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patriotism, are the only higher influences. I and refinement which seem only possible to Chalmers came from Illinois nine years ago. | people of British stock. He is slightly intelligent, very opinionated, and wishes to be thought well-informed, which What is this but the hideousness, the he is not. He belongs to the strictest sect of immense ennui, of the life on which we Reformed Presbyterians; his great boast is have touched so often, the life of our sethat his ancestors were Scottish Covenanters. rious British Philistine, our Murdstone; He considers himself a profound theologian, that life with its defective type of religion, and by the pine logs at night discourses to me its narrow range of intellect and knowlon the mysteries of the eternal counsels and the divine decrees. Colorado, with its prog- edge, its stunted sense of beauty, its low ress and its future, is also a constant theme. standard of manners ? Only it is this life He hates England with a bitter personal hatred. at its simplest, rudimentary stage. He trusts to live to see the downfall of the I have purposely taken the picture of it British monarchy and the disintegration of the from a region outside the settled States empire. He is very fond of talking, and asks of the Union, that it might be evident I me a great deal. about my travels, but if I was not meaning to describe American speak favorably of the climate or resources of civilization, and that Americans might at any other country, he regards it as a slur on Colorado.
once be able to say with perfect truth that Mrs. Chalmers looks like one of the English different. And if, to match this picture
American civilization is something totally poor women of our childhood - lean, clean, toothless, and speaks, like some of them, in a of our Murdstone in other lands and other piping, discontented voice, which seems to circumstances, we are to have — as, for convey a personal reproach. She is never idle the sake of clearness in our impressions, for one moment, is severe and hard, and de- we ought to have a picture of our spises everything but work. She always speaks Quinion too under like conditions, let us of me as this or that woman. The family con- take it, not from America at all, but from sists of a grown-up son, a shiftless, melancholy- our own Australian colonies. The special looking youth, who possibly pines for a wider life ; a girl of sixteen, a sour, repellent-looking criticises an Italian singer who, at the
correspondent of the Bathurst Sentinel creature, with as much manners as a pig; and three hard, unchildlike younger children. By Sydney Theatre, plays the Count in the the whole family all courtesy and gentleness of
Somnambula; and here is the criti. act or speech seem regarded as works of the cism: “ Barring his stomach, he is the flesh, if not of the devil. They knock over all finest-looking artist I have seen on the one's things without apologizing or picking stage for years; and if he don't slide into them up, and when I thank them for anything the affections or break the gizzards of they look grimly amazed. I wish I could show half our Sydney girls, it's a pretty certain them “a more excellent way.' This hard greed, and the exclusive pursuit of gain, with This is not Mark Twain, not an American
sign there's a scarcity of balm in Gilead.” the indifference to all which does not aid in its acquisition, are eating up family love and life humorist at all; it is the Bathurst Sen
tinel. throughout the West. I write this reluctantly and after a total experience of nearly two years
So I have gone to the Rocky Moun. in the United States. Mrs. Chalmers is cleanly tains for the New World Murdstone, and in her person and dress, and the food, though to Australia for the New World Quinion. poor, is clean. Work, work, work, is their day I have not assailed in the least the civiland their life. They are thoroughly ungenial. ization of America in those northern, There is a married daughter across the river, middle, and south - western States, to just the same hard, loveless, moral, hard-which 'Americans have a right to refer us working being as her mother. Each morning, when we seek to know their civilization, soon after seven, when I have swept the cabin, and to which they, in fact, do refer us. the family come in for “worship.' wails a psalm to the most doleful of dismal What I wish to say is, and I by no means tunes; they read a chapter round, and he prays. even put it in the form of an assertion Sunday was a dreadful day. The family kept | I put it in the form of a question only, a the commandment literally, and did no work. question to my friends in America wlio Worship was conducted twice, and was rather are believers in equality and lovers of the longer than usual. The man attempted to read humane life as I also am, and who ask me a well-worn copy of “ Boston's Fourfold State,” why I do not illustrate my praise of equal. but shortly fell asleep, and they only woke up. for their meals. It was an awful day, and ity by reference to the humane life of
America seemed as if it would never come to an end.
- what I wish to say is : How You will now have some idea of my surround- much does the influence of these two eleings. It is a moral, hard, unloving, unlovely, ments, natural products of our race, Murd. unrelieved, unbeautified, grinding life. These stone and Quinion, the bitter, serious people live in a discomfort, and lack of ease | Philistine and the rowdy Philistine, enter into American life and lower it? I willican development of our Murdstone and not pronounce on the matter myself; I Quinion, the bitter Philistine and the have not the requisite knowledge. But rowdy Philistine, exhibiting themselves all that we hear from America - - hear in conjunction, exhibiting themselves from Americans themselves — points, so with great luxuriance and with very little far as I can see, to a great presence and check. As I write from Grub Street, I power of these middle-class misgrowths will add that, to my mind, the condition there as here. We have not succeeded of the copyright question between us and in counteracting them here, and while our America appears to point to just the same statesmen and leaders proceed as they do thing. The American refusal of copy: now, and Lord Frederick Cavendish con right to us poor English souls is just the gratulates the middle class on its energy proceeding which would naturally, comand self-reliance in doing without public mend itself to Murdstone and Quinion; schools, and Lord Salisbury summons the and the way in which Mr. Conant justifies middle class to a great and final stand on and applauds the proceeding, and con. behalf of supernaturalism, we never shall | tinues to justify and applaud it in disresucceed in counteracting them. We are gard of all that one may say, and boldly told, however, of groups of children of turns the tables upon England, is just the light in every town of America, and an way in which Murdstone and Quinion, elegant social order prevailing there, after regulating copyright in the American which make one, at first, very envious. fashion, would wish and expect to be But soon one begins to think, I say, that backed up. In Mr. Conant they have a surely there must be some mistake. The treasure: illi robur et es triplex indeed. complaints one hears of the state of pub. And no doubt a few Americans, bigbly lic life in America, of the increasing im- civilized individuals," hopping backwards possibility and intolerableness of it to and forwards over the Atlantic,” much self-respecting men, of the “corruption disapprove of these words and works of and feebleness,” of the blatant violence Mr. Conant and his constituents. But and exaggeration of language, the profli- can there be constant groups of children gacy of clap-trap – the complaints we hear of light, joined in an elegant order, everyfrom America of all this, and then such where throughout the Union? for, if there an exhibition as we had in the Gu eau were, wo not their sense of equity, and trial the other day, lead one to think their sense of delicacy, and even their that Murdstone and Quinion, those mis- sense of the ridiculous, be too strong, growths of the English middle-class even in this very matter of copyright, for spirit, must be even more rampant in the Mr. Conant and his constituents ? United States than they are here. Mr. But on the creation and propagation of Lowell himself writes, in that very same such groups the civilized life of America essay in which he is somewhat sharp upon depends for its future, as the civilized life foreigners, he writes of the sad experience of our own country, too, depends for its in America of “government by declama- future upon the same thing; so much is tion.” And this very week, as if to illus- certain. And if America succeeds in cre. trate his words, we have the American ating and installing, hers, before we sucnewspapers raising “ a loud and peremp- ceed in creating and installing ours, then tory voice” against the " gross outrage they will send over help to us from Amer. on America, insulted in the persons of ica, and will powerfully influence us for Americans imprisoned in British dun- our good. Let us see, then, how we both geons;” we have them crying: “The of us stand at the present moment, and people demand their release, and they what advantages the one of us has which must be released; woe to the public men are wanting to the other. We in England or the party that stand in the way of this have liberty and industry and the sense act of justice !” We have them turning for conduct, and a splendid aristocracy upon Mr. Lowell himself in such style as which feels the need for beauty and manthe following: "This Lowell is a fraud ners, and a unique class, as Mr. Charles and a disgrace to the American nation; Sumner pointed out, of gentlemen, not of Minister Lowell has scoffed at his own the landed class or of the nobility, but culcountry, and disowned everything in its tivated and refined. America has not our history and institutions that makes it free splendid aristocracy, but then this splenand great."
did aristocracy is materialized, and for I should say, for my part, though I have helping the sense for beauty, or the sense not, I fully own, the means for judging ac- for social life and manners, in the nation curately, that all this points to an Amer. at large, it does nothing or next to noth
ing. So we must not hastily pronounce, | receive those personages and those words with Mr. Hussey Vivian, that American only on conditions of preternaturalism, civilization suffers by its absence. In- and a religion of preternaturalism is deed they are themselves developing, it is dooined whether with or without the said, a class of very rich people quite suf- battle of Armageddon for which Lord ficiently materialized. America has not our Salisbury is preparing to inevitable dis. large and unique class of gentlemen; some solution. Fidelity to conscience ! cries thing of it they have, of course, but it is the popular Protestantism of Great Britnot by any manner of means on the same ain and America, and thinks that it has scale there as here. Acting by itself, said enough. But the modern analysis and untrammelled, our English class of relentlessly scrutinizes this conscience, gentlemen has eminent merits; our rule and compels it to give an account of it. in India, of which we may well be proud, self. What sort of a conscience ? a true is in great measure its work. But in conscience or a false one ? " Conscience presence of a great force of Barbarian is the most changing of rules; conscience power, as in this country, or in pres. is presumptuous in the strong, timid in ence of a great force of Philistinism, our the weak and unhappy, wavering in the class of gentlemen, as we know, has not undecided; obedient organ of the sentimuch faith and ardor, is somewhat ment which sways us and of the opinions bounded and ineffective, is not much of which govern us; more misleading than a civilized force for the nation at large; reason and nature.” So says one of the not much more, perhaps, than the few noblest and purest of moralists, Vauve. “rather civilized individuals” in Amer. nargues; and terrible as it may be to the ica, who, according to our Boston inform- popular Protestantism of England and of ant, go “hopping backwards and forwards America to hear it, Vauvenargues thus de. over the Atlantic.” Perhaps America, scribes with perfect truth that conscience with her needs, has no very great loss in to which popular Protestantism appeals not having our special class of gentlemen. as its supposed unshakable ground of reWithout this class, and without the pres. liance. sure and false ideal of our Barbarians, the And now, having up to this point neg. Americans have, like ourselves, the senselected all the arts of the controversialist, for conduct and religion; they have in- having merely made inquiries my dustry, and they have liberty; they have, American friends as to the real state of too, over and above what we have, they their civilization, inquiries which they are have an excellent thing – equality. But free to answer in their own favor if they we have seen reason for thinking, that as like, I am going to leave the advantage we in England, with our aristocracy, gen. with them to the end. They kindly oftlemen, liberty, industry, religion, and fered me the example of their civilization sense for conduct, have the civilization of as a help to mend ours; and I, not with the most important part of our people, any vain Anglicism, for I own our insular the immense middle class, impaired by a civilization to be very unsatisfactory, but defective type of religion, a narrow range
from desire to get at the truth and not of intellect and knowledge, a stunted to deceive myself with hopes of help sense of beauty, a low standard of man. from a quarter where at present there is ners; so in America, too, where this class none to be found, have inquired whether is yet more important and all-pervading the Americans really think, on looking than it is here, civilization suffers in the into the inatter, that their civilization is like way. With a people of our stock it much more satisfactory than ours. And could not, indeed, well be otherwise, so in case they should come to the conclulong as this people can be truly described sion, after due thought, that neither the as the most common-schooled and least one civilization nor the other is in a satiscultivated people in the world."
factory state, let me end by propounding The real cultivation of the people of a remedy which really it is heroic in me the United States, as of the English mid- to propound, for people are bored to dle class, has been in and by its religion, death, they say, by me with it, and every its “one thing needful.” But the insuffi. time I mention it I make new enemies ciency of this religion is now every day and diminish the small number of friends becoming more manifest. It deals, in that I have now. Still, I cannot help askdeed, with personages and words which ing whether the defects of American civ. have an indestructible and inexhaustible ilization, if it is defective, may not probtruth and salutariness; but it is rooted ably be connected with the American and grounded in preternaturalism, it can people's, being, as Mr. Lowell says, “the
most common-schooled and the least cul.
From Blackwood's Magazine, tivated people in the world.” A higher,
THE LADIES LINDORES. larger cultivation, a finer lucidity, is what is needed. The friends of civilization,
CHAPTER I. instead of hopping backwards and for- THE mansion - house of Dalrulzian wards over the Atlantic, should stay at stands on the lower slope of a bill, which home a while, and do their best to make is crowned with a plantation of Scotch the administration, the tribunals, the the firs. The rugged outline of this wood, atre, the arts, in each state, to make them and the close-tufted mass of the tree-tops, become visible ideals to raise, purge, and stand out against the pale east, and proennoble the public sentiment. Though tect the house below and the "policy," as they may be few in number, the friends the surrounding grounds are called in of civilization will find, probably, that by Scotland ; so that though all the winds a serious apostolate of this kind they can are sharp in that northern county, the accomplish a good deal. But the really sharpest of all is tempered. The house fruitful reform to be looked for in Amer- itself is backed by lighter foliage ica, so far as I can judge, is the very same feathery grove of birches, a great old ash reform which is so urgently required here or two, and some tolerably well-grown,
a reform of secondary instruction. but less poetical, elms. It is a house of The primary and common schools of distinctively local character, with the cuAmerica we all know; their praise is in rious, peaked, and graduated gables pe. every one's mouth.
About superior or culiar to Scotch rural architecture, and university instruction one need not be thick walls of the roughest stone, washed uneasy, it excites so much ambition, is so with a weather-stained coat of yellowmuch in view, and is required by compar. white. Two wings, each presenting a atively so small a number. An institution gabled end to the avenue, and a sturdy like Harvard is probably all that one could block of building retired between them, desire. But really good secondary schools all strong, securely built, as if hewn out to form a due. proportion of the youth of of the rock, formed the homely house. America from the age of twelve to the It had little of the beauty which a buildage of eighteen, and then every year to ing of no greater pretensions would probthrow a supply of them, th formed, into ably have had in England. Below the circulation — this is what America, I be- wings and in front of the hall-door, with lieve, wants, as we also want it, and what its two broad, flat stone steps, there was she possesses no more than we do. I nothing better than a gravelled square, know she has higher schools, I know somewhat mossy in the corners, and their programme: Latin, Greek, German, marked by the trace of wheels; but round French, surveying, chemistry, astrology, the south' wing there swept a sort of ternatural history, mental philosophy, Con- race, known by no more dignified name stitution, book-keeping, trigonometry, etc. than that of "the walk," from which the Alas! to quote Vauvenargues again :" On ground sloped downwards, broken at a ile corrigera jamais les hommes d'appren- lower level by the formal little parterres dre des choses inutiles.” But good sec- of an old-fashioned flower-garden. The ondary schools, not with the programme view from the walk was of no very strikof our classical and commercial acade-ing beauty, but it had the charm of mies, but with a serious programme - a breadth and distance a soft sweep of programme really suited to the wants and undulating country, with an occasional capacities of those who are to be trained glimpse of a lively trout-stream gleaming
- this, I repeat, is what American civ. here and there out of its covert of crags ilization in my belief most requires, as it is and trees, and a great, varied, and everwhat our civilization, too at present most changing world of sky, — not a prospect requires. The special present defects of which captivated a stranger, but one both American civilization and ours are which, growing familiar day by day and the kind of defects for which this is a year by year, was henceforth missed like natural remedy. I commend it to the at- something out of their lives by the people tention of my friendly Boston critic in who, being used to it, had learned to love America; and some months hence, per- that silent companionship of nature. It haps, when Mr. Barnum begins to re- was the sort of view which a man pauses, quire less space for his chronicles of not to look at but to see, even when he is Jumbo, my critic will tell me what he pacing up and down his library thinking thinks of it.
of John Thomson's demand for farm in. MATTHEW ARNOLD. provements, or, heavier thought, about
his balance at his bankers : and which tone of reproof, “I feel disposed to cry
Rolls had stepped out from one of the On the day on which the reader is windows to take farewell of the family, asked first to visit this house of Dalrul. whom he was sorry to lose, yet anxious to zian, great things were happening in it. get rid of. There was in him the satisfied It was the end of one régime and the be air of the man who remains in possession, ginning of another. The master of the and whose habits are unaffected by the house, a young man who had been coming and going of ephemeral beings brought up at a distance, was coming such as tenants. The Barringtons bad home, and the family which had lived in been at 'Dalrulzian for more than a dozen it for years was taking its leave of the years; but what was that to the old serplace.
vant who had seen them arrive and saw The last spot which they visited and on them go away with the same imperturbawhich they lingered was the walk. When ble aspect? He stood relieved against the packing was over, the final remnants the wall in his well-brushed black coat, gathered up, the rooms left in that melan- concealing a little emotion under a watchcholy bareness into which rooms relapse ful air of expectancy, just touched with when the prettinesses and familiarities of impatience. Rolls had condescended habitation have been swept away, the more or less to the English family all the remaining members of the family came time they had been there, and he was out with pensive faces, and stood together keeping up his rôle to the last, anxious gazing somewhat wistfully upon the famil. that they should perceive how much he iar scene. They had looked on many that wanted to see them off the premises. were more fair. They were going to a Mrs. Barrington, who liked everybody to landscape of greater beauty further south like her, was vexed by this little demon- brighter, richer, warmer in foliage and stration of indifference; but the colonel natural wealth ; but all this did not keep laughed. “I hope Mr. Erskine will give a certain melancholy out of their eyes. you satisfaction,” he said. “Come, Nora, The younger of the party, Nora Barring- you must not take root in the walk. ton, cried a little, her lip quivering, a big Don't you see Rolls wishes us away?" tear or two running over. “ It is foolish “Dear old walk !” cried Nora; “ dear to feel it so much," her mother said. Dalrulzian!” She rolled the r in the “How is it one feels it so much ? I did name, and turned the s into a y (which is not admire Dalrulzian at all when we the right way of pronouncing it), as if she came."
had been to the manner born; and though "Out of perversity,” said her husband; an English young lady, had as pretty a but he did not smile even at the clever. fragrance of northern Scotland in her ness of his own remark.
voice as could be desired. Rolls did not Nora regarded her father with a sort of trust himself to look at this pretty figure tender rage. “ It is all very well for you,” lingering, drying wet eyes, until she she said ; one place is the same as an- turned round upon him suddenly, holding other to you. But I was such a little out her hands : “ The moment we are off, thing when we came here. To you it is before we are down the avenue, you will one place among many; to me it is be wishing us back,” she cried with vehehome."
mence; "you can't deceive me. You “ If you take it so seriously, Nora, we would like to cry too, if you were not shall have you making up to young Ers. ashamed,” said the girl with a sinile and kine for the love of his house."
a sob, shaking the two balf-unwilling “ Edward,” cried Mrs. Barrington in a hands she had seized.