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aduentur the wrong they mought receiue by vntrue coppies, or by some garnishment which it mought please any one that shold set them forth to bestow upon them. Therefore I helde it best discretion to publish them my selfe as they passed long agoe from my pen without any further disgrace, then the weakenes of the author. And as I did euer hold there mought be as great a vanitie in retyring and withdrawing mens conceits (except they be of some nature) from the world, as in obtruding them : so in these particulars 1 haue played my selfe the inquisitor, and find nothing to my vnderstanding in them contrary, or infectious to the state of religion, or manners, but rather (as I suppose) medicinable. Onely I disliked now to put them out, because they will be like the late newe halfepence, which though the siluer were good, yet the pieces were small. But since they would not stay with their master, but wold needs trauel abroad, I haue preferred them to you, that are next myself, dedicating them, such as they are, to our loue, in the depth whereof (I assure you) I somtimes wish your infirmities transslated upon my selfe, that her maiesty mought haue the seruice of so active and able a mind, and I mought bee with excuse confined to these contemplations and studies for which I am fittest, so commende I you to the preseruation of the diuine maiestie. From my chamber at Grayes Inne, this 30 of Ianuary, 1597.
Your entire louing brother, Fran. Bacon.” It consists of ten Essays. 1. Of Studie.
6. Of Expence. 2. Of Discourse.
7. Of Regimen and Health. 3. Of Ceremonies and Respects. 8. Of Honour and Reputation. 4. Of Followers and Friends. 9. Of Faction, 5. Of Sutors.
10. Of Negotiating. The volume is in 12mo. and consists of thirteen double pages, not very correctly printed. Ex. gr. In the table of contents the first essay is “of Studie;" in the body of the work it is “of Studies.” So again, in the table of contents, the fifth essay is “Sutors ; ” in the body of the work it is “of Sutes,” &c. &c.
Lord Bacon's favorite style was, I am inclined to think, in aphorisms, as he states in various parts of his works, and particularly in the advancement of learning under the head of Tradition, where, amongst other styles, he considers “style methodical or in aphorisms : " and, as may be seen in the Novum Organum, which is composed wholly in aphorisms. This first edition of the Essays, although apparently in continued discourse, is really severed and in aphorisms. The following is an exact copy of part of the first essay, and they are all separated in the same manner.
| Reade not to contradict, nor to believe, but to waigh and consider.
| Some bookes are to bee tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and disgested : that is some bookes are to be read only in partes ; others to be read but cursorily, and some few to be read wholly and with diligence and attention.
Histories make men wise, poets wittie, the mathematicks subtle, naturall philosophie deepe : morall grave, logicke and rhetorick able to
contend. There are two copies of this edition in the University library at Cambridge: and there is Archbishop Sancroft's copy in Emanuel library : there is a copy in the Bodleian, and I have a copy.
This small volume contains, as appears by the title-page, not only the essays, but Religious Meditations and Places of Perswasion and Dissuasion. The religious meditations are in Latin, and are not printed, as the essays are, for Hooper : and the paging is not continued from the essays, but begins page 1. The following is a copy of the title-page : Meditationes Sacræ. Londini. Excudebat Iohannes Windet, 1597. At the conclusion of the volume is, Printed at London by John Windet for Humfrey Hooper, 1597.” So that, although the name of Hooper does not appear in the title prefixed to the Meditationes Sacræ, it is evident that Windet was the printer for Hooper.
At the conclusion of the Meditationes Sacræ, a tract entitled “ of the Coulers of Good and Evil, a Fragment,” is annexed. The paging is continued from
the Meditationes Sacræ. The following is a copy of the title-page : Of the Coulers of Good and Euill, a Fragment. 1597. In the Advancement of Learning, under the head of Rhetoric, there are one or two specimens of these colours: and, under the same head in the treatise De Augmentis, they are much enlarged.
Second Edition, 1598. Essaies. Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Disswusion. Seene and allowed. London, printed for Humfrey Hooper, and are to bee solde at the Blacke Beare in Chauncery Lane, 1598. This is a 12mo. of forty-nine pages. It is nearly a transcript of the first edition, except that the Meditationes Sacræ are translated into English, and the separation into aphorisms is discontinued ; the paging continues through the whole work; but, at the end of the Meditations, there is the following title-page: Of the Colours of Good and Evill, a Fragment, 1598.
In the Lansdown manuscripts in the British Museum there is a manuscript, in antient writing, of this or the first edition of the Essays. It is in vol. i. p. 173. It cannot, I think, be the original MS. as there are not titles to the different essays, but they are written, and not by the same hand, in the margin.
There is also in the Harleian MSS. 6797, a MS. of two Essays, of Faction and of Negotiating, with cross lines drawn through them. At the conclusion of the volume there is, Imprinted at London by John Windet for Humphrey Hooper, 1598.” As the printers and publishers are the same in this edition and in the edition of 1597, it seems probable that this edition was sanctioned by Lord Bacon.
Third Edition, 1606. Essaies. Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Disswasion. Seene and allowed. Printed at London for Iohn Iuggard, dwelling in Fleete Streete, at the Hand and Starre, neere Temple Barre, 1606. This is in 12mo. and is not paged. It is a transcript of the previous editions, but was I suspect pirated.
1st. It is not published by Lord Bacon's publisher ; and it will be seen, in the progress of his Essays, that when an edition was published by Bacon, it was regularly followed by an edition published by Jaggard.
2nd. The dedication in 1597 is to M. Anthony Bacon, and in this edition in 1606 it is to Maister Anthony Bacon. 3dly. The signature in 1597 is Fran. Bacon, in this of 1606 is Francis Bacon.
Fourth Edition, 1612. The next edition was in 1612. It is entitled, The Essaies of Sr Francis Bacon, Knight, the King's Solliciter Generall. Imprinted at London by John Beale, 1612. It was the intention of Sir Francis to have dedicated this edition to Henry Prince of Wales, but he was prevented by the death of the prince on the 6th of November in that year. This appears by the following letter: To the most high and excellent prince, Henry, Prince of Wales, Duke of Corn
wall, and Earl of Chester. It may please your Highness --Having divided my life into the contemplative and active part, I am desirous to give his majesty and your highness of the fruits of both, simple though they be. To write just treatises, requireth leisure in the writer, and leisure in the reader, and therefore are not so fit, neither in regard of your highness's princely affairs, nor in regard of my continual service; which is the cause that hath made me choose to write certain brief notes, set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called Essays. The word is late, but the thing is ancient ; for Seneca's epistles to Lucilius, if you mark them well, are but essays, that is, dispersed meditations, though conveyed in the form of epistles. These labours of mine, I know, cannot be worthy of your highness, for what can be worthy of you ? But my hope is, they may be as grains of salt, that will rather give you an appetite than offend you with satiety. And although they handle those things wherein both men's lives and their persons are most conversant; yet what I have attained I know not; but I have endeavoured to make them not vulgar, but of a nature, whereof a man shall find much in experience, and little in books; so as they are neither repe
titions nor fancies. But, however, I shall most humbly desire your highness to accept them in gracious part, and to conceive, that if I cannot rest, but must shew my dutiful and devoted affection to your highness in these things which proceed from myself, I shall be much more ready to do it in performance of any of your princely commandments. And so wishing your highness all princely felicity, I rest your Highness' most humble servant, 1612.
FR. BACON. It was dedicated as follows :
To my loving Brother, Sir John Constable, Knight.* My last Essaies I dedicated to my deare brother Master Anthony Bacon, who is with God. Looking amongst my papers this vacation, I found others of the same nature : which if I myselfe shall not suffer to be lost, it seemeth the world will not; by the often printing of the former. Missing my brother, I found you next, in respect of bond both of neare alliance, and of straight friendship and societie, and particularly of communication in studies. Wherein I must acknowledge my selfe beholding to you. For as my businesse found rest in my contemplations; so my contemplations ever found rest in your louing conference and judgment. So wishing you all good, I remaine
Your louing brother and friend, Fra. Bacon. The Table of Essays is, 1. Of Religion.
21. Of Riches.
22. Of Ambition.
24. Of Beautie.
25. Of Deformitie.
27. Of Custome and Education. 7. Of Nobilitie.
28. Of Fortune. 8. Of Great place.
29. Of Studies. 9. Of Empire.
30. Of Ceremonies and Respects. 10. Of Counsell.
31. Of Sutors. 11. Of Dispatch.
32. Of Followers. 12. Of Loue.
33. Of Negociating. 13. Of Friendshippe.
34. Of Faction. 14. Of Atheisme.
35. Of Praise. 15. Of Superstition.
36. Of Iudicature. 16. Of Wisdome for a Mans selfe. 37. Of vaine glory. 19. Of Regiment of Health.
38. Of greatnes of Kingdomes. 18. Of Expences.
39. Of the publike. 19. Of Discourse.
40. Of Warre and peace. 20. Of Seeming wise.
It is an octavo of 241 pages; and the two last essays of the Publique,” and “Of War and Peace,” although mentioned in the table of contents, are not contained in the body of the work.t
This edition contains all the Essays which are in the preceding editions, except the Essay Of Honor and Reputation :” and the title in the former editions of the Essay“ Of Followers and Friends,” is in this edition “ Of Followers,” and there is a separate Essay “ Of Friendship.” The essays in italics are in the former editions.
These essays are more extensive than the essays in the preceding editions, according to the manner of the author, who says, “ I always alter when I add ;
Francis Bacon married Alice Burnham, and Sir John Constable married her sister, Dorothy Burnham. In Lord Bacon's will, he says, Sir John Constab'e, Knight, my brother-in-law; and he nominates him as one of his execu
+ There is a copy in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian ; and I have a copy.
so that puting is used as fresked." As a specimen, the Essay * O' SOIT, 13 istede eeds the words “able to contend.” The edice od 1572 itse sezne as the former editoa, but it thus continues : “ fest saca 22605;* ** 225, S 20 Soad or impediment in the wit, bai 12 de evazi on ta i spos: de 33 diseases of the body may have approprzez esercises ; 10.3 is good for the scoe and reins, shooting for the tops 230 ceası gertje 2 sat e skuaca, nding for the head, and the late; so if a sze's wide wa daras, des bon sted the mathematics; for in demonstrations, made chet 2*27 DETEI so little, he must begin again; if tis wide 23 apt no és gestos de esces, let him study the schoolDea, fw 2e Cazi se de, bebe 20: apt to beat over matters, and to call upon coerore ad atstzie ancizer, let him study the lawyer's cases; so every deject of tbe od zar dive a special receipt.”
F* Es tant, larzand, 1612. Exsuses, Putrui Vezi sunt, Presa perymen and dissuasion. Scene and allered. Pued ai Lium 142 Juta Tegsord, dressing in Fleete-streete at the Hard and Sierry 72TY Tempat berme. 1012. This edition Eay be Ended into two parts:
1. Ok be Essars wbich were contained in the The Erst part coesistag,
edison of 1000.
3. Paces of Perswasion and Disswasion. The second part coesisteg
Soi sech Essars in the edition of 1612 as are
Dot izserred in the first part. It seems tha: Jarrard supposed, tha: because the titles of certain essays in the disent editoos were be same, tbe essays were not altered; but it was Lord Facca's cestor, as stand in tis enterio Mr. Matthews, with his book “ De Sapieztia Veterum, always to alter when I add, so that nothing is finished l all is for bed." To as the custom of Lord Bacon, a custom most probably ever arendas: upon the fertility of genius. Mr. Jaggard, therefore, series to have imagined itai, in substacoe, bis edition was as complete as the edition publiste is the same year br Lori Bacoa. By comparing either of the essays in the edition of lovo "L" Saudies," for instance), the error will appear. Itis edition, there:ore, although it consists of 39 Essays (viz. 10 and 29, does not costain the perfect essays upoa the same subjecis which are in the edition publed by Lord Bacon in 1612.
The followiag table will exhibit the Essars contained in this edition.
The secoed part consists of 29 of ite essars upon new subjects which are contained in the edition published by Lord Bacen is 1612; so that this consists of 39 Essays, but the edition publistel by Lord Bacon in 1612, although nominally containing 40 Essays, real.y coasisted oals of 38, the two last in the title page not being inserted in the body of the wors.
“ To Vr. Matthews; along with the Book De Sapientia Veterum.-I heartily thank you for your letter of the 24th of August, from Salamanca ; and, in recompence, send you a little work of mine, that has begun to pass the world. They tell me my Latin is turned into silver, and become current. Had you been here, you should have been my inquisitor before it came forth : but I think the greatest inquisitor in Spain will allow it. One thing you must pardon me, if I make no haste to believe, that the world should be grown io such an ecstasy, as to reject truth in philosophy, because the author disseats in religion; no more than they do by Aristotle or Averroes. My great work goes forward; and after my manner, I always alter when I add : so that nothing is finisbed till all is finished. This I have wrote in the midst of a term and parliament; thinking no time so possessed, but that I should talk of these matters with so good and dear a friend.-Gray's Inn, Feb. 27, 1610."
Titles of 1606, and 1st
Titles of 1612,
Tiiles of 1612. part of Jaggard's edition
in 2nd part af Juggard's of 1612.
edition. 1. Of Studie. 1. Of Religion.
1. Of Religion. 2. Of Discourse. 2. Of Death.
2. Of Death. 3. Of Ceremonies and 3. Of Goodnesse and 3. Of Goodnesse and Respects.
Goodnesse of Nature. Goodnesse of Nature. 4. Of Followers and 4. Of Cunning.
4. Of Cunning. Friends. 5. Of Sutors.
5. Of Marriage and Sin- 5. Of Marriage and Single Life.
gle Life. 6. Of Expence.
6. Of Parents and Chil- 6. Of Parents and Chil7. Of Reginent of
7. Of Nobilitie.
tation. 9. Of Faction. 9. Of Empire.
9. Of Empire. 10. Of Negotiating. 10. Of Counsel.
10. Of Counsel. 11. Of Dispatch.
11. Of Dispatch.
12. Of Love."
14. Of Atheisme.
18. Of Riches.
19. Of Ambition.
21. Of Beautie.
25. Of Fortune.
26. Of Praise.
Sixth Edition, 1613. The next edition was in 1613. It is entitled, The Essaies of Sir Francis Bacon, Knight, the Kings Aturney Generall, his Religious Meditations. Places of Perswasion and Dissuasion. Seene und allowed. Printed at London for John laggard, dwelling at the Hand und Starre, betweene the two Temple Gates, 1613. It is a