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Pro eodem Francisco Bacon Milite. Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. Salutem.

Rymer, Tom. xvi. page 596. Sciatis quòd nos, tàm in consideratione boni fidelis et acceptabilis servitii, per nuper dilectum nostrum Antonium Bacon Armigerum defunctum, fratrem germanum Francisci Bacon militis servientis nostri, ac etiam per dilectum serviensem nostrum prædictum Franciscum Bacon militem præstiti et impensi, quàm pro deversis aliis causis et considerationibus ad noc nos specialiter moventibus.

De gratia nostra speciali, ac ex certa scientia et mero motu nostris, dedimus et concessimus, ac per præsentes, pro nobis hæredibus et successoribus nostris, damus et concedimus præfato Francisco Bacon quandam annualem pensionem sexaginta librarum bonæ et legalis monetæ angliæ per annum, solvendam annuatim eidem Francisco Bacon ad festa sancti Michaelis Archangeli et paschæ per æquales portiones, de thesauro nostro hæredum et successorum nostrorum, per manus thesaurarii et camerarionum ibidem pro tempore existentium, prima solutione inde incipiendâ ad testum testorum prædictorum proximum post dalam præsentium.

Habendam et tenendam gaudendam et percipiendam annualem pensionem prædictam, duranti vitâ naturali prædicti Francisci Bacon.

In cujus rei, &c. Teste Rege apud Harfeild vicesimo quinto die Augusti.Per breve de privato sigillo.


The following are passages from the king's speech.

As to the union. Hath not God first united these two kingdoms, both in language and religion, and similitude of manners ? yea, hath he not made us all in one island, compassed with one sea, and of itself by nature so indivisible, as almost those that were borderers themselves on the late borders, cannot distinguish, nor know, or discern their own limits ? these two countries being separated neither by sea, nor great river, mountain, nor other strength of nature, but only by little small brooks, or demolished little walls, so as rather they were divided in apprehension, than in effect; and now in the end and fulness of time united, the right and uitle of both in my person, alike lineally descended of both the crowns, whereby it is now become a little world within itself.

As to Religion. Nay, my mind was ever so free from persecution, or inthralling of my subjects in matters of conscience, as I hope those of that profession within this kingdom have a proof since my coming, that I was so far from increasing their burihens with Rehoboam, as I have so much as either time, occasion, or law could permit, lightened them. And even now at this time, have I been careful to revise and consider deeply upon the laws made against them, that some overture might be made to the present parliament for clearing these laws by reason (which is the soul of the law) in case they have been in times past, further, or more rigorously extended by judges, than the meaning of the law was, or might. And this sort of people, I would be sorry to punish their bodies for the error of their minds, the reformation whereof must only come of God and the true spirit. And here I have occasion to speak to you, my lords the bishops; for as you my lord of Durham, said very learnedly to day in your sermon, correction without instruction is but tyranny : so ought you, and all the clergy under you, to be more careful, vigilant and careful than you have been, to win souls to God, as well by your exemplary life, as doctrine. And since you see how careful they are, sparing neither labour, pains, nor extreme peril of their persons, to pervert (the devil is so

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busy a bishop;) (a) ye should be the more careful, and wakeful in your charges. Follow the rule prescribed to you by St. Paul, be careful to exalt and instruct, in season, and out of season : and where you have been any way sluggish before, now waken yourselves up again with a new diligence, remitting the success to God, who calling them either at the second, third, tenth, or twelfth hour, as they are alike welcome to him, so shall they be to me his lieutenant here.

NOTE QQQ. Plutarch in his Morals, says, “ You have naturally a philosophical genius, and are troubled to see a philosopher have no kindness for the study of medicine. You are uneasy that he should think it concerns him more to study geometry, logic, and music, than to be desirous to understand whether the fabrick of his body as well as his houses be well or ill designed. Now among all the liberal arts, medicine does not only contain so neat and large a field of pleasure as to give place to none, but plentifully pays the charges of those who delight in the study of her with health and safety : so that it ought not to be called the transgression of the bounds of a philosopher to dispute about those things which relate to health.” The following extract is from Dr. Garnet's Lectures.

Physiological ignorance is, undoubtedly, the most abundant source of our sufferings; every person accustomed to the sick must have heard them deplore their ignorance of the necessary consequences of those practices, by which their health has been destroyed : and when men shall be deeply convinced, that the eternal laws of nature have connected pain and decrepitude with one mode of life, and health and vigour with another, they will avoid the former and adhere to the latter. It is strange, however, to observe that the generality of mankind do not seem to bestow a single thought on the preservation of their health, till it is too late to reap any benefit from their conviction.—If knowledge of this kind were generally diffused, people would cease to imagine that the human constitution was so badly contrived, that a state of general health could be overset by every trifle ; for instance, by a little cold ; or that the recovery of it lay concealed in a few drops, or a pill. Did they better understand the nature of chronic diseases, and the causes which produce them, they could not be so unreasonable as to think, that they might live as they chose with impunity; or did they know any thing of medicine, they would soon be convinced, that though fits of pain have been relieved, and sickness cured, for a time, the re-establishment of health depends on very different powers and principles.”.

Sir William Temple, in his Essay upon the Cure of the Gout by Moxa, says, “ Within these fifteen years past, I have known a great fleet disabled for two months, and thereby lose great occasions, by an indisposition of the admiral, while he was neither well enough to exercise, nor ill enough to leave the command. I have known two towns of the greatest consequence, lost contrary to all forms, by the governors falling ill in the time of the sieges.

“I have observed the fate of Campania determine contrary to all appearances, by the caution and conduct of a general, which were atttributed by those that knew him, to his age and infirmities, rather than his own true qualities, acknowledged otherwise to have been as great as most men of the age. I have seen the counsels of a noble country grow bold or timorous, according to the fits of his good or ill health that managed them, and the pulse of the government beat high or low with that of the governor. And this unequal conduct makes way for great accidents in the world : nay, I have often reflected upon the counsels and fortunes of the greatest monarchies rising and decaying sensibly with the ages and healths of the princes and chief officers that governed them. And I remember one great minister that confessed to me, when he fell into one of his usual fits of the gout, he was no longer able to bend his mind or thoughts to any public business, nor give audiences beyond two or three of his own domestics, though

(a) See a sermon of Latimers.

it were to save a kingdom ; and that this proceeded not from any violence of pain, but from a general languishing and faintness of spirits, which made him in those fits think nothing worth the trouble of one careful or solicitous thought. For the approaches or lurkings of the gout, the spleen, or the scurvy, nay, the very fumes of indigestion, may indispose men to thought and to care, as well as diseases of danger and pain.

“ Thus accidents of health grow to be accidents of state, and public constitu. tions come to depend in a great measure, upon those of particular men; which makes it perhaps seem necessary in the choice of persons for great employments (at least such as require constant application and pains) to consider their bodies as well as their minds, and ages and health as well as their abilities.”

Whether information upon Latin and Greek or upon the art of preserving health, will, at some future time, be ascertained, with great respect for a knowledge of languages, I should prefer to all these attainments, a knowledge of the mode of preserving health. The air we breathe ; the food we take ; our exercise and rest; our sleep

Each of these subjects is of great importance, and so wholly neglected in our education, that the very name of them is changed, and they are termed by medical men“ non-naturals."

As the word nervous, which used to express strength, has now changed its meaning, and is used as an expression of aspen-leaf debility, or as the yew tree, planted in churchyards, as a symbol of perpetual life, is called by us in return, - the melancholy yew.”

NOTE RRR. All his juvenile tracts are without imagery, and so are his Novum Organum, and tract upon universal jnstice. That imagery followed in the train of his reason, and was used chiefly if not solely to illustrate his reasoning, see his expla. nation of mistaking the motive for acquiring knowledge. See vol. ii. p. 51.

Arrangement.-- In the Advancement of Learning, distinguished as it is for its symmetry, in explaining the causes of the evil of method, he says, young men, when they knit and shape perfectly, do seldom grow to a further stature, so knowledge, whilst it is dispersed into aphorisms and observations, may grow and shoot up: but once entered and comprehended in methods, it may, perchance, be farther polished and fashioned and accommodated for use and practice, but increaseth no more in bulk and substance."

“* for as

Seneca says,


The grammarian's business lies in a syntax of speech ; or, if he proceed to bistory, or the measuring of a verse, he is at the end of his line ; but what signifies a congruity of periods, the computing of syllables, or the modifying of numbers, to the taming of our passions, or the repressing of our lusts? The philosopher proves the body of the sun to be large, but for the true dimensions of it we must ask the mathematician; geometry and music, if they do not teach us to master our hopes and fears, all the rest is to little purpose. What does it concern us which was the elder of the two, Homer or Hesiod; or which was the taller, Helen or Hecuba? We take a great deal of pains to trace Ulysses in his wanderings; but were it not time as well spent to look to ourselves, that we may not wander at all. Are not we ourselves tossed with tempestuous passions; and both assaulted by terrible monsters on the one hand, and tempted by syrens on the other ?”

“ You,” says Lord Shaftsbury, “who are skilled in other fabrics and compositions both of art and nature, have you considered of the fabric of the mind, the constitution of the soul, the connexion and frame of all its passions and affections, to know accordingly the order and symmetry of each part; and how it either improves or suffers ; what its force is, when naturally preserved in its sound state, and what becomes of it when corrupted and abused ? Till this (my friend) be well examined and understood, how shall we judge either of the force


of virtue or power of vice, or in what manner either of these may work to our happiness or undoing? Here, therefore, is that inquiry we should first make. But who is there can afford to make it as he ought?' If happily we are born of a good nature ; if a liberal education has formed in us a generous temper and disposition, well regulated appetites and worthy inclinations, it is well for us ; and so indeed we esteem it. But who is there endeavours to give these to himself, or to advance his portion of happiness in this kind? Who thinks of improving, or so much as of preserving his share, in a world where it must of necessity run so great a hazard, and where we know an honest nature is so easily corrupted ? All other things relating to us are preserved with care, and have some art or economy belonging to them: this, which is nearest related to us, and on which our happiness depends, is alone committed to chance; and temper is the only thing ungoverned, whilst it governs all the rest.—Thus we inquire concerning what is good and suitable to our appetites, but what appetites are good and suitable to us, is no part of our examination. We inquire what is according to interest, policy, fashion, vogue; but it seems wholly strange and out of the way to inquire what is according to nature. The balance of Europe, of trade, of power, is strictly sought after; while few have heard of the balance of their passions, or ever thought of holding these scales even."

“We all meditate,” says Bishop Hall, “one, how to do ill to others : another, bow to do some earthly good to himself: another, to hurt himself under a colour of good. Or perhaps, some better minds bend their thoughts upon the search of natural things; the motions of every heaven, and of every star: the reason and course of the ebbing and flowing of the sea : the manifold kinds of simples that grow out of the earth and creatures that creep upon it, with all their strange qualities and operations : or, perhaps, the several forms of government and rules of state take up their busy heads: so that, while they would be acquainted with the whole world, they are strangers at home; and while they seek to know all other things, they remain unknown to themselves.”

Burton says, “ We spend our days in unprofitable questions and disputations, intricate subtleties, about moonshine in the water, leaving in the mean time those chiefest treasures of nature untouched, wherein the best medicines for all manner of diseases are to be found; and do not only neglect them ourselves, but hinder, condemn, forbid, and scoff at others that are willing to inquire after them."

“ But whether thus these things, or whether not :
Whether the sun, predominant in heaven,
Rise on the earth, or earth rise on the sun :
He from the east his flaming road begin,
Or she from west her silent course advance
With inoffensive pace, that spinning sleeps
On her soft axle, while she paces even,
And bears thee soft with the smooth air along,
Solicit not thy thoughts with matters hid :
Leave them to God above, him serve and fear :
Of other creatures, as him pleases best,
Wherever placed, let him dispose : joy then
In what he gives to thee, this Paradise
And thy fair Eve:—Heaven is for thee too high
To know what passes there : be lowly wise:
Think only what concerns thee and thy being.”

Paradise Lost, b. viii. Teach me my duty to my country, to my father, to my wife, to mankind. What is it to me, whether Penelope was honest or no ? Teach me to know how to be so myself, and to live according to that knowledge. What am I the better for putting so many parts together in music, and raising an harmony out of so many different tones. Teach me to tune my affections, and to hold constant to myself. Geometry teaches me the art of measuring acres ; teach me to measure my appetites, and to know when I have enough : teach me to divide



with my brother, and to rejoice in the prosperity of my neighbour. You teach me how I may hold my own, and keep my estate ; but I would rather learn how I may lose it all, and yet be contented. It is hard, you will say, for a man to be forced from the fortune of his family. This estate, it is true, was my father's; but whose was it in the time of my great-grandfather? I do not only say, What man's was it? but, what nation's? The astrologer tells me of Saturn and Mars in opposition ; but I say, let them be as they will, their courses and their positions are ordered them by an unchangeable decree of fate. Either they produce, and point out the effects of all things, or else they signify them : if the former, what are we the better for the knowledge of that which must of necessity come to pass ? If the latter, what does it avail us to foresee what we cannot avoid ? So that, whether we know or not know, the event will still be the same.--Seneca.


""Men carry their minds as they carry their watches, content to be ignorant of the mechanism of their movements, and satisfied with attending to the liule exterior circle of things, to which the passions, like indexes, are pointing. It is surprising to see how little self-knowledge a person not watchfully observant of himself may have gained in the whole course of an active, or even an inquisitive life. He may have lived almost an age, and traversed a continent, minutely examining its curiosities, and interpreting the half obliterated characters on its monuments, unconscious the while of a process operating on his own mind to impress or to erase characteristics of much more importance to him than all the figured brass or marble that Europe contains. After having explored many a cavern or dark ruinous avenue, he may have left undetected a darker recess in his character. He may have conversed with many people in different languages, on numberless subjects; but having neglected those conversations with himself by which his whole moral being should have been kept continually disclosed to his view, he is better qualified perhaps to describe the intrigues of a foreign court, or the progress of a foreign trade ; to represent the manners of the Italians or the Turks; to narrate the proceedings of the Jesuits, or the adventures of the gypsies, than to write the history of his own mind.”

Foster's Essays, p. 6, 4th ed.


Foster says,

And perhaps still less regard will be paid to it, if it be considered that the King, who appeareth to have had the success of the prosecution much at heart, and took a part in it unbecoming the majesty of the crown, condescended to instruct bis attorney general with regard to the proper measures to be taken in the examination of the defendant; that the attorney at his majesty's command submitted to the drudgery of sounding the opinions of the judges upon the point of law, before it was thought advisable to risk it at an open trial ; that the judges were to be sifted separately and soon, before they could have an opportunity of conferring together; and that for this purpose four gentlemen of the profession in the service of the crown were immediately dispatched, one to each of the judges ; Mr. Attorney himself undertaking to prac. tice upon the Chief Justice, of whom some doubt was then entertained. Is it possible that a gentleman of Bacon's great talents could submit to a service so much below his rank and character ! But he did submit to it, and acquitted himself notably in it.

.Avarice, I think, was not his ruling passion. But whenever a false ambition, ever restless and craving, overheated in the pursuit of the honours which the crown alone can confer, happeneth to stimulate an heart otherwise formed for great and noble pursuits, it hath frequently betrayed it into measures full as mean as avarice itself could have suggested to the wretched animals who die under its dominion. For these passions, however they may seem to be at variance, have ordinarily produced the same effects. Both degrade the man,

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