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500 lbs.

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weigh four hundred and fifty tons, and dark brown, and next to beauty of design, the alloy is composed of:

the tint is a sine quâ non, A favorite de Gold

sign on bronzes is the dragon, a subject Mercury


which is treated with much force and Tin


character. Copper.

986,080 «

A plaque of shakudo- - an alloy of gold “The body. of the image and all the and copper, and black in color set in a most ancient part of the lotus flowers on bronze mounting, representing the bamwhich it is seated are apparently formed boo, is remarkable as showing the care of plates of bronze ten inches by twelve, and labor expended by the Japanese artist soldered together, except the modern in working out details. The design repparts, which are much larger castings. resents a meeting between the twelve A peculiar method of construction is said chief disciples of Buddha; the inlaying to have been adopted, namely, of gradu- of the figures, trees, flowers, etc., is of ally building up the walls of the mould as gold and silver, with various tinted cointhe lower part of the casting cooled, in positions, and stands out from the dark stead of constructing the whole mould background of the alloy with much brilfirst, and then making the casting in a liancy. One of the compositions emsingle piece." The other large image of ployed for shading is called shibu-ichi, Dai Butsu at Kamakura, near Yokohama, and consists of three parts of copper to is somewhat smaller than this, and dates one of silver. Both these alloys are fafrom a period three centuries more recent. vorite compositions of the Japanese artist. The various temple bells, some of which The minute interlaying of gold and silver are of great size, are remarkable for the in anotlier plaque, about eighteen inches sweetness and mellowness of their tones, in diameter, with a curvilinear border, which contrast greatly with the harsh, exhibits marvellous skill. The body of clanging sounds to which we are accus- the plaque is of iron, and the border is tomed in Europe. They are struck on adorned with grape-leaf and fruit patthe outside by huge pine beams which terns, the former being of gold, the latter are suspended by strong ropes. The of silver. This is the work of Komai, of vessels ordinarily used in worship, such Kioto, whose family held the office of as vases, lamps, and incense-burners, are sword-mounters to the court. Swords in also of bronze, many of them being fine the olden time were much prized by their specimens of art, executed in high relief, owners, for the quality and temper of the and finished with much care. The de: steel, and much cost was lavished on the mand for art metal-work of a high order ornaments of the handles and sheaths. has thus existed for centuries in Japan; The making of a good sword was regarded and so far as can be judged from the as a very serious task, and the maker had specimens of more modern work of this to conform to certain rules of conduct description, the hand of the Japanese from the commencement to the end of workman has not lost its cunning. In the the operation. The external ornaments Japanese in Grafton Street, offered endless scope to the skill and among many rare and beautiful produc- care of the worker in metals. Great tions of the Land of the Rising Sun, the importance is attached to the maker's metal-work well deserves attention. A name, which is engraved above the guard. pair of dark, green-tinted bronze vases, It was common saying of the Japanese, fourteen inches high, inlaid with gold, are that the swords of celebrated makers, conspicuous for beauty of design and such as Naminohira, Yukiyasu, Masawerkmanship. They are said to have mune, and others, could not return to occupied the maker seven years, and their their scabbards, unless they had been curious tint is said to be a trade secret. dipped in blood; the sword-maker's occuIt must be understood that it is no mere pation is now gone, not so their fellowsurface coloring, but is produced by the artists, the sword-mounters. Their skill mixture of the metals in certain propor- in working metals can always be turned tions. The work on the rims and necks to good account. represent in gold inlay a cloud dragon, Many other works in metal in the galwhile the bodies are decorated with four lery deserve mention, but we cannot refer medallions formed of gold and silver in to them here. They all exhibit the palays, the shading obtained by an inlay of tience, skill, imagination, and love of his gold upon silver being very remarkable. craft which distinguished the Japanese The tints of bronzes vary in color and artist of old. It is to be feared that he depth from yellow, green, and ruddy to lis now abandoning these qualities, and seeking a more rapid road to fortune by i Street, which was made for the third shôshoddy foreign imitations, and that beau- gun of the last dynasty, and which is tiful works requiring the patience and probably the finest work of its kind in loving care of years — such, for instance, existence will soon be things of the as the small cabinet shown in Grafton past.

NINETEENTH CENTURY FRIENDSHIPS. - In talk once or twice a week are often unable to France, England, and Germany, among many do so once or twice a month, or even at longer ininor groups, three stand out with marked intervals. In this respect London is a monster lustre by reason of the eminence of the men unequalled in the civilized world. But Paris who forined their centres — Diderot, Johnson, is fast becoming a rival of no mean pretensions and Goethe. They all contained men who may in this repulsive characteristic. In the old be ranked among the most active and success. days men lived, so to speak, within a stone's ful workers whom the world has known, men throw of each other, Goldsmith in the Temwho have left enduring monuments of their ple, Johnson in Bolt Court, Burke in Gerard jabors. Yet these men never seemed to want Street, for instance, were neighbors, as comleisure for frequent meetings and genial fellow-pared to men equally eager for social union, ship. They met constantly and almost regu. who now perhaps live one at Wimbledon, anlarly, without loss, we may be sure, to their other at Claphain, a third at Hampstead or work, and with much increase of happiness to Highgate.

Pall Mall Gazette. theniselves. The French have a saying that the hours spent at the dinner-table do not count in life.

But the best thing at a good French dinner, especially of the old school, was not the cookery but the conversation. A few dishes with ample pauses between, by A RECENT number of the Celestial Empire, which equal justice was done to the viands and referring to a discovery of some ancient graves the talk this was the ideal, not unfrequently near Shanghai, gives an interesting account of realized in practice, which the proverb had in Chinese burial in former times. A man of view, and in which health equally with recrea- means purchased his coffin when he reached tion found its account. In Edinburgh, again, the age of forty. He would then have it from the days of Hume to those of Sir Walter painted three times every year with a species Scott, men had time both for work and play; of varnish, mixed with pulverized porcelain and even in remote Königsberg, under Kant, - a composition which resembled a silicate the ardent pursuit of metaphysics was not paint or enamel. The process by which this found incompatible with the restorative relaxa- varnish was made has now been lost to the tion of genial and frequent social intercourse. Chinese. Each coating of this paint was of For it is to be noted that the meeting of some thickness, and when dried had a metalfriends, to be at once a source of refreshment lic firmness resembling enamel. Frequent and repose, must be neither too frequent nor coats of this, if the owner lived long, caused

If we only meet our friend at long the coffin to assume the appearance of a sar. intervals, we have either too much to say to cophagus, with a foot or more in thickness of him and cannot say it for over-fulness, or we this hard, stune-like shell. After death the have lost touch and those finer contacts of veins and the cavities of the stomach were sympathy which are the spirit and essence of filled with quicksilver for the purpose of prethe best talk. We have insensibly diverged, serving the body. A piece of jade would then each in his separate groove, and easy flow and be placed in each nostril and ear, and in one spontaneity are replaced by reserve and half. hand, while a piece of bar silver would be shyness. It is here that we place our finger on placed in the other hand. The body thus prethe painful spot in our modern life. In this pared was placed on a layer of mercury within huge wilderness of bricks and mortar called the coffin; the latter was sealed, and the whole London friends live apart, separated by in- then committed to its last resting-place. When visible barriers, which only exceptional mo. some of these sarcophagi were opened after ments of health and energy enable us to trav- the lapse of centuries, the bodies were found

The facilities of locomotion, by which in a wonderful state of preservation ; but they men are enabled to escape from an atmosphere crumbled to dust on exposure to the air.

The poisoned and thickened with coal-smoke and writer well observes that the employment of noxious gases in which their daily business mercury by the Chinese of past dynasties for mostly lies, have caused such a dispersion of the purpose of preserving bodies ought to the inhabitants presumed to live in the same forın an interesting subject for consideration city that the chances are that friends who and discussion in connection with the history would like nothing better than to meet and l of embalming and “mummy-making.”

too rare.



Fifth Series, Volume XXXVIII.


No. 1978.- May 20, 1882.

From Beginning,


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Fortnightly Review,
II. PEPPINIELLO. Twenty-four Hours with a
Neapolitan Street-boy, .

Cornhill Magazine,


Blackwood's Magazine, V. ROSSETTI'S POEMS,.

Edinburgh Review, VI. THE WILD SILKS OF INDIA,



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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. Tor Esght DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGB will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numhers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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And yet no guilt was there. But when my heart grew soft, she barred The gate on love. I cried aloud; But she was deaf unto my prayer.

Shę sleeps — the welcome wintry sun
Is shining on her little face,
The firelight glints upon her hair,
My precious blossom! oh, how fair,

How very fair she is !
And soft she sleeps, my little one,
As sadly to and fro I pace,
And dream anew of olden bliss.
The flowers I plucked for her delight
Have fallen from the tiny hand;
The painted toy that charmed her eyes
With quaint design and action, lies

Beside the pictured book :
Strange thoughts arise, oh! blossom bright,
That vex and thrill me as I stand
Anear, and on thy features look.
Thy mother's face, thy mother's smile,
Tliy mother's ringlets flowing free,
Her tinted cheek, her forehead white,
Her eyes, brown wells of liquid light,

Yea, all her charms are thine ; Thy mother kissed thy lips erewhile, Before she sent thee forth to me, And to that kiss I added mine.

And so we drifted far apart,
While friends came in to heal the breach.
Poor fools ! to think that they could touch
With balm the hearts that ached too much,

Too wildly for despair.
But pride put gauds above the smart,
And we were gay and light of speech,
And jeered at love and mocked at care.

But still the child, the little child,
Goes at the stated seasons forth
From her to me, from me to her,
And keeps keen thrilling thoughts astir,

Awaking old regret.
Thought springs to-night unfettered, wild,
Oh, wife! what is life's living worth
If thou and I are parted yet ?

And when this evening's shadows fall,
And thou art by her side again,
Will she, too, seek, as I have sought
The kiss the childish lips have brought

Our parted lips to bless ?
Will she too fondly question all
I said and did, and seek to gain
A glimpse of our lost happiness?

Lo! I will break the bonds that hold
My life and thine in separate ways,
And standing by thee face to face
Beseech thee fill thine empty place,

And bless my lonely soul
With love like that fair love of old,
That gladdened all our morning days,
But stronger grown, and calm, and whole.

Ah dear my wife! ah sweet my wife !
Too lightly won, too lightly lost;
Might riper age repair with tears
The havoc made in earlier years,

Should we weep, thou and I ?
Should we clasp hands, and end the strife
That all our youthful years inath crossed,
And fare together till we die ?

I will not grudge to own me wrong-
Great Heaven! what slender form is here?
What loving eyes look into mine?
What hands in mine own hands entwine ?

My wife, my wife, at last !
Wake up, white blossom, sleep not long,
Awake to bless thy mother dear;
Our days of dark are gone and past.

If we two stood upon the brink
Of that wide gulf that yawns between
Thy life and mine this many a day,
And one should to the other say,

“I erred the first — and most,
Should we stretch out glad hands and link
Our lives, and let the dark “has been"
Float from us like a grim grey ghost?

My bird, thou hast flown home to me,
Thrice welcome to thine early nest !
Nay, not a word between us twain
Of all the empty years of pain

Forevermore be said.
It is enough for me and thee
That thou art here upon my breast,
That all our foolish past is dead.

All The Year Round.


'Tis hard to say, for pride is strong,
And either blamed the other's heat;
But as I look upon the face
Of my one child, and in it trace

The looks of one away,
My heart cries out against the wrong
That bars us both from union sweet.
" And whose the blame?” I sadly say.

LIKE child, who in a meadow fair
Pulls berry bright and blossom new,
Yet knows he may not linger there
For heavy task at home to do –
Or him of whom the Phrygian tells,
Shell-gathering by the sleeping main,
Content to cast aside his shells
Called by the Boatswain back again –
Through fields so fair so journey I;

Yet pass with not too curious eye.


I was to blame, for I was hard ;
She was to blame, for she was proud;
And so the pride and hardness built
A wall between us, high as guilt;

From The Fortnightly Review. cerity of his criticism, and the consistency THE LIFE OF JAMES MILL.*

of his life. “ He was always,” says WHEN Mr. Mill's 66 Autobiography Brougham, “of such self-denial that he was given to the public nine years ago, it sunk every selfish consideration in his created a common impression that the anxiety for the success of any cause father was even a more remarkable and which he espoused, and ever ready to the singular figure than the son; and there utmost extent of his faculties, and often was a general desire to know more about beyond the force of his constitution, to a personage of so many striking and orig. lend his help for its furtherance." inal traits. Grote had already said enough The real impressiveness, however, of in one of his minor pieces to stir a lively James Mill's character was not suspected curiosity about the elder Mill. Apart from by our generation until his son described his publicly authenticated merits, which it to the world in pages that must become have for that matter fallen somewhat out classic, if mankind continue to cherish of date both in history and philosophy, he the memory of their benefactors. Mr. had other merits, says Grote, which were Mill pronounced it to be “far from honnot any less real: –

orable to the generation which has bene. His unpremeditated oral exposition was fited by his work, that he is so seldom hardly less effective than his prepared work mentioned, and, compared with men far with the pen ; his colloquial fertility on philo- bis inferiors, so little remembered." sophical subjects, his power of discussing him. There are two causes for this. One of self, and of stimulating others to discuss, his them is that the thought of him merged ready responsive inspirations through all the in the deservedly superior fame of Benshifts and windings of a sort of Platonic dia

tham, though he was anything but Benlogue all these accomplishments were, to those who knew him, even more impressive other reason is that notwithstanding the

tham's mere follower and disciple. The than what he composed for the press. Conversation with him was not merely instructive, great number of his opinions which have but provocative to the dormant intelligence. come to be generally adopted, “there was Of all persons whom we have known Mr. on the whole a marked opposition between James Mill was the one who stood least re. his spirit and that of the present time.” mote from the lofty Platonic ideal of Dialectic In other words, he belonged to the eigh

του διδόναι και δέχεσθαι λόγον (the giving and teenth century : he was the last of its receiving of reasons) — competent alike to ex- strong and brave men, “and he was a fit amine others, or to be examined by them on companion for its strongest and bravest.” philosophy. When to this we add a strenuous

(Mill's Autobiography, p. 205). But surely character, earnest convictions, and single-lihe best reason why James Mill's fame is minded devotion to truth, with an utter disdain of mere paradox, it may be conceived that such less than it deserved to be is that his in

fluence was far less literary than personal. man exercised powerful intellectual ascen

His most striking gist was “the power of dancy over younger minds.

influencing the convictions and purposes Lord Brougham, in a passage quoted in of others by mere force of mind and charthe volume before us, says something to acter.” the same effect. He admits that James Mill was not free from the dogmatism of He was sought for the vigor and instructivehis school (as if Brougham were quite ness of his conversation, and used it largely as free from the dogmatism of his school), an instrument for the diffusion of his opinions. but he praises his great candor in con

I have never known any man who could do

such ample justice to his best thoughts in coltroversy, and then he goes on to mark what inust have multiplied his in- loquial discussion. His perfect command over tellectual force a thousandfold, namely, expressiveness of his language, and the moral

his great mental resources, the terseness and his moral earnestness, the profound sin. earnestness as well as intellectual force of his • James Mill . A Biography. By Alexander Bain, all argumentative conversers: and he was full

delivery, made him one of the most striking of LL.D. London: Longmans, 1882.

John Stuart Mill. A Criticism with Personal of anecdote, a hearty laugher, and when with Recollections. By the same.

people whom he liked, a most lively and amus

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