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country lying so far west as Scotland, and carry the Anglo-Israelite hypothesis out in the icy north?” There are no lions in of the province of mere speculation into Scotland. The blazoned lion rampant, be that of political fact. The first Anglogoes on to tell us, was carried thither from Israelite was the London wine-cooper, Ireland by “Fergusius, the son of Fer. Thomas Venner, the leader of the “Fifthchardas."' Thus it will be seen that "the Monarchy men," who plotted successively lion of Scotland was in reality the lion of against Oliver Cromwell and Charles II. Ireland; and, as the lion is no more an Venner resolved that the “identity” of Irish than a Scottish wild beast, it is evi-England and Israel should be practically dently an importation to that country from realized. In 1657 he and his followers the East." "In short, the prophet Jer- determined to kill the Protector and proemiah was as clearly its first introducer as claim “King Jesus.” Secretary Thurloe he was the introducer of the “King's had a spy amongst the early Anglo-Israel. Daughter” and of " Jacob's Pillow; "and ites, detected their programme, and seized thus the first lion which the Irish ever saw their arins and their banner. On the lat. was the heraldic brute pictured upon the ter was painted “the Lion of the Tribe of banner which the prophet carried from Judah,” couchant, with the motto, “Who Asia to Tara. Here, again, we are not will rouse him up?" Again, in 1661, without fear that Mr. Glover may be un- the same fanatical Anglo-Israelites – to consciously playing into the hands of the whom Cromwell had been “very tender," Irish Home Rulers, and even into the as Jessop, clerk of the Council, put it, on hands of the Papists. Can he be aware account of “that appearance of Christ in that Daniel O'Connell used to call the them,” and “often seeking of God” – late Roman Archbishop of Tuam, Dr. raised the banner of “the Lion of the MacHale, “the lion of the tribe of Ju. Tribe of Judah against Charles II. The dah”? Can he be aware that the leading poor mad theorist who thought that he English journal accepted the “identity,

;" and his fifty followers would conquer Enand that the Times headed that prelate's gland for the Son of David was hanged. letter with the title “A Roar from St. As the courtly Dryden in his “ Absalom Jarlaths"?

and Achitophel" figured England as IsIf Mr. Glover had been a student of rael, and King Charles as David, perhaps English history he would have discovered he inay also be claimed, like the fanatic that an attempt was seriously made in the Venner, as a precursor of Mr. Glover and middle of the seventeenth century to Mr. Hine.

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AN EASTERN LEGEND. — The most painful spot in the middle of my body, and I shall die thing to endure among the ruins of Palmyra is if anything touches me on that place." When the want of water. The inhabitants have no Solomon had given him the required promise, other water than that of a hot spring, the water the snake began to wind itself out; it crawled of which has an intense smell of sulphur. It and crawled, but there was no end to it. Its can only be drunk after it has been exposed rings already filled the valley, and there was for twelve hours to the wind in a leather bot- no appearance of a sun-spot yet. Solomon tle. Yet, however repulsive it might have ap- began to be frightened, and he trembled so peared at first, one gets so accustomed to it much that a ring slipped from his finger at the that at last the water brought by travellers, very moment when the mysterious spot ap. even from the “Wild-goat's Weil” (Ain el peared at the mouth of the well; the ring fell Woul, half-way between Karatern and Pal- on that spot, and the snake was broken in two myra), appears tasteless. The following legend parts. The hind part of the monster remained relates to the sulphurous well of Palmyra, Ain in the well, and was putrefied in it, so that it el Ritshen, or the Star Well. Once upon a became impossible to drink the water. Solo. time a large snake had taken its abode in the mon purified the spring with sulphur, the well, and was stopping its mouth so that no putrid smell disappeared, but that of sulphur water could be drawn from it. Solomon, son remains till now. The ashes of the front part of David, ordered the animal to leave the of the snake burnt by Solomon, dispersed to place, in order that the people might use the all the four winds, became another plague, that

The snake replied to the wise king : 1 of the army of springing insects, e.g. locusts, “Grant me to come out with my whole body, etc. and promise me not to kill me. I have a sun

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CONTENTS.
I. THE BOUNDARIES OF ASTRONOMY,

Contemporary Review, .
II. LADY JANE. By Mrs. Oliphant. Conclusion, Good Words,
III. THREE MONTHS' HOLIDAY IN NORWAY IN
1881,

Macmillan's Magazine,
IV. THE LADIES LINDORES. Part III.,

Blackwood's Magazine, V. THE TOWER OF LONDON,

Nineteenth Century, VI. AN ETON Boy,

Fortnightly Review,
VII. THE CITY CHURCHES,

Saturday Review, .
VIII. THE COMMERCIAL SPIRIT IN MODERN ED.
UCATION,

St. James's Magazine, .
* Title and Index to Volume CLIII.

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

" ETC. ARREARS."

Sure it's welcome you are, call it guerdon or ARREARS! It would seem there is nought but

gift,

If it only avail that foul shadow to lift arrears, Overdue from the bad, black, and blundering From the meadows and mountains of Erin's years,

green land, The dragon-teeth seed-ground of militant hate, The hate from her heart, and the blood from

her hand! Unwearied as vengeance, relentless as fate.

Punch. How freely, how gladly we'd hold forth the

hand,
Ay, sow with our gold the bare wastes of that
land,

SUMMER.
If only love-prompted largesse had the power
Our Danaë to win by the aureate shower.

BY JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS.
With joy how ungrudging we'd proffer the gift,

O SWEET and strange, what time gay morning

steals If it might but avail the grim shadow to lift Which broods like a blight, and which clings Bee-laden limes and pendulous abeles,

Over the misty flats, and gently stirs like a curse,

To brush the dew-bespangled gossamers And the best spells of hope hath the power to

From meadow grasses and beneath black

firs, That shadow ! Unbanished, unlaid, it still

In limpid streamlets, or translucent lakes

To bathe amid dim heron-haunted brakes! lurks, Black hate is its breath, and base deeds are its works ;

O sweet and sumptuous at height of noon, With its pestilent presence possession to share Languid to lie on scented summer lawns Is a thought beyond hope, the mad dream of Fanned by faint breezes of the breathless despair.

June;

To watch the timorous and trooping fawns, Arrears! Yes, it may be arrears yet remain Dappled like tenderest clouds in early dawns, Of justice, of right, though our strength is Forth from their ferny covert glide to drink a-strain

And cool lithe limbs beside the river's brink! These long yea with the effort, as earnest as

strong, To slay ancient hate and to right ancient wrong.

O strange and sad ere daylight disappears,

To hear the creaking of the homeward wain, Again! A last message of peace, or it seems

Drawn by its yoke of tardy-pacing steers, The last effort of patience. What thrice.

'Neath honeysuckle hedge and tangled lane, welcome gleams

To breathe faint scent of roses on the wane Of fair promise will greet us the sole best By cottage doors, and watch the mellowing sky

Fade into saffron hues insensibly. reward That we seek for our love, that we ask for our

hoard ?

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AGE.

Restitution ? Not wholly; not ours all the

blame, All the burden of wrong, all the blazon of

shame. Time will write other verdict on history's page Than that stigma of faction's unqualitied rage.

“STEPPING westward," did she say,
At sunset on that long Scotch day?
“Stepping westward,” yes, alway,
With staff and scrip,
Wayfaring songs upon my lip,
Stepping, stepping, to the end.

What matter to-day? For to-day 'tis enough
That the hand is held forth. Must it meet

with rebuff?
Pure pity kills wrath, anger's stilled by regret.
Shall our hands meet in peace? There is time

for it yet.

As down the slanting path I wend,
Behold, a breadth of distant sea,
Between the hills on either hand,
Ships bearing from some unknown land
To other land unknown to me.

But the shadow must pass, and the sinister

brood Who have wrought on a much-burdened peo

ple's mad mood. With free help in sore need we would count

but love's gains. Then what room for the terror whose foot.

prints are stains ?

“ Stepping westward,” all that.be,
Body and soul, by land or sea,
Follow still the westering sun;
That must end which has begun.

W. B. SCOTT.

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From The Contemporary Review. the evidence for the statement that the THE BOUNDARIES OF ASTRONOMY.

earth revolves around the sun. Concrete It is proposed in the following paper truths of this kind could be multiplied into trace some parts of the boundary line definitely. We can make similar asserwhich divides the truths which have been tions with regard to the planets. We can established in astronomy from those parts assert that the planets rotate upon their of the science which must be regarded as axes, and that the planets revolve around more or less hypothetical. It will be ob- the sun. But the law of gravitation is a vious that only a small part of so wide a proposition of quite a different nature. subject can be discussed or even alluded Let us examine briefly the evidence by to in the limits of a single paper. We in- which this law has been established. tend therefore to select certain prominent The science of dynamics is founded questions, and to discuss those questions upon certain principles known as the laws with such fulness as the circumstances of motion. The simplest of these prin. will admit.

ciples asserts that a body once set movIt will be desirable to commence with ing in a straight line will continue to that great doctrine in astronoiny which is move on uniformly forever in the same often regarded as almost universally es- straight line, unless some force be pertablished. The doctrine to which we refer mitted to act upon that body. For nature is known as the law of universal gravita. as we know it, this law seems to be fully tion. It is customary to enunciate this proved. It has been tested in every way law in the proposition that every par- that we have been able to devise. All ticle of matter attracts every other par- these tests have tended to confirm that ticle with a force which varies directly as law. The law is therefore believed to be the product of the masses and inversely true, at all events throughout the regions as the square of their distance. It is no of space accessible to us and to our tel. doubt convenient to enunciate the great escopes. Assuming this law and the law in this very simple manner. It might other principles analogous to it, we can seem awkward to have to specify all the apply thein to the case of the revolution qualifications which would be necessary if of the earth around the sun. As the that enunciation is to assert no more than earth is not moving in a straight line, it what we absolutely know. Perhaps many must be acted upon by some force. It people believe, or think they believe, the can be shown that this force must be dilaw to be true in its general form ; yet the rected towards the sun. It will further assertion that the law of gravitation is appear that the intensity of this force will universally true is an enormous, indeed vary inversely as the square of the disan infinite, exaggeration of the actual ex- tance between the earth and the sun. tent of our information.

The movements of the planets can be To make this clear, let us contrast the made to yield the same conclusions. All law of gravitation as generally stated with these movements can be accounted for on the proposition which asserts that the the supposition that each planet is atearth rotates on its axis. No one who is tracted by the sun with a force which capable of understanding the evidence on varies directly as the product of the the question can doubt that the earth masses, and inversely as the square of really does rotate upon its axis. I pur- the distance between the two bodies. posely set aside any difficulties of a quasi. When more careful observations are in. metaphysical character, and speak merely troduced it is seen that the planets exhibit of words in their ordinary acceptation. some slight deviations from the inove. In stating that the earth rotates upon its ments which they would have were each axis we assert merely a definite proposi- planet only acted upoa by the attraction tion as regards one body, all the facts of the sun. These deviations do not in. which the assertion involves are present validate the principle of attraction. They to our minds, and we know that the asser- have been shown to arise from the mution must be true. Equally conclusive is I tual attractions of the planets themselves.

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Each of the planets is thus seen to attract | comets, which certainly do not appear to each of the other planets. The intensity follow the law of universal attraction ? of this attraction between any pair of the The tails of comets, so far from being planets is proportional to the masses of attracted towards the sun, seem actually these planets, and varies inversely as the to be repelled from the sun. Nor is even square of the distance between them. We this an adequate statement of the case. may use similar language with regard to the repulsive force by which the tails of the satellites by which so many of the the comets are driven from the sun is planets are attended. Each satellite re- sometimes a very much more intense volves around its primary. The move- force than the attraction of gravitation. ments of each satellite are mainly due to I have no intention to discuss here the the preponderating attraction of the pri- vexed question as to the origin of the mary. Irregularities in the movements of tails of comets. I do not now inquire the satellites are well known to astron whether the repulsion by which the tail is omers, but these irregularities can be produced be due to the intense radiation accounted for by the attraction of other from the sun, or to electricity, or to some bodies of the system. The law of at- other agent. It is sufficient for our prestraction thus seems to prevail among ent purpose to note that, even if the tails the small bodies of the system as well of comets do gravitate towards the sun, as among the large bodies. It is true the attraction is obscured by a more pow. that there are still a few outstanding erful repulsive force. discrepancies which cannot yet be said The solar system is a very small object to have been completely accounted for when viewed in comparison with the by the principle of gravitation. This dimensions of the sidereal system. The is probably due to the difficulties of the planets form a group nestled up closely subject. The calculations which are in.j around the sun. This little group is sepvolved are among the most difficult on arated from its nearest visible neighbors which the mind of man has ever been en- in space by the most appalling distances. gaged. We may practically assume that A vessel in the middle of the Atlantic the law of gravitation is universal be. Ocean is not more completely isolated tween the sun, the planets, and the satel- from the shores of Europe and America lites; and we may suppose that the few than is our solar system from the stars difficulties still outstanding will be finally and other bodies which surround it in cleared away, as bas been the case with space. Our knowledge of gravitation so many other seeming discrepancies. has been most entirely obtained from the But even when these admissions have study of the bodies in the solar system. been made, are we in a position to assert Let us inquire what can be ascertained as that the law of gravitation is universal to the existence of this law in other parts throughout the solar system? We are of the universe. Newton knew nothing here confronted with a very celebrated of the existence of the law of gravitation clifficulty. Do those erratic objects known beyond the confines of the solar system. as comets acknowledge the law of gravi. A little more is known now. tation? There can be no doubt that in Our actual knowledge of the existence one sense the comets do obey the law of of gravitation in the celestial spaces outgravitation in a most signal and emphatic side the solar system depends entirely

A comet usually moves in an upon those very interesting objects known orbit of very great eccentricity; and it is as binary stars. There are in the beav. one of the most remarkable triumphs of ens many cases of two stars occurring Newton's discovery, that we were by its quite close together. A well-known inmeans able to render account of how the stance is presented in the star Epsilon movements of a comet could be produced Lyræ, where two stars are so close toby the attraction of the sun. As a whole, gether that it is a fair test of good vision the comet is very amenable to gravitation, to be able to separate them. But there but what are we to say as to the tails of are many cases in which the two stars are

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