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city. His work in this cloister, consist. plished. Seven years later it was taken ing of eight frescoes, has been much up by a painter of very different genius. spoiled by time and restoration. Yet it Sodoma was a native of Vercelli, and bad can be referred to a good period of his received his first training in the Lombard artistic activity, the year 1497, and dis. schools, which owed so much to Lionardo plays much which is specially characteris. da Vinci's influence. He was about thirty tic of his manner. In Totila's barbaric years of age when chance brought him to train, he painted a crowd of fierce em Siena. Here he made acquaintance with phatic figures, combining all ages and the Pandolfo Petrucci, who had recently esmost varied attitudes, and reproducing tablished himself in a species of tyranny with singular vividness the Italian sol- over the republic. The work he did for diers of adventure of his day. We see this patron and other nobles of Siena before us the long-haired followers of brought him into notice. Vasari observes Braccio and the Baglioni; their handsome that his hot Lombard coloring, a somesavage faces; their brawny limbs clad in thing forid and attractive in his style, the particolored hose and jackets of that which contrasted with the severity of the period; feathered caps stuck sideways on Tuscan schood, rendered him no less their heads; a splendid swagger in their agreeable as an artist than his free manstraddling legs. Female beauty lay out ners made bim acceptable as a houseside the sphere of Signorelli's sympathy; friend. Fra Domenico da Leccio, also a and in the Monte Oliveto cloister he was Lombard, was at that time general of the not called upon to paint it. But none of monks of Monte Oliveto. On a visit to the Italian masters felt more keenly, or this compatriot in 1505, Sodoma received more powerfully represented in their a commission to complete the cloister; work, the muscular vigor of young man. and during the next two years he worked bood. Two of the remaining frescoes, there, producing in all twenty-five fresdifferent from these in motive, might be coes. For. his pains he seenis to have selected as no less characteristic of Sig. received but little pay — Vasari says, only norelli's manner. One represents three the expenses of some color.grinders who sturdy monks, clad in brown, working assisted him; but from the books of the with all their strength to stir a boulder, convent it appears that two hundred and which has been bewitched, and needs a forty-one ducats, or something over 6ol. miracle to move it from its place. The of our money, were disbursed to bin. square, powerfully outlined design of Sodoma was so singular a fellow, even these figures is beyond all praise for its in that age of piquant personalities, that effect of massive solidity. The other it may be worth while to translate a fragshows us the interior of a fifteenth cen. ment of Vasari's gossip about him. We tury tavern, where two monks are regaling must, however, bear in mind that, for themselves upon the sly. A country girl, some unknown reason, the Aretine histowith shapely arms and shoulders, her rian bore a rancorous grudge against this upper skirts tucked round the ample waist Lombard, whose splendid gifts and great to which broad sweeping lines of back achievements he did all he could by writand breasts descend, is serving wine. ing to depreciate. “He was fond," says The exuberance of animal life, the free. Vasari, " of keeping in his house all sorts dom of attitude expressed in this, the of strange animals : badgers, squirrels, mainly interesting figure of the composi- monkeys, cat-a-mountains, dwarf-donkeys, tion, show that Signorelli might have been horses, racers, little Elba ponies, jacka great master of realistic painting. Nor daws, bantams, doves of India, and other are the accessories less effective. A creatures of this kind, as many as he wide-roofed kitchen chimney, a page-boy could lay his hands on. Over and above leaving the room by a flight of steps, these beasts, he had a raven, which had which leads to the house door, and the learned so well from him to talk, that it table at which the truant monks are could imitate its master's voice, especially seated, complete a picture of homely in answering the door when some one Italian life. It may still be matched out knocked, and this it did so cleverly that of many an inn in this hill district. people took it for Giovannantonio him

Called to graver work at Orvieto, where self, as all the folk of Siena know quite he painted his gigantic series of frescoes well. In like manner, his other pets were illustrating the coming of Antichrist, the so much at home with him that they never destruction of the world, the Resurrection, left his house, but played the strangest the Last Judgment, and the final state of tricks and maddest pranks imaginable, so souls in Paradise and Hell, Signorelli left that his house was like nothing more than bis work at Monte Oliveto unaccom. a Noah's Ark.” He was a bold rider, it seems; for with one of his racers, ridden from real models. He puts them into acby himself, he bore away the prize in that tion without the slightest effort, and surwild horse-race they run upon the Piazza rounds them with landscapes, architecat Siena. For the rest " he attired him. ture, and furniture, appropriate to each self in pompous clothes, wearing doublets successive situation. The whole is done of brocade, cloaks trimmed with gold with so much grace, such simplicity of lace, gorgeous caps, neck-chains, and composition, and transparency of style, other vanities of a like description, fit for corresponding to the naif and superficial buffoons and mountebanks." In one of legend, that we feel a perfect harmony the frescoes of Monte Oliveto, Sodoma between the artist's mind and the mopainted his own portrait, with some of his tives he was made to handle. In this recurious pets around him. He there ap- spect Bazzi's portion of the legend of St. pears as a young man with large and Benedict is more successful than Signodecidedly handsome features, a great relli's. It was fortunate, perhaps, that shock of dark, curled hair escaping from the conditions of his task confined him to a yellow cap, and flowing down over a uncomplicated groupings, and a scale of rich mantle which drapes his shoulders. color in which white predominates. For If we may trust Vasari, he showed his Bazzi, as is shown by subsequent work in curious humors freely to the monks. the Farnesina Villa at Rome, and in the

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Nobody could describe the amusement Church of S. Domenico at Siena, was no he furnished to those good fathers, who master of composition; and the tone, even christened him Mattaccio (the big mad. of his masterpieces, inclines to beat. man), or the insane tricks he played Unlike Signorelli, Bazzi felt a deep, arthere."

tistic sympathy with female beauty; and In spite of Vasari's malevolence, the the most attractive fresco in the whole portrait he has given us of Bazzi has so series is that in which the evil monk Flofar nothing unpleasant about it. The man rentius brings a bevy of fair damsels to seems to have been a madcap artist, com. the convent. There is one group in par. bining with his love for his profession a ticular, of six women, so delicately varied taste for fine clothes, and what was then, in carriage of the head and suggested perhaps, rarer in people of his sort, a movement of the body, as to be compara. great partiality for living creatures of all ble only to a. strain of concerted music. kinds. The darker shades of Vasari's This is, perhaps, the painter's masterpiece picture have been purposely omitted from in the rendering of pure beauty, if we these pages. We only know for certain, except his St. Sebastian of the Uffizzi. about Bazzi's private life, that he was We tire of studying pictures, bardly married in 1510 to a certain Beatrice, who less than of reading about them ! bore him two children, and who was still glad enough, after three hours spent living with him in 1541. The further sug. among the frescoes of this cloister, to gestion that he painted at Monte Oliveto wander forth into the copses which sursubjects unworthy of a religious house, is round the convent. Sunlight was stream: wholly disproved by the frescoes which ing treacherously from flying clouds; and still exist in a state of very tolerable though it was high noon, the oak-leaves preservation. They represent various were still a-tremble with dew. Pink cyc. episodes in the legend of St. Benedict; all lamens and yellow amaryllis starred the marked by that spirit of simple, almost moist brown earth; and under the cy. childish piety which is a special charac. press trees, where alleys had been cut in teristic of Italian religious bistory. The former time for pious feet, the short, firm series forms, in fact, a painted novella of turf was soft and mossy. Before bidding monastic life; its petty jealousies, its the hospitable padre farewell

, and startpetty trials, its tribulations and tempta- ing in our wagonette for Asciano, it was tions, and its indescribably petty mira. pleasant to meditate a while in these cles. Bazzi was well fitted for the execu- green solitudes. Generations of white. tion of this task. He had a swift and stoled monks who had sat or knelt upon facile brush, considerable versatility in the now deserted terraces, or bad slowly the treatment of monotonous subjects, and paced the winding paths to Calvaries a never-failing sense of humor. His white. aloft and points of vantage high above cowled monks, some of them with the rosy the wood, rose up before me. My mind, freshness of boys, some with the hand still full of Bazzi's frescoes, peopled the sonre, brown faces of iniddle life, others wilderness with grave, monastic forms, astute and crafty, others again wrinkled and gracious, young-eyed faces of boyish with old age, have clearly been copied novices.

J. A. S.

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CONTENTS.
I BRITISH North BORNEO, OR SABAH, . Contemporary Review, .
II. Barney's NEIGHBOR,

Sunday Magazine,
III. SAMOTHRACE AND ITS GODS: A New Ex.
PLORATION,

Contemporary Review, .
IV. ROBIN. By Mrs. Parr, author of "Adam
and Eve.” Part IX.,

Temple Bar,
V. Scotch FUNERALS,

Macmillan's Magazine,
VI. THE JEWS IN GERMAN LITERATURE; OR,

WHAT GERMAN LITERATURE OWES THE
Jews,

Temple Bar,
VII. GREAT Paul, .

Saturday Review,.
VIII. THE EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE,

Saturday Review,.
IX. Modern FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN,

Saturday Review, .

742 . 753

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

IN MEMORIAM.

Rest, Poet, rest!
THOMAS HILL GREEN.

The night is now at hand,

The darkness falls apace, (Obiit March 26, 1982.)

See, over all the land HUSHED be the bells of all his native towers,

The shadows interlace!
We need no sound to swell the deep“alas !”

Rest, Poet, rest!
Let Isis move unsobbing thro' the grass,
The sun shine still upon the Nuneham flowers !

No rest need I ;
He was of those rare hearts whom Nature

Sweet silence bids me sing, dowers

The heavens are all a-hush, With unassuming quietude, his glass

I hear them listening ; Turned all reflection inwards, men might

Now let the songs out-gush,

No rest need I. pass Nor know the depth and splendor of his pow- Spectator.

C. A. GOODHART. ers. Hew him of granite, granite was his mind, Give him the sword, for trenchant was his

thrust, And cast these pithless late philosophies

THE MOON AND I. Prone at his feet who trod them into dust. Then write him “Patriot that no bribes could A GOLDEN moon that leans her gentle face

On the blue darkness of the summer skyblind, Prophet of Truth, sure Teacher of the Wise.”. We watched 'her steal aloft a little space,

My love and I.

DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI.

Parting the opal clouds, upward she rose

To wander lonely ’mid the stars on high: (Obiit April 9, 1882.)

We thought our world as bright as one of

those, Gone down to take Proserpina the flowers Those “ daffodils let fall from Dis's wain,"

My love and I The grey old Bard * who bound, as with a chain,

Dear love, the moonlight smote your rippling

hair By simple song his Western home to ours Waits haply for thy nce to the bowers.

And made you smile you knew not how nor Where - guests long time of thy mysterious My heart beat strangely as we lingered there,

why;
brain
The singers sit right glad to entertain

My love and I.
Thee with thy later song of Florence towers.
Painter and poet, careless of the bay,

I asked her, fooled by the bewildering light, With woman's grace to make thy brothers She rose and left me — I stood in the night

If she would try to love me by-and-by: thine!

The moon and I. Dreamer of dreams too wondrous for the tale !

A. MATHESON. Didst thou not craving quittance from thy day

Haunt the pale past in hope of anodyne ? Sing happier now, melodious nightingale !

H. D. RAWNSLEY.

Good Words.

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From The Contemporary Review. undertaking afresh on a broader and BRITISH NORTH BORNEO, OR SABAH.

firmer footing. Satisfied with the result The incessant comment and criticism, of his inquiries, and of the willingness of during the last few years, of the English, the sultan to continue and transfer the Continental, and Eastern press have testi- grants in question, Mr. Dent formed a fied to the interest felt in an undertaking private association to acquire the rights which, over and above its intrinsic im- they conferred; and to him and Baron portance, possessed no small dash of the von Overbeck as representing this assoromance of Eastern adventure. The story ciation, all the rights, titles, and interests of the British North Borneo Company of the American partnership were shortly had, however, been very imperfectly told afterwards transferred; the native princes in these fragmentary chapters. Neither readily acquiescing in the change, and the nature and extent of its grants from formally confirming to their new vassals the native princes, the diplomatic ques. the grants of territory, powers, and privi. tions to which they gave rise, nor the leges which have since been recognized condition and capabilities of the country in the royal charter.

These grants pracand its inhabitants have been well under-tically delegate to the association, in the stood; while an undefined capacity for person of its chief representative, cominvolving us in future trouble has been plete sovereign powers over the whole attributed to the charter of incorpora. northern section of the island (known by tion, which has been freely discussed the local designation of Sabah), down to from this and other standpoints. The the Kimanis River on the west, and the papers recently laid before Parliament Sibuco on the east coast, with the imme. throw a flood of light on the subject, and diately adjacent islands, - a territory the complete explanation they afford of comprising in the aggregate some twenty the company's position and prospects will or twenty-five thousand square miles, with be generally welcome.

a population variously estimated at from The idea of developing the northern one hundred to one hundred and fifty portion of Borneo by foreign energy and thousand souls, in consideration of the enterprise seems to have originated in annual payment of $12,500, or, roughly the mind of a former United States con speaking, about £2,400. sul at Brunei, who, so long ago as 1865, There are in all five distinct leases. obtained from the sultan concessions of Two, from the sultan of Brunei, relate to territory of a very similar scope and na. districts in the north-west; another, from ture to those with which the British com- his prime minister and heir apparent, to a pany is now dealing. This gentleman tract in the same neighborhood declared proceeded to form a commercial partner- to be his private property; while a fourth, ship, having its headquarters at Hong also from the sultan, leases the territory Kong, to carry out the design. But the on the east coast from the river Paitan to enterprise did not flourish, chiefly from the Sibuco. . The Brunei grants, in fact, want of sufficient capital. The American convey the whole territory now in posses. Trading Company of Borneo, as it was sion of the company; and comprise, as called, entered upon some trading opera- we have said before, the northern portion tions on the coast, and, with the assist of the island, from the Kimanis River (in ance of Chinese workmen and coolies about 5° 25' N.) on the west, to the Siimported from Hong Kong, formed a set. buco (in about 4° N.) on the east, with tlement on the Kimanis River. But this the exception of a few small and unim. broke up, after a few years' struggling portant districts which, it is apprehended, existence; and the scheme had practically can be obtained without difficulty when collapsed when, about 1876, it was sug- desired. The sultan of Brunei, however, gested to Mr. Alfred Dent, the head of a if the chief, was not the only potentate British commercial house in London and concerned. The sultan of the neighbor. China, that it might be worth while to ing archipelago of Sulu claimed a rival, buy up the lapsing rights and start the ' if in some degree subordinate, right over

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