and with others, who, powerful when he was nothing, might have blighted his opening fortunes for ever, forgetting his advocacy of the rights of the people in the face of the court, and the true and honest counsels, always given by him, in times of great difficulty, both to Elizabeth and her successor. When was a "base sycophant" loved and honoured by piety such as that of Herbert, Tennison, and Rawley, by noble spirits like Hobbes, Ben Jonson, and Selden, or followed to the grave, and beyond it, with devoted affection such as that of Sir Thomas Meautys.

Forced by the narrowness of his fortune into business, conscious of his own powers, aware of the peculiar quality of his mind, and disliking his pursuits, his heart was often in his study, while he lent his person to the robes of office, (a) and he was culpably unmindful of the conduct of his servants, who amassed wealth meanly and rapaciously, while their careless master, himself always poor, with his thoughts on higher ventures, never stopped to inquire by what methods they grew rich. No man can act thus with impunity; he has sullied the brightness of a name which ought never to have been heard without reverence, injured his own fame, and has been himself the victim upon the altar which he raised to true science; becoming a theme to "point a moral or adorn a tale," in an attempt to unite philosophy and politics, an idol, whose golden head and hands of base metal form a monster more hideous than the Dagon of the Philistines.

(a) He says to Sir Thomas Bodley, "I do confess, since I was of any understanding my mind hath in effect been absent from that I have done, and in absence are many errors which I willingly acknowledge, and amongst the rest, this great one, which led the rest, that knowing myself by inward calling to be fitter to hold a book than to play a part, I have led my life in civil causes, for which I was not very fit by nature, and more unfit by pre-occupation of mind."

His consciousness of the wanderings of his mind made him run into affairs with over-acted zeal and a variety of useless subtleties; and in lending himself to matters immeasurably beneath him, he sometimes stooped too low. A man often receives an unfortunate bias from an unjust censure. Bacon, who was said by Elizabeth to be without knowledge of affairs, and by Cecil and Burleigh to be unfit for business, affected through the whole of his life an overrefinement in trifles and a political subtlety unworthy of so great a mind: it is also true that he sometimes seemed conscious of the pleasure of skill, and that he who possessed the dangerous power of "working and winding" others to his purpose, tried it upon the little men whom his heart disdained; but that heart was neither "cloven nor double." There is no record that he abused the influence which he possessed over the minds of all men. He ever gave honest counsel to his capricious mistress, and her pedantic successor; to the rash, turbulent Essex, and to the wily, avaricious Buckingham. There is nothing more lamentable in the annals of mankind than that false position, which placed one of the greatest minds England ever possessed at the mercy of a mean king and a base court favourite.


ABUSES, considered in the Commons

in various committees, 106. Address to the Lords by Bacon, 330, 331, 332.

Advancement of Learning, Bacon's tract upon duty in, 60; division of the work, 125; passage from, on the pleasure of knowledge, 379; see Learning.

Advantages, the several, of learning, 130.

Affirmative table, Bacon's mode in the

search after truth, 285; Bacon's plan of discovering truth, 269. Alienation office, posthumous tract by Bacon upon, 43; valuable farm of, granted to Bacon, 258.

Alexander, story of, illustrative of the paltriness of human affairs, 155. Ambition, Bacon and Burke's opinions upon the nature of, and high honours, 195.

Ambition, learning the destruction of,

common, 201; the paltriness and selfishness of common, 201. Amendment of the law, Bacon's plan for, 27.

Analysis, of the distempers of learning, see note, 131; of history, see note, 133; of human philosophy, see note, 134.

Ancients, Wisdom of, Bacon's publication, a species of parabolical poetry, 150; see Syren's extract from. Ancients, the high honours conferred upon the authors of inventors, by, note 193.

Anecdotes of Bacon during the charge of bribery, 329.

Anthony Bacon, King James's regard for, 109.

Antipathy, medical, 275; of divines, 275; of politicians, 275; of sailors, of lawyers, 275.

Aphorisms, the favorite style of Bacon,

see Novum Organum, and tract upon universal justice, 123. Apology, Bacon's, characters of the Queen and Essex as shown in, 45; republication of Essex's, and his trial for before the privy council, 66; Essex's, Bacon's witty conversation with Queen Elizabeth, showing her

familiarity with the trial by torture, note (c), 175. Apothecaries and grocers' cause, answer to charge of receiving presents, 367; cause between, see Grocers. Aristotle, popularity of his philosophy at Cambridge, 7; Bacon's aversion to his philosophy, 8.

Atlantis, see Bacon's magnificent plan of a college in, 13, 14, 15. Atterbury, see extract from, upon the contempt of censure in a judge, 247; see independent conduct of Judge Jenkins, 247.

Attorney general, Bacon appointed, 154; Bacon's letters to the King and Lord Salisbury respecting the appointment of, see note (b), 154; Bacon's fitness for the office, 154; the eligibility of, to sit in parliament discussed, 158.

Aubrey, answer to the charge in the case of, 364.

Aubrey and Egerton charge Bacon with bribery, 313.

Aubrey and Bronker, presents to Bacon by Counsel in the cause of and decision against, 238; cause of, absurd charge of bribery against Bacon in, note (b), 238. Augmentis Scientiarum, Bacon's observations upon cyphers in, 17. Autograph, Lord Bacon's, see note (c),


BACON, his tour to France and residence in Poictiers, 17; his work upon cyphers, 17; his meditations upon the laws of sound and imagination, see note 17; death of his father, and its influence upon his future life, 19; his aversion to the study of law, the only road with politics open to, 19; his letter to Lord Burleigh, praying his recommendation to the Queen, see note 19; his letter to Lady Burleigh, praying her influence with Lord Burleigh to hasten his suit, see note 20; his admission to Gray's Inn, 21; his perseverance in and works upon the law, 21; his researches in science not diverted by his profes


sional duties, 22; his popularity at Gray's Inn, 23; his improvement of Gray's Inn gardens and buildings, 23; his autograph there, 21; his promotion to the bench of Gray's Inn, 23; his letter to the Lord Treasurer to be called to the bar, see note 23; his union with the Leicester party, 25; his affection for Essex, 25; his application to Lord Burleigh for an appointment, with an eye to his favorite pursuits, 26; grant of a reversion to, by Burleigh's influence, 26; his first speech upon the improvement of the law, 27; his favorite opinion of the duty of lawyers to strengthen and improve the law, 27; his plan for a digest and amendment of the whole law, 27; his conscientious speech upon the delay of the subsidies and the anger of the Queen, 27; Ben Jonson's opinion of the eloquence of, 28; his application to the Queen for the solicitorship, 28; Essex's intercession for with the Queen respecting the solicitorship, 30; Lord Keeper Puckering's misrepresentations against, to the Queen, 30; his letter to the Queen for the solicitorship, accompanied by a jewel according to custom, 32; his intercession with the Queen upon her dissatisfaction with Essex during his absence in Ireland, 49; his advice to Essex during his confinement, with respect to his management of the Queen, 53; his steady friendship to Essex, 59; his conference with the Queen, and objections to the public proceeding against Essex, 56, 57; chosen counsel against Essex, upon the public proceedings in the Star Chamber, 59; his relative duties to the Queen, to Essex, and to himself, upon her order as to his being counsel against Essex, 59, 60, 61; his admiration and friendship for Essex, 59; his motives for acceding to the Queen's order with respect to Essex, 64; his letter to the Queen upon the subject, 64; his application to King James upon the death of the Queen, 98; knighted by King James, his opinion of the honour, 99; Lady Bacon, first mention of, by, 102; his first session, elected for both St. Albans and Ipswich, 106; his exer


tions, sat on twenty-nine committees, 107; nominated by the House to attend privy counsels, upon the abuses complained of, and report thereon, 107; appointed a mediator between the Commons and Lords, 107; address to the King not resented by him, 108; appointed King's counsel, with a pension, 108; his love of knowledge unchecked by politics, 109; his letter to Sir H. Saville upon education, 109; his tract upon the intellectual powers, 111; his arrangement of knowledge respecting the body, 111; his work upon the greatness of Britain, 114; his legal and political exertions, 119; his publication of the advancement of learning, 120; his aversion to method, 124; his low estimate of the study of words, 129; his observations in his advancement upon the advantages of learning, and the distempers of learning, see analysis, note, 131; his essay upon government, extract from, 131; his investigation of philosophy, (in the second book of his advancement), divine, natural, and human, 133; see analyses of history and man, 133, 134; his beautiful and happy illustration of his subjects, 135; his exertions to improve the law, 138; his exertions to improve the condition of Ireland, and tract upon, 137, 138; his endeavours to promote the union with Scotland, and speeches upon, 139, 140; his exertions to promote church reform.-See his tracts upon the subject, 141; appointed solicitor-general upon Coke's promotion, 142; his quarrel with Sir Edward Coke (nd) and letter of expostulation, 143; his reproof of Sir Edward Coke's cruel treatment of prisoners, 145; his encouragement of merit upon his promotion to the solicitorship, 147; his improvement of the law, 147; see note C C at the end; his perseverance in the Novum Organum during his political and professional labours, 147; his composition of detached parts of the Novum Organum in his youth, 147; his publication of the wisdom of the ancients, 148; his appointment as judge of a new court to extend the jurisdiction of the Marshalsea, 151;

BACONhis protest against capital punishment, 151; his argument against the legality of the foundation of the Charter-house, 151; his publication of a new edition of the essays, 152; his prosecution of Lord Sanquhar on behalf of the Crown, and his great mildness, 153; his letter to Sir J. Constable, dedicating the essays to him, see note, 153; his appointment to the office of attorneygeneral, 154; his letter to Lord Salisbury and to the King, respecting the appointment, see note (b), 154; his general, legal, and political knowledge and fitness for the office, 154; his political exertions, 155; his great lenity as public prosecutor, see note (b), 155; his opinions upon severe punishments, 156; his work for compiling and amending the laws, 156; his advice to the King upon his unconstitutional expedient to raise supplies, see his letter, note (c), 157; his tract upon duelling, see note (a), for the mis-chief, cause, and origin of, 159; his powerful speech upon the absurdity of the supposed confederacy to control the House of Commons, see outline in note, 162; his speech against Mr. O. St. John, upon his trial for the publication of a letter reflecting upon the King's demand of presents, see outline in note, 165; his prosecution, as attorney-general, of Mr. Peacham, Mr. Owen, and Mr. Talbot, for high treason, 167, 168; his letters to the King respecting Peacham's case, 169, 170; his private conference with Sir Edward Coke upon the law of Peacham's case, and removal of his scruples upon his objection, 171, 172; Judge Foster's hasty censure upon his conduct in Peacham's case, 173; his vigorous advances, in the teeth of prejudice, in the advancement of knowledge, 175; his real opinions as to Peacham's case, 175; his witty conversation with Queen Elizabeth concerning Essex's apology, showing her acquaintance with the torture, note (c), 175; his reprobation of the custom of importuning the judges, 176; his letter to the King respecting Owen's case, 176; letter to the King respecting his case, see note (a), 178; speech


against, for high treason, see note (b), 178; his speeches upon Owen and Talbot's trials for high treason, see notes (b) and (c), 178; Villiers's friendship for, 180; his letter to Villiers, with directions for the regulation of his conduct at court, 181; his speech upon the prosecution of Sir J. Hollis, Mr. Lumsden, and Sir J. Wentworth, respecting the Earl and Countess of Somerset's case, 184; his temperate speech upon the trial of the Earl and Countess of Somerset for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, 185; his letter to Villiers respecting the dispute upon the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, 186; his letter to Villiers alluding to Chancellor Brachley's opinion of his powers, 187; his letter to Villiers respecting a motion to swear him Privy Councillor, 187; his appointment as Privy Councillor, 188; his prosecution of Mr. Markham in the Star Chamber for sending a challenge to Lord Darcy, 189; his appointment as Chancellor by the King with four admonitions, 189 his letter to Villiers upon his appointment as Chancellor, 190; his motives in accepting office, 191; his fitness for the office of Chancellor as a lawyer, a judge, a statesman, and patron, 1971; his essays upon the duties of a judge, 198; his letter to an old clergyman presenting him to a living, 199; his conscientious appointment of judges, 200; anecdotes respecting his rejection of presents, note (b), 205; presents to, from the suitors upon his being appointed Lord Keeper, 209; appointed head of the council about a week after his creation as Lord Keeper, 211; his constant communication with Buck

ingham during the King's progress, 213; his procession in state to Westminster as Lord Keeper, and address to the bar, 213, 214, 215, 216; his contempt for the pomp of office, see letter to Buckingham, 217; his opposition to Buckingham's marriage, and quarrel in consequence, 219; his reconciliation with Buckingham, 220; his attempt to retrench the royal expences, see letters to the King and Buckingham,

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