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sents from their friends (see Juvenal), fashion ; those of Bishop Gardiner and Augustus did not shave before the age of Cardinal Pole appear in their portraits of twenty-five. Slaves among the Romans an uncommon size. The lawyers had a wore their beards and hair long; when regulation imposed upon this important manumitted they shaved the head on the feature. Among the Turks and Persians Temple of Feronia, and put on a cap or the beard is a mark of authority and li. " peleus” as a badge of liberty. Those berty. The Moors of Africa hold by who escaped from shipwreck shaved their their beards while they take an oath. heads; and persons acquitted of a capital The Turkish wives kiss their husbands' crime cut their hair and shaved, and beards, and children their father's, as often went to the capitol to return thanks to as they come to salute them. The Jews Jupiter.

wear a beard on the chin, but not on the Le Comte observes, that the Chinese upper lip or cheeks. It is the practice of affect long beards extravagantly; but na- the Indians of North America to pluck ture has balked them, and only given out the beard by the roots from its earliest them very little ones, which, however, appearance; and hence their faces appear they cultivate with great care. Thé smooth. Anointing the beard was pracEuropeans are strangely envied by them tised by the Jews and Romans, and still on this account.

continues in use among the Turks. The Upon the death of Henry IV. of France, latter, when they comb their beards, hold who was succeeded by a beardless youth, a handkerchief on their knees, and gather the beard was proscribed. Louis XIII. very carefully the hairs that fall; and ascended the throne of his glorious ances- when they get together a certain quantity, tors without a beard ; and his courtiers they fold them up in a paper, and carry immediately reduced their beards to whis- them to the place where they bury the kers, which continued in fashion at the dead. Plucking the beard was practised commencement of the reign of Louis to cynics by way of contempt. Touching XIV., who, as well as his courtiers, were the beard was an action anciently used by proud of wearing them, so that they supplicants. wore the ornament of Turenne, Condé, Pliny says, that the ancient Greeks Colbert, Corneille, Moliere, &c.

had a custom of touching the chin of a In Spain, Philip V. ascended the throne person, whose compassion they wished to with a shaved chin ; the courtiers imi. excite : the chin being substituted for the tated the prince, and their example was beard. Among the ancient French, the followed by the people. The change, beard was the most sacred pledge of prohowever, produced lamentations and mur- tection and confidence. For a long time,

Hence arose the Spanish proverb, all letters issuing from the sovereign, denoting, “ Since we have lost

our beards, had, for greater satisfaction, three hairs we have lost our souls.” The Portu- of his beard in the seal. For which a guese have imitated them in this respect. charter was made in the year 1121. The In the reign of Catherine Queen of Por- Russian nobility formerly nourished tugal, when the brave John de Castro their beards, which continued amongst had taken the castle of Diu in India, he them till the Czar, Peter the Great, com. was under the necessity of borrowing from pelled them to part with these ornaments, the inhabitants of Goa a thousand pistoles sometimes by laying a swinging tax for the maintenance of his fleet; and as upon them; and, at others, by ordering a security for the loan, he sent them one those he found with beards, to have them of his whiskers, telling them, “ all the pulled up by the roots, or shaved with a gold in the worlú cannot equal the value blunt razor, * which drew the skin after of this national ornament of ny valour ; it, and by these means, scarce a beard was and I deposit it in your hands as a secu- left in the kingdom at his death: but, rity for the money.” The inhabitants of such a veneration had this people for Góa, it is said, generously returned both those ensigns of gravity, that many of the money and his whisker. The ancient them carefully preserved them in their Britons shaved the body, except the head cabinets, to be buried with them; imand the upper lip, as well as the Gauls. agining, perhaps, they should make but The Normans had a great aversion to an odd figure in the grave with their beards. Among them, to allow the beard naked chins. So much for beards in our to grow was an indication of the deepest next we shall give an account of the distress and misery. William the Con- operators thereon. queror compelled the English to shave To be concluded in our next. their upper lips and beards, so that some

# Hudibras says, choose rather to abandon their country

“ And cut square by the Russian standard, than to resign their whiskers. In the

A torn beard's like a tatter'd ensign,

That's bravest which there are most rents in." fourteenth century long beards were in

See part II. Canto l. line 172.

murs.

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THE TREAD MILL, was accustomed to say or nerself, in her

more gentle moods, that her bark was BY JACOB JONES ES. OF THE

worse than her bite; but what teeth INNER TEMPLE.

could have matched à tongue, which, Ingenious thought! old Nature to invert, when in full career, vouched to have been And make the feet do duty---for the hands!..

heard from the Kirk, to the Castle of St. The hands have work'd for many thousand

Ronan's.
years,
For many thousand years now work the feet ! To this inn came Francis Tyrrel, the
Behold the human squirrels ! round and round, the hero of the story; he was the
Treading the never-ending cylinder;

son of the fifth Earl of Etherington,
The incorrigible rogues! that wise man send
To Houses of Correction, there to learn,

who had known Meg in former years, That labour is indeed a curse:

and did not care for her eccentricities. With pains and perils, there to“ Mill the Air," They, however, had no charms for the With strains and achings, therefrom to depart,

travellers of these light and giddy-paced
Lesson'd to work at,---nothing:---
To learn this wond'rous lesson, and unlearn times, and Meg's inn became less and
The other habits of industrious years :

less frequented. What carried the evil Lol woman, stretch'd, disfigur’d, on the wheel!

to the uttermost was, that a fanciful lady Stung with a sense of shame, a dread of ill, "Twere infamy, for other eyes to see;

of rank in the neighbourhood, chanced to Ali little remnant of that self respect,

recover of some imaginary complaint by
Strong to reclaim, extinguish'd in the feeling the use of a mineral well, about a mile
Of utter, and o’erwhelming degradation--- and a half from the village; a fashion-
Fie on these manias, that o'erdo all good
To perfect evil, these precipitate jumps

able doctor was found to write an analysis At excellence, which hurl it to the ground: of the healing stream, with a list of sun

These plans concerted without proper planning; dry cures ; à speculative builder took
These quackish nostrums; let the Tread Mill

land in feu, and erected lodging-houses,
flourish
For just prevention of the thefts of mice: shops, and even streets. At length a
Or comfort of young ladies who delight

tontine subscription was obtained to erect
To see the captive squirrel wind his cage... an inn, which, for the more grace, was
But let not nature be abus'd, nor man
Converted to a sorry turnspit, tramp

called an hotel ; and so the description of A profitless, debasing, cruel round

Meg Dods became general. Of toil---nor woman be expos'd

At the Well—the rival house

was a To all that man can suffer, and thrice more !!

large party-to wit, Lady Penelope Pen

feather, a lady of fashion, whose beauty
The Novelist. had passed the meridian ; Sir Bingo

Binks, a sapient English baronet, who
No. XLIV.

had been entrapped into a Scotch mar

riage with Miss Rachael Bonnirigs, and ST. RONAN’S WELL.

was so ashamed of the union as not to Some thirty years ago, a gentleman-like return to England, and who, for a carperson, between the age of twenty-five riage, kept, and drove himself, a regularand thirty, arrived at the little village of built mail coach ; and Mr. Mowbray, of St. Roran, situated on the southern side St. Ronan’s, a young sporting gentleman. of the Forth, about thirty miles from the The affairs of the Well were consigned English border. This village, now sunk to a managing committee, to arbitrate all into decay, had been once the residence matters relative to the good government of the Mowbrays, a powerful family, con- of the community. nected with the Douglases. Only two Each of its members appeared to be houses of any consequence now remained; selected, as Fortunio, in the fairy tale, the Mause, or clergymen's rectory, and an chose his followers, for their peculiar inn kept by Mrs. Meg Dods, the daughter gifts. First on on the list stood the man of of an old retainer of the Mowbray's medicine, Dr. Quinbus Quackleben, who family, who had saved money while the claimed right to regulate medical matters master was ruined.

at the spring, upon the principle which, Mrs. Meg Dods was a brisk landlady, of old, assigned the property of a newly who kept a good cellar, and charged discovered country, to the first buccaneer moderately. She had few or no personal who committed piracy on its shores. The charms. Her hair was of a brindled co. acknowledgment of the doctor's merit, as lour, betwixt black and grey, which was having been first to proclaim and vindi. apt to escape in elf-locks from under cate the merits of these healing fountains, her mutch when she was thrown into had occasioned his being universally inviolent agitation_long skinny hands, stalled first physician and man of science, terminated by stout talons-grey eyes, which last qualification he could apply thin lips, a robust person, a broad, though to all purposes, from the boiling of an flat chest, capital wind, and a voice that egg, to the giving a lecture. could match a choir of fish-women. She First in place, though perhaps second

1 room.

to the doctor, in real authority, was Mr. who might be termed the man of mirth, Winterblossom; a civil sort of person, or, if you please, the Jack-pudding to who was nicely precise in his address, the company, whose business it was to wore his hair cued, and dressed with crack the best joke, and sing the best powder, had knee-buckles set with Bristol song he could. stones, and a seal-ring as large as Sir The curiosity of this august assembly John Falstaff's. In his hey-dey he had having been excited by the singularly a small estate, which he had spent like a retired habits of Mr. Francis Tyrrel, the gentleman, by mixing with the gay stranger guest at the original hostelrie of world. He was, in short, one of those Mrs. Meg Dods, an invitation was sent respectable links which connect the cox- him in the names of the whole party to combs of the present day with those of favour them with his company on an the last age, and could compare, in his early day. During his visit, he had an own experience, the follies of both. In opportunity of meeting with Clara Mow. latter days, he had sense enough to ex. bray, and of renewing for a moment an tricate himself from his course of dissipa- acquaintance with her of long standing. tion, though with impaired health and The father of Francis Tyrrel, the fifth impoverished fortune.

Earl of Etherington, had, during his Mr. Winterblossom was also distin- travels on the continent in early youth, guished for possessing a few curious married a certain beautiful orphan, Marie engravings, and other specimens of art, de Martigny, the mother of our hero.with the exhibition of which he occasion. This nobleman taking advantage of the ally beguiled a wet morning at the public irregularity, and as he then deemed ille

They were collected, “ viis et gality, of this union of the heart, found modis," said the man of law, another it to suit his convenience to marry again distinguished member of the committee, from interested motives, and accordingly with a knowing cock of his eye, to his wedded a Miss Bulmer, by whom he had next neighbour.

another son, Valertine Bulmer, who, on Of this person little need be said. He his father's death, took possession of his was a large-boned, loud-voiced, red-faced titles and estates, on the plea of his elder old man, named Micklewham ; a country brother's illegitimacy. The young men writer, or attorney, who managed the had nevertheless been educated together, matters of the 'Squire much to the profit and up to a certain period had been conof one or other,---if not both. His nose stant associates. They had met several projected from the front of his broad years before in the neighbourhood of St. vulgar face, like the stile of an old sun- Ronan's Well, the beautiful sister of dial, twisted all of one side. He was as Mowbray, and Francis Tyrrel, and she great a bully in his profession, as if he had then formed the tender connection had been military instead of civil. already alluded to. As at this time the

After the man of law comes Captain father of the young men shewed an eviMungo Mac Turk, a Highland lieutenant dent desire to do justice to his elder son, on half-pay, and that of ancient standing; and admit the legitimacy of his birth, one who preferred toddy of the strongest the efforts of the younger brother were to wine, and in that fashion and cold devoted unremittingly to vilify and misdrams finished about a bottle of whiskey represent him. In an unlucky hour per diem, whenever he could come by it. Francis Tyrrel made his brother his conHe was a general referee in all quarrels, fidant, and the latter conjecturing that an occupation which procured Captain the connection would, on no account, be Mac Turk a good deal of respect the approved of by the father, used every Well; for he was precisely that sort of possible exertion to promote it, and was person who is ready to fight with any one unwearied in his endeavours to facilitate

-whom no one could find an apology for the intercourse of the lovers. declining to fight with—in fighting with Their interviews having been term.i. whom considerable danger was incurred, nated by the harsh command of Clara's for he was ever and anon showing that he father, Valentine volunteered his services could snuff a candle with a pistol ball. as the medium of communication, and

Still remains to be mentioned the man finally advised Francis to propose a secret of religion—the gentle Mr. Simon Chat- marriage. In a hapless hour he conterley, who had strayed to St. Ronan's sented, and all the preliminaries arranged, Well from the banks of Cam, or Isis, the pastor of the parish agreed to perand who piqued himself, first on his form the ceremony, on a supposition Greek, and, secondly, on his politeness hinted by the treacherous Valentine, that to the ladies.

the object of the lover was to do justice There was yet another member of this to the betrayed maiden. It was finally select committee, Mr. Michael Meredith, settled that the lovers should meet at the

Old Kirk when the twilight became deep, posals for her hand, and is warmly and set off in a chaise for England im- seconded by him, ignorant as he was of mediately after the ceremony.

About her connection with Francis. They are, this juncture, however, the younger bro- however, received with disgust and even ther became acquainted with a circum- horror by Clara. The Earl fleeces Mowstance which completely altered all his bray, the Laird of St. Ronan's, as he was views on the subject of this marriage. It called, of the whole of his property, as appears that his grand uncle by his well as that of his sister, at the gaming mother's side was related to the Mowbray table. family, and had left a singular will, be- In a state of desperation arising from queathing an immense estate to the eldest his losses and a report that has reached son of the Earl of Etherington, provided him injurious to the honour of his sister he formed a matrimonial connection with (a report originating in the foul aspersion a lady of the house of St. Ronan. After which had been cast upon her by the some consideration, he meditated a deep traitor Valentine, in order to induce the scheme to crown his ambitious views, and clergyman to consent to marry them clan. ander circumstances which remove in destinely), Mowbray returns home deter. some measure the improbability that may mined to seek a full explanation with appear from a naked statement of the Clara, and to compel her marriage with facts to attach to it, personated his brother the Earl of Etherington. (to whom he bore a strong resemblance) on In the violence of his passion he even the evening appointed for the rendezvous meditates her death ; but her meekness

He succeeded so far in imposing on and her tears subdue him, and he quits Clara. “ We got into the carriage,” her saying, “ Clara, you should to-night says he in a confession he afterwards thank God that saved you from a great made, “and were a mile from the church, danger, and me from a deadly sin.” when my unlucky or lucky brother stopped Through the intervention of a very the chaise by force—through what means worthy old gentleman of the name of he had obtained knowledge of my little Touchwood, one of those excellent but trick, I never have been able to learn. eccentric persons, who, having amassed a Solmes has been faithful to me in too large fortune, are on the look-out for an many instances, that I should suspect heir, the intrigues of the titular Earl of him in this important crisis. I jumped Etherington ends in his own discomfiture. out of the carriage, pitched fraternity to Clara Mowbray, in the agony of fear and the devil, and, betwixt desperation and desperation, fled from her brother's house something very like shame, began to cut within an hour of her interview with him, away with a couteau de chasse, which I and after wandering about the greater had provided in case of necessity. All part of a November night, is attracted by was in vain—I was hustled down under a light from the Manse of the clergyman. the wheel of the carriage, and, the horses To this dwelling had been removed a few taking fright, it went over my body.”. days before a wretched woman who had

Clara Mowbray was reduced to a state been one of the wicked instruments of the of mind bordering on distraction, and her Earl of Etherington, and under the same lover only consented to a suspension of roof does Clara also meet with her un his revenge on an arrangement, that Va- happy lover. lentine should give up all idea of seeing We have no means of knowing whether his betrothed again, or even of returning she actually sought Tyrrel, or whether it to the neighbourhood of which she re- was, as in the former case, the circumsided. Meanwhile, during his eldest stance of a light still burning where all son's absence in foreign climes, the father around was dark, that attracted her ; but dies, and Valentine Bulmer (as he was her next apparition was close by the side named after his mother) took possession of her unfortunate lover, then deeply enof the title and estates of the Earl of gaged in writing, when something sudEtherington. It was only on hearing denly gleamed on a large, old-fashioned that his perfidious brother was, in defiance mirror, which hung on the wall opposite. of his stipulation, about to return to St. He looked up, and saw the figure of Ronan's Well, that Francis repaired Clara, holding a light (which she had thither to watch his motions. At this taken from the passage) in her extended time, however, he became possessed of hand. He stood for an instant with his documents which required only a legal eyes fixed on this fearful shadow, ere he process in order to enable him to vindi. dared turn round on the substance which cate to himself his birthright.

was thus reflected. When he did so, the The titular Earl assiduously cultivates fixed and pallid countenance almost imthe acquaintance of Mowbray, the brother pressed him with the belief that he saw a of Clara, to whom he makes formal pro. vision, and he shuddered when, stooping beside him, she took his hand. “Come be well cared for, and I'll bring word to Eway!” she said, in a hurried voice- your room-door frae half-hour to half

come away, my brother follows to kill hour how she is.” as both. Come, Tyrrel, let us fly-we The necessity of the case was undeni. shall easily escape him.—Hannah Irwin able, and Tyrrel suffered himself to be is on before—but, if we are overtaken, I led to another apartment, leaving Miss will have no more fighting—you shall Mowbray to the care of the hostess and promise me we shall not-we have had her female assistants. He counted the but too much of that—but you will be hours in an agony less by the watch than wise in future."

by the visits which Mrs. Dods, faithful “ Clara Mowbray !” exclaimed Tyrrel. to her promise, made from interval to in. “ Alas! is it thus !_Stay-do not go," terval, to tell him that Clara was not bet. for she turned to make her escape" stay ter—that she was worse and, at last, -stay-sit down.”

that she did not think that she could live “I must go," she replied, “ I must go over morning. It required all the depre-I am called-Hannah Irwin is gone catory influence of the good landlady to before to tell all, and I must follow. Will restrain Tyrrel, who, calm and cold on you not let me go ?-Nay, if you will common occasions, was proportionably hold me by force, I know I must sit fierce and impetuous when his passions down—but you will not be able to keep were afloat, from bursting into the room, me for all that.”

and ascertaining, with his own eyes, the A convulsive fit followed, and seemed, state of the beloved patient. At length, by its violence, to explain that she was there was a long interval-an interval of indeed bound for the last and darksome hours—so long, indeed, that Tyrrel caught journey. The maid, who at length an. from it the agreeable hope that Clara swered Tyrrel's earnest and repeated sum- slept, and that sleep might bring refreshmons, fled terrified at the scene she ment both to mind and body. Mrs. Dods, witnessed, and carried to the Manse the he concluded, was prevented from moving alarm.

for fear of disturbing her patient's slum. The old landlady was compelled to ex. ber; and, as if actuated by the same feel. change one scene of sorrow for another, ing which he imputed to her, he ceased wondering within herself what fatality to traverse his apartment, as his agitation could have marked this single night with had hitherto dictated, and throwing himso much misery. When she arrived at self into a chair, forbore to move even a home, what was her astonishment to find finger, and withheld his respiration as there the daughter of the house, which, much as possible, just as if he had been even in their alienation, she had never seated by the pillow of the patient. ceased to love, in a state little short of Morning was far advanced, when his distraction, and attended by Tyrrel, whose landlady appeared in his room with a state of mind seemed scarce more com- grave and anxious countenance. posed than that of the unhappy patient. “ Mr. Tyrrel,” she said, “

ye are a The oddities of Mrs. Dods were merely Christian man.” the rust which had accumulated upon her “ Hush, hush, for Heaven's sake !" character, but without impairing its na- he replied ;

“you will disturb Miss tive strength and energy; and her sym. Mowbray. pathies were not of a kind acute enough Naething will disturb her, puir to disable her from thinking and acting as thing,” answered Mrs. Dods ; they decisively as circumstances required. have mickle to answer for that brought

“ Mr. Tyrrel,” she said, “ this is nae her to this.” sight for men folk-ye maun rise and They have—they have, indeed,” says gang to another room.

Tyrrel, striking his forehead ;

66 and I “I will not stir from her,” said Tyrrel will see her avenged on every one of “ I will not remove from her either them!

-Can I see her ?” now, or as long as she or I may live." “ Better not-better not,” said the

“ That will be nae lang space, Master good woman; but he burst from her and Tyrrel, if ye winna be ruled by common rushed into the apartment.

" Is life gone?-Is every spark exTyrrel started up, as if half compre- tinct?” he exclaimed eagerly to a country nending what she said, but remained surgeon, a sensible man, who had been motionless.

summoned from Marchthorn in the course “Come, come,” said the compassionate of the night. The medical man shook landlady ; “ do no stand looking on a his head_He rushed to the bedside, anil sight sair enough to break a harder heart was convinced by his own eyes that the than yours, hinny—your ain sense tells being whose sorrows he had both caused ye, ye canna stay here-Miss Claru shall and shared, was now insensible to all

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