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Lord Keeper, showing his contempt who advises him to sacrifice Momfor the pomp of office, 217; his pesson and Michell, 311; his ad. quarrel with Bacon
vice to the King and Buckingham sition to his marriage and bitter let- to brave the popular discontent, 342; ters to, see note (a), 219; his recon- lord keeper, great seals delivered to ciliation with Bacon and marriage, him, with permission to retain all 220 ; Bacon's letter to, upon the his livings, 376. retrenchment of the royal expenses, Wilson, extract from, upon King &c. 220; his letter to Bacon upon James's journey to Scotland, wote his stay of the patents during the (6), 211; his account in note of the King's distresses, note (b), 222 ; effect of the King's demand upon Bacon's letter to, showing his sa- the public mind, see note, 143. crifice as a judge to his feelings as Wisdom of the Ancients, Bacon's puba politician, 223; Bacon's letter to, lication of his work entitled, 148 ; upon Suffolk's case, 223; created the work a species of parabolical Marquis of Buckingham, 222 ; letters of Sir H. Mountagu to, nego- Witnesses, the duty of a judge to, 253 ; tiating for the Lord Treasurership; examined against Bacon, 323. 227, 229; letter of Sir Edward Words, study of, Bacon's low estimate Villiers to, respecting Sir H. Moun. of, 128 ; study of, a distemper of tagu's offer, 228 ; his impeachment learning, illustrated by Pygmalion, respecting the sale of the treasurer- 129. ship to Sir H. Mountagu after the Wroth and Mainwaring, ridiculous death of James, note, 230.
charge against Bacon in the cause Vintners, refutation of charge of ex- of, 338; Bacon's defence against tortion in their case, 367.
the charge in, the gift being received
after the decree, 363. WALTON, his life of Herbert, extract Wraynham, Bacon's decree against,
from, giving an account of his de- and his publication of a libel against voulness and humility upon his in- Bacon, 234 ; trial of, for the libel duction, note, 214.
against Bacon, 234; v. Fisher, preWealth, desire of, an interruption to sents to Bacon in the cause of, ac
the progress of knowledge, 192. cording to custom, by counsel, 237 ; Wentworth, Sir J., trial of, see Hollis, v. Fisher, charge of bribery against Sir J.
Bacon in the cause of, see note (a), Wharton and Willoughby, see note (b), 237.
323; Bacon's defence to the charge Wrottesley, Lord Chancellor, his opiin the cause of, 360.
nions upon the subject of patronage, Whitgift, Dr. John, Bacon's tutor, note (b), 199.
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 5.
Yelverton, attorney-general, proseWill, Lord Bacon's, extract from, 374. cution of, at the instance of BuckWilliams, archbishop, Bishop Hacket's ingham, see note B, 308.
account of his humility, when taking York House, bestowed upon Bacon as his seat as lord keeper, 213; his a place of residence, 258; celebrasubtle advice to King James to con- tion of Bacon's 60th birth-day at, tinue the parliament to crush Bacon, 258 ; see Ben Jonson's ode, 259. 242 ; consulted by Buckingham,
A. Life, p. i. A little beyond Hungerford Market had been of old the Bishop of Norwich's Inn, but was exchanged in 1535, in the reign of Henry VIII. for the Abbey of St. Bennett Holme, in Norfolk. The next year Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, exchanged his house called Southwark Place for it. In Queen Mary's reign it was purchased by Heath, Archbishop of York, and called York House. Toby Matthew, archbishop in the time of James I. exchanged it with the crown, and had several manors in lieu of it. The Lord Chancellors Egerton and Bacon resided in it; after which it was granted to the favourite Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who made it a magnificent house. In 1648, the parliament bestowed it on Lord Fairfax, whose daughter and heir marrying George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, it reverted again to the true owner, who for some years after the restoration resided in it. On his disposal of it, several streets were laid out on the site and ground belonging to it. These go generally under the name of York Buildings; but his name and title is preserved in George, Villiers, Duke, and Buckingham Streets, and even the particle of' is not forgotten, being preserved in Of Alley.-See Maitland's London, 482, Vol. I.
The house is situated at the top of Villiers Street, North front towards the Strand, East front towards Villiers Street. In two closets on the first floor there is a part of the old ceiling. In the lease of the house it is called “ York House.” It is now, 1832, occupied by G. Roake, bookseller and stationer, York House, 31, Strand, corner of Villiers Street.
B. Life, p. i. Sir Anthony Cooke, characterised by Camden as vir untiqua serenitate, was born at Giddy Hall, in Essex. He was a man eminent in all the circles of the arts, preferring contemplation to active life, and skilled in education. “ Contemplation," says Lloyd, was his soul : privacy his life: and discourse his element. Business was his purgatory : and publicity his torment. He took more pleasure to breed up statesmen than to be one. He managed his family and children with such prudence and discretion, that Lord Seymour standing by one day when this gentleman chid his son, said . Some men govern families with more skill than others do kingdoms :' and thereupon commended him to the government of his nephew, Edward VI. Such the majestie of his looks and gate, that awe governed ; such the reason and sweetness, that love obliged all his family: a family equally afraid to displease so good a head, and to offend so great. In their marriage they were guided by his reason, more than his will; and rather directed by his counsel, than led by his authority.
He had five daughters, whose education he superintended ; and, thinking that women are as capable of learning as men, he instilled that to his daughters at night, what he had taught the prince in the day; and all the daughters of Sir Anthony Cooke were perfectly skilled in the learned languages. They married suitably to the education with which they had been formed. 1. Mildred,
William Cecil, Lord Treasurer of England. 2. Ann,
Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper. 3. Katherine, married to Sir Henry Killigrew. 4. Elizabeth,
Sir Thomas Hobly. 5.
Sir Ralph Rowlet.
Limah su Sr mumis inox mas neret Joha, Lord Russel. There is a zarzut if ler V. asimme siuen cey, enamelled by Bone.
Så Lidien, Cuka siet i ne?,55 udsbred in the chapel at Romfri-Birin'i meri, ..
Pirmasi aty uz vie ir sir Lunca, by Hebeia, at Woburn, ena meiet w Bie
C. Lit. p. i. e Tercüs Bwin vs 1 min 1 s * d sdom: was a gentleman ali i na sť rv ant si un nuweire sterea. He had the deepest reach mas é ar dia 1 VS E 920. be: tre knottiest head to plemie 23 file E nest wem grecestie est to surround the hers at à Cast. le rist dery - ciec: ali circunstances of a buscas ut she rev: -16 PET dece is desse aod consider : and the cest sezon 1 rr 27 iany mia cadeia 25 way in the court of chancery. Hs Szol va em met wat is nissa, dis al.asce strong with her
B: vis er een eie rez seal in the time of Elizabeth. He was, a á wri, i ne ii is wood or scFrasis Bacon. Lloyd.
He was a modri LI- Wuumis imis wa his principle and practice. He is descrisa Cama is F: przeczs, sio acerrimo, singulari prudentia, suna eiendit, I mener, at sacs coniliis alterium cola
Si Niclas Buen, 3 sest UR 212, of as soosd learning and wisdom as Eegand mary 19, wie sed Lad Win Burghley, lord treaSat, Eve above case adui ad ceded in their public speeches in pane Pecin, Ce: 4.
So Niccia Baue, vor izce, c. 1579, Festas 20: in him was united for the árst time de očce of ori ciasce ad tzat of lord keeper, but in 1564, berang sespera si aris reerea de succession of the house of Gray, he fell into disgrace and was to be appea ai mat, or to interfere in any public affas ercepe cose ci ceascar, cere de contined to preside, with an unblenished regatacoa, es de Loize, 1. 36.
Sir Nichoias Bacoa, beter e Endeth, died lamented by her and the nation, 20ch Festsay, 1578-9. He was intered in the cathedral of St. Paul's, wbere a non met was erected to him, wich was destroyed by the fire of London, 1606.
Si Vicboias bad moch of ea: pezetrating cias, solidity of judgment, persuasive eloquence, and comprebessve koor.euge of law and equity, which afterwards stone forth wh so greai a leste in bis son, who was as much inferior to his father in point of prodeace and integrity, as his father was to bim in literary accomplishmeas. He was the frst jord keeper that ranked as lord chancellor. Promoted 1553-9: ob. Fun February, 1578-9.
It is interesting to see the resemblance between the minds of Sir Nicholas and of his son. Si Nicholas was an eminen: statesman, with the refinement of a courtier : a learned lawyer, eloqueat, and devoted to science, with a passion for building : qualities by which bis son was distinguished through life.
Queen Elizabeth told him his house was 100 little for him,“ Vot so, madam," returned he, “ but your majesty has made me too great for my house.” When Elizabeth asked Francis in his childhood how old he was, he answered that he was two years younger than her majesty's happy reign.
In that couri, and in the star-chamber, be made use, on proper occasions, of set speeches, in which he was happier than mosi men, pleasing the people by their sound, and charming the wisest men of that age with their sense, whence he attained the reputation of uniting two opposite characters, viz. of a witty and a weighty speaker. Ben Jonson says nearly the same of Lord Bacon. There happened in my time one noble speaker, who was full of gravity in his speak. ing. His language (where he could spare or pass by a jest) was pobly censorious. No man ever spake more neatly, more pressly, more weightily, or
* Peacham’s Compleat Gentleman, p. 43.
suffered less emptiness, less idleness, in what he uttered. No member of his speech but consisted of its own graces. His hearers could not cough, or look aside from him without loss. He commanded where he spoke ; and had his judges angry and pleased at his devotion. No man had their affections more in his power. The fear of every man that heard him was, lest he should make an end.
The devotion of Sir Nicholas to science may be seen in inscriptions in different parts of his seat at Gorhambury. Over a gate leading into the orchard, which had a garden on one side and a wilderness on the other, under the statue of Orpheus, stood these verses :
Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebræque ferarum,
Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus.
Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem ;
Et sedem quæ vel Diis placuisse potest.
Floreat O noster cultus amorque diu. This too was the favourite image of Francis. In Orpheus's Theatre all beasts and birds assembled, and forgetting their several appetites, some of prey, some of game, some of quarrel, stood all sociably together, listening to the airs and accords of the harp; the sound whereof no sooner ceased, or was drowned by some louder noise, but every beast returned to his own nature ; wherein is aptly described the nature and condition of men : who are full of savage and unreclaimed desires of profit, of lust, of revenge, which, as long as they give ear to precepts, to laws, to religion, sweetly touched with eloquence, and persuasion of books, of sermons, of harangues ; so long is society and peace maintained ; but if these instruments be silent, or sedition and tumult make them not audible, all things dissolve into anarchy and confusion.
In the orchard was a little banquetting-house, adorned with great curiosity, having the liberal arts beautifully depicted on its walls, over them the pictures of such learned men as had excelled in each, and under them, verses expressive of the benefits derived from the study of them. GRAMMAR. Lex sum sermonis linguaruin regula certa,
Qui me non didicit cætera nulla petat.
Qui numeros didicit quid didicisse nequit.
Vera exquiro, falsa arguo, cuncta probo.
Mitigo mærores, et acerbas lenio cruras,
Gestiat ut placidis mens hilarata sonis.
Jamque ornata nitet quæ fuit ante rudis.
Apte sunt formis appropriata suis.
Elicio miris fata futura modis. So, too, Francis had his banquetting-house and fish-ponds, as will be explained in a subsequent part of this work. They may now be seen at Gorhambury, in a field called the Ponyard-the Pondyard. His passion for build, ing appeared in his mansion and gardens at Gorhambury, near St. Albans, and in his New Atlantis are the statues of eminent men.
Sir Nicholas's first wife was Jane Fernly, of West Creting, in Suffolk, by whom he had six children. His second wife was Anne, the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, of Giddy Hall, Essex, by whom he had two sons, Anthony and Francis, who was the celebrated Lord Verulam. His death is said to have been occasioned by accident, on the 20th of February, 1579; and, on the 9th of March, he was buried with great solemnity, under a sumptuous monument erected by himself in St. Paul's church, with the following inscription by Buchannan :
Hic Nicolaum nè Baconum conditum,
Ara dicata sempiternæ Memoriæ. There are various pictures of the lord keeper; there are two in Gorhambury House; a print in Musgrave's collection, lord keeper, æt. 68, 1579. Picture in Euston House, Suffolk. Picture by Zucchero in Lennerd House, Norfolk. Picture in Brome Hall, Suffolk-motto, Mediocria Firma. Picture at Bennet College, Cambridge. Picture in King's Weston House, Gloucestershire. Knowle House, Kent. By Zucchero, at Woburn. See Walpole's Painters. Pennant's Journey. In the Horologia, 8vo. a Vandenwooffe, 1559. Vertue sc. large 4to. Vertue, &c. a small oval engraving, with other heads, in the frontispiece to Burnet's Abridgment of the History of the Reformation. Portrait of Anne, wife of Sir Nicholas, lord keeper, at Gorhambury, enamelled by Bone. His bust and of his wife Anne, and of their son, Francis, when twelve years old, are at Gorhambury. I saw them in April, 1825. They are of terra cotta, and coloured after the life. The bust of Francis is, as to the shape of the head, barrel like. Biographia Adversaria, vol. i. British Museum : Sir N. Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal, autograph, 1562, 1565, 1566.
A great part of the furniture which belonged to the lord keeper is still carefully preserved. The purse which was delivered with the great seal to Sir Nicholas Bacon, by the queen, is now in the possession of the Rev. John Long, rector of Coddenham, Suffolk, to whom it was bequeathed by the will of the Rev. Nathaniel Bacon, his predecessor in the living, and last male descendant of Nicholas, eldest son of Edward Bacon, esq. of Shrubland, the third son of Sir Nicholas by his first wife. The following is the pedigree of the lord keeper. Second Wife.
Ist Wife. 2d Husb. to Anne. Ist Husb. to Anne.
Nathaniel, the second son, was, to use the words of Sir Nicholas his father, of best hope in learning. This appears from the following letter from the lord Keeper, written when Francis was only eight years old.