relics of a more

ancient Paganism. The beldames collect SUPERSTITION AND KNOW- by night at the command of their many. LEDGE.

named Queen-Hecate—Diana - Hero

dias, or Benzoria -- the fair Holda WITCHCRAFT is not wholly disused in amongst the Teutonic races. Away they the British dominions; in one instance, scud to Palestine, vieing with one another at least, it has been recently practised, as in their mystic course, or she who first we shall have occasion to mention; and can dip her hands in the River Jordan the statute which still restrained the will become the mistress of the world. practice of the black art in Ireland having But in vain—the waters dry beneath been repealed, those who choose to follow their touch, and mock their expectations. the profession may do so with impunity: Feasting and dancing, mirth and merri. provided nevertheless, that they keep in ment, seem to be the intent of the noce

turnal meetings of the initiated. Awkward Bench, before Sir John Knevett, then and uncouth, the revelry possesses that Chief Justice ; but seeing no indictment fantastic character of wildness, com- was against him, the clerks did swear pounded of sport and mischief, found in him, that from henceforth he should not the personification of the Satyr of anti- be a sorcerer, and he was delivered out of quity and in the Puck of the middle prison, and the head of the dead man, ages. Satan, however, does not appear. and the book of sorcery were burnt at -If the evil spirit partook of the joy, Tothil.' · When the offence could be his presence could only be inferred from considered as heresy, then of course the the impossibility of such a convention witch might be duly punished. Yet being held under the auspices of a good executions upon this charge seem to have demon. But we find no trace of the wor- been of rare occurrence. And here we ship of the fiend, ascribed to the Sabbath may be allowed to observe, that the of the witches in later times. The be- Knights Templars, in chapter assembled, lief was reprobated by the church, but could have had as little power to burn not punished by the secular arm as a Rebecca, as the Jews of York, in synamortal crime. Let no woman boast,' gogue assembled, to burn Boisgilbert. it is ordered by Augerius, bishop of Con- Coke, in commenting upon the sorserans, that she rides by night with cerer's escape, remarks, with an appear, Diana, the goddess of the Pagans, or ance of ill-humour, that the head and with Herodias, or with Benzoria, ac- book of sorcery had the same punishment companied by an innumerable multitude, that the sorcerer should have had by the for this is an illusion of the demon.' ancient law, if he had by his sorcery

Such was the argument usually em- prayed in aid of the devil. As the act ployed against witchcraft until the fif. is so penned as to make the mere taking teenth century Bishops and confessors up of a dead body, with the intent to be used every endeavour to convince the employed in witchcraft, a capital crime, witch that she was deceived and cheated it appears to have arisen out of the consiby the demon, but they did not burn her deration of the case before quoted. A except when she was clearly a heretic.' few passages from the delectable dialogue When exhortations failed, they some- of King James will exemplify the temtimes used more tangible methods. Vin- per in which he wished that the new law cent de Beauvais relates a story of a should be administered. witch, who attempted to persuade her Epistemon replies to a question reconfessor, that she could pass through specting the competency of accomplices closed doors with her nightly mesnie. He as witnesses for the prosecution: The called her into the chancel, and, shutting assize (i. e. the jury) must serve for an the door, belaboured her soundly with interpreter of our laws in that respect; the handle of the cross. Get out, get but in my opinion, since in a matter of out! mistress sorceress, he cried ; and treason against the prince, barnes or as she could not get out, he, at last, wives, or never so defamed persons, may allowed her to depart, saying, "Now see of our lawe serve for sufficient witnesses ye not what fools ye are, believing in the and proofes ; I think surely, that by a emptiness of dreams ?' To such modes farre greater reason, such witnesses may of dispelling delusion no objection can be sufficient in matters of high treason reasonably be raised.

against God; for who but witches can be It is not clear, that, according to the prooves, and so witnesses of the doings of old English common law, witchcraft and witches 2 sorcery, as such, were punishable. If, Precepts like these seemed to meet with as was often the case, these delusions universal approbation ; and the Scottish were combined with other crimes, trea- clergy, urged by mistaken zeal, and inson or poisoning, or the lighter misde- fluenced by false explanations of the meanours of fraud and imposture, then Scriptures, persecuted the criminals decertainly the accusation enhanced the nounced before them with all the alacrity punishment. The usual authorities un- of the Inquisition. doubtedly state that sorcerers were to be Wurtzburgh was the scene even of burnt; and the church might strive to greater horrors in the years 1627, 1628, condemn the heretic; but the case re- and 1629. In this short period upwards ported in the year book, 45 Ed. III. 17. of one hundred and fifty victims perished. seems to show that the judges of the They included persons of every rank and courts of common law wished to proceed station; many of the dignified clergy with mildness. A man was taken in belonging to the cathedral, and some of Southwark with a head and face of a dead the richest citizens. Neither age, nor man, and with a book of sorcery in his sex could excite compassion. male, and was brought into the King's

SONG OF “ THE GATHERING." day, by every village practitioner, put Ours the strains renown'd in story,

into the hand of a person undergoing the Of peaceful hall or deadly corrie :

operation of phlebotomy. The white Would you call to field, or foray.

band which encompasses the staff, was Melt to love, or rouse to glory : Sound our mountain melody.

designed to represent the fillet, thus eleWhere the gale of love is blowing,

gantly turned about it.

Our present Health, and mirth, and bliss bestowing ; barbers launch out into a variety of reWhere the cup of joy is flowing, Eyes are bright, and hearts are glowing:

cipes for the growth and beauty of the hair. Pours the bagpipes thrilling lay.

We have oils which makes the hair Who can hear its notes of woe,

grow as firm as hog's bristles, bear's For friend deceas'd, or fallen foe; And see the mourners as they go,

grease, which makes it as sleek and smooth To its wild notes, sad and slow :

as silk,* and various other cosmetics well And melt not at its melody? known to the cognoscenti in dandyism. And in the day of doubt and dread,

We have now the hair dressed à là Titus, When bursts the battle o'er their head;

à la Brutus, and some dressed to imitate an How strong the arm, and firm the tread, Of Albyn's sons o'er fields of dead :

Irish hen, that has run through a hedge When cheer'd by its wild warlike cry. backwards, which may be called “ The Ours the strains renown'd in story,

Emerald Ísle frize.”—To crown all, we Of halls of joy,or deadly corrie ; Would you call to field or foray,

have a celebrated whig maker of the name Melt to love, or rouse to glory:

of Truefit, t and a razor maker of the Sound our mountain melody. name of Sharp. The barbers were incor. W.

porated I with the surgeons of London,

but not to practise surgery, except drawBEARDS AND BARBERS.

ing of teeth. They were exempted by

parliament from ward and parish offices, ( Concluded from our last.)

and from military service. In the reign Barbers.-Itappears there were no barbers of George II. they were incorporated at Rome, before the year A. U. C. 454. separately, and the company of

surgeons Varro reports, that Ticinius Mena brought had an elegant hall in the Old Bailey, them thither from Sicily. The barber's

with a theatre for the dissection of human shops very soon became the resort of bodies. They now form a royal college idlers and gossips. Besides curling the and their house is in Lincoln's Inn Fields. hair and shaving the beard, the ancient Anne Monk, Duchess of Albemarle, barbers also trimmed the nails. Anciently, was the daughter of a blacksmith, who a lute or viol, or some such musical ina gave her an education suitable to the strument, was part of the furniture of a employment she was bred to, which was barber's shop, which was then frequented that of a milliner. Mr. Aubrey, in a by persons above the ordinary rank, who manuscript in Ashmole’s Museum, says, resorted thither for the cure of wounds, or “ That when Monke was prisoner in the to undergo some chirurgical operations, Tower, his sempstress Nan Clarges, a or as it was called, to be trimmed, á blacksmith's daughter, was kind to him word which signified either shaving or in a double capacity. It must be rememcutting and curling the hair. These, bered, that he was then in want, and that and also letting of blood, were the ancient she assisted him. Here she was got with operations of the barber surgeons. The child, and he afterwards married her, she musical instruments in this shop were for

was not handsome, nor cleanly; her the amusement of waiting customers, and mother was one of the five women barbers, answered the end of a Twopenny Mirror, and a woman of ill fame.” A ballad was with which it is now usual for such to made upon her and the other four, the entertain themselves. The naiveté of burden of which was, modern barbers is well known to the

“ Did you ever hear the like, inhabitants of this metropolis and we

Or ever hear the fame, have only

Of five women barbers,

That lived in Drury Lane." “ To walk into their shops and see, What witty fellows these shavers be.”

Hair Cutting.-Julius Cæsar, when

he subdued the Gauls, made them cut off The origin of the “barber's pole” has been the subject of various conjectures it was esteemed a peculiar honour among

their hair, as a token of submission, for among etymologists. Some have supposed it to have been derived from the word

* Mustachio wax of different hues, from the poll, or head; but, the true intention of fiery carrot to the ebony black.

+ A quarter of an hour is never lost under the this party-coloured staff was to shew that hands of one of these facetious and news-monthe master of the shop, practised surge

gering tribe---for where is the man who has and could breathe a vein, as well as take

not gained some information from his barber

either political or attical. off the beard ; such a statf being to this * In the reign of Henry VIII,

the ancient Gauls to wear long hair. It hands. When we examine (says Quincey) was a long time the peculiar mark and the hairs with a microscope, we find that privilege of kings and princes of the they have each a round bulbous root, blood (in France) to wear long hair, art. which lies pretty deep in the skin, and fully dressed and curled: every body else which draws their nourishment from the were obliged to be polled, or cut round, surrounding humours; that each hair in sign of inferiority and obedience. The consists of five or six others, wrapt up in out of the hair of a son of France under : a common tegument or tube. They grow the first race of kings, was to declare him as the nails do, each part near the root excluded from the right of succeeding to thrusting forward that which is imme. the crown, and reduced to the condition diately above it, and not by any liquor of a subject. In the eighth century it running along the hair in tubes, as plants was the custom of people of quality, to grows. For further particulars I refer have their children's hair cut the first time the reader to Vickery and Ross. by perons they had a particular honour

P. T. W. and esteem for, who, in virtue of this ceremony, were reputed a sort of spiritual The Sketch Book. parents, or godfathers to them, though this practice appears to have been more

No. XV. ancient, for we find that Constantine sent the Pope the hair of his son Heraclius, THE QUEEN OF THE ROSE.* as a token that he desired him to be his

(For the Mirror.) adoptive father. Long hair was anciently held so odious, that there is a canon stiil THERE is still a part of the world where extant, of the year 1096, importing, that simple genuine virtue receives public such as wore long hair should be ex

honours. It is in a village of Picardy, cluded coming into church when living, where an affecting ceremony, which draws and not be prayed for when dead. Char- tears from the spectators, a solemnity, lemagne wore his air very short, his son

awful from its venerable antiquity, and shorter; Charles the Bold had 'none at salutary influence, has been preserved all. Under Hugh Capet, it began to notwithstanding the revolutions of twelve appear again : this the ecclesiastics were centuries; there the simple lustre of the displeased with, and excommunicated all flowers, with which innocence is annually who let their hair grow. Peter Lombard crowned, is at once the reward, the enexpostulated the matter so warmly with couragement, and the emblem. Here, Charles the Young, that he cut off his indeed, ambition preys upon the young own hair; and, his successors, for some heart, but it is a gentle ambition; the generations wore it very short. A pro- prize is a hat, decorated with roses. The fessor of Utrecht, in 1659, wrote expressly preparations for a public decision, the on the question, whether it be lawful for pomp of the festival, the concourse of men to wear long hair ? and concluded people which assembles, their attention in the negative. Another divine, named fixed upon modesty, which does itself Reeves who had wrote for the affirmative honour by its blushes, the simplicity of replied to him. The Greeks and Romans the reward an emblem of those virtues wore false hair. The cutting off the hair by which it is obtained, the affectionate in mourning for the dead is an Eastern, friendship of the rivals, who, in heightenas well as a Grecian custom; and ap- ing the triumph of their queen, conceal pears to have obtained in ancient times, in the bottom of their worthy hearts, the as well as in latter ages. Among the timid hope of reigning in their turn: all ancient Greeks, it was sometimes laid these circumstances united, give a pleasupon the dead body, sometimes cast into ing and affecting pomp to this singular the funeral pile, and sometimes placed ceremony, which makes every heart to upon the grave. How the Jews disposed palpitate, every eye to sparkle with tears of it we are not told; but that they cut of true delight, and makes wisdom the it off we are assured. Berenice, queen object of passion. To be irreproachable of Egypt, sacrificed her hair to the gods, 'is not sufficient, there is a kind of nobleon her husband returning victorious. In ness, of which proofs are required; a modern days we preserve this lasting nobleness, not of rank and dignity, but of relic of the dead, and have it made into worth and innocence. These proofs must various devices, according to the taste of include several generations, both on the the times; sometimes adorned with an father and mother's side; so that a whole applicable motto, thus, “ Sacred will I family is crowned upon the head of one; keep thy dear remains.” Hair is to be found upon all parts of the body, except founded his new Opera of “Philander!ng””, now

It is upon this custom that Mr. Beasley has the soles of the feet and palms of the performing at Drury Lane Theatre.


the triumph of one, is the glory of the is anxious to obtain it, and comes with whole; and the old man in grey hairs, respect, to receive it from the hand of who sheds the tears of sensibility on the honourable indigence. A possession of rictory gained by the daughter of his twelve hundred years, and such splendid son, placed by her side, receives, in advantages, is the finest title that exists effect, the reward of sixty years, spent in in the world. a life of virtue.

An important period for the festival By this means, emulation becomes of the rose, was when Louis XIII. sent general, for the honour of the whole; the Marquis de Gordes, the captain of every one dreads, by an indelicate action, his guards, from the castle of Varennes to dethrone either his sister or his to Salency, with a blue ribbon, and a daughter. The crown of roses, promised silver ring, to be presented from him, to to the most prudent, is expected with the queen of the rose. It is from that emotion, distributed with justice, and honourable epoch that a blue ribbon, established goodness, rectitude, and mo- flowing in streamers, surrounds the crown rality, in every family; it attaches the of roses, that a ring is fastened to it, and best people to the most peaceful residence. the young girls of her train, wear over

Example, powerful example, acts even their white robes, a blue ribbon, in the at a distance; there, the bud of worthy manner of a scarf. actions is unfolded ; and the traveller, in In 1766, Mr. Morfontaine settled a approaching this territory, perceives, be yearly income of 120 livres upon the girl fore he enters it, that he is not far from then elected queen. This income to be Salency. In the course of so many suc- enjoyed by her during life, and, after her cessive ages, all around them has changed; death, each succeeding girl, who should they alone, will hand down to their be crowned queen, to have one year's in. children, the pure inheritance they re- come on the day of her election. This ceived from their fathers: an institution noble generosity can only be rewarded by truly great, from its simplicity: power- the homage of the public, and honour ful, under an appearance of weakness; alone is the worthy recompense. such is the almost unknown influence of Some days before the feast of St. honours; such is the strength of that easy Medard, the inhabitants assemble in spring, by which all men may begoverned: presence of the officers of justice, where sow honour, and you will reap virtue. this worthy company deliberate upon the

If we reflect upon the time the Salen- important business of making a choice; cians have celebrated the festival, we find in doing which, they have no object in it is the most ancient ceremony existing. If view but equity. They know all the we attend to its object it is, perhaps, the merits that give a title to the crown; only one which is dedicated to the service they are acquainted with all the domestic of virtue. If virtue is the most useful details of their peaceful village, they and estimable advantage to society in have not, and cannot have, any other ingeneral, this establishment, by which it tention, but to be just : enthusiasm and is encouraged, is a public national benefit, respect for the memory of the holy insti. and belongs to France.

tutor and the excellence of the instituMadame De Genlis says, according to tion, are still in full force among them. a tradition, handed down from age to age, They name three girls, three virtuous Saint Medard, born at Salency, was the Salencians, of the most esteemed and institutor of that charming festival, respectable families. which has made virtue flourish for so The nomination is immediately carried many ages. He had himself the pleasing to the Lord of Salency, or to the person consolation of enjoying the fruit of his appointed to represent him, who is free wisdom, and his fainily was honoured to decide between the three girls, but with the prize which he had instituted, obliged to choose one of them, whom he for his sister obtained the crown of roses. proclaims queen of the year.

This affecting, and valuable festival, Eight days before the ceremony, the has been handed down from the fifth name of the successful candidate is century to the present day. To this rose declared in church is attached a purity of morals, which from When the great day of the festival time immenorial, has never suffered the arrives, which is always the 8th of June, slightest bleniish; to this rose are at- the Lord of Salency may claim the honour tached the happiness, peace, and glory of of conducting the queen to be crowned. the Salencians.

On that grand day, she is greater than This rose is the portion, frequently the all by whom she is surrounded; and that only portion which virtue brings with it; greatness is of a nature which has nothing this rose forms the amiable and pleasing in common with the usual distinctions of tie of a happy marriage. Even fortune rank.

« VorigeDoorgaan »