papers have done, “that these instruc- that of his predecessor, he has much more tions of his Holiness have any direct ref- practical notions as to the most effectual erence to the action of Catholics in the manner of coping with them. The “prisapproaching political elections," while it oner of the Vatican” he may choose to adinits - the italics are in either case our remain — and since the outrage of last

" that his Holiness implies that July and the blundering of the govern. Italian Catholics have not hitherto done ment over it there is plausible excuse for quite as much as they might have done, doing so; but he is by no means content and points out several ways in which their to sit with folded hands gnashing his activity might be usefully employed.” The teeth, like Giant Pope in the “Pilgrim's implication is no doubt sufficiently obvi. Progress,” in impotent rage at the unrulious, and the reference to the elections, ness of the world which has forsaken though it may be indirect, is hardly less bim. On the contrary he has very definite

It was not surprising therefore to be schemes for regaining his influence over informed the other day by the Roman such portions of it as may be willing to correspondent of one of the daily papers listen to his voice, and is perfectly aware that “only the extreme Radicals and the that the methods of influence proper to Clericals are active in registering,” or to the fourteenth century are nor equally find him adding that,“ what with the con- applicable to the nineteenth. " Modern stituency more than tripled, the scrutin civilization,” which Pius IX. was never de liste, the Catholics probably voting for weary of execrating, may of course be the first time, the leap is absolutely in the understood in more senses than one, but dark.” It appears indeed that the prob. there is certainly a sense in which his ability of Catholics taking part in the successor is quite prepared to avail himforthcoming elections is being eagerly self of its resources, and is resolved that discussed by the Italian press generally, all those under his control shall do the while - in consequence apparently of this same. His success must depend mainly last Encyclical – Duke Salviati, presion their capacity and readiness to give dent of the General Committee of Cath effect to the programme he has marked olic Congresses, bas issued circulars to out for them. the various diocesan committees desiring The first part of the Encyclical is de. them to urge all the faithful who are en- voted to exposing the misdeeds of “a franchised by the new law to register, pernicious sect presumably atheist or and thus be prepared for the withdrawal agnostic " which has established itself at any moment of the papal prohibition some time back in Italy, and after declaragainst voting. In Rome itself the num- ing war against Christ, is endeavoring to ber of new voters is estimated at over ten rob the people of their Christian instituthousand, including the Catholic contin- tions," while its programme is equally gent, who at once registered en blos. fatal to religion and morality. It is noted Meanwhile the Rassegna publishes a let. among other points that “ Rome, the most ter from some prelate, unnamed — pos- august of Christian cities,” is laid open sibly Count Enrico Campello, ex-canon of to the enemies of the Church, and defiled St. Peter's — stigmatizing the folly of the by heretical temples and schools and pope in giving his followers the restora. other profane novelties; but there is no tion of the temporal power as

their direct mention of the temporal power, and watchward at the elections – which is this part of the address closes with the precisely what he has not done, as will confident assurance that while the sect in presently appear. The Encyclical is how- question certainly aims at the destruction ever by 'no ineans chiefly occupied with of the Church and its head, and of all rereferences, direct or indirect, to the elec- ligion, "the Church without doubt will in tions, though its tone and drift are so the end be triumphant, and will baffle the little in harmony with the eletti clet. impious conspiracies of men.” We are tori principle obstinately maintained to then reminded, in some detail, how much the last by Pius IX. as to suggest at least the Holy See has done for Italy in the an impending change of front in this past, and what great advantages its benefimatter. We have before taken occasion cent influence may confer on the country to observe that Leo XIII. has the in. in the future, if these “enemies of Chris. stincts of a statesman and a man of the tian wisdom, who are leading sooiety to world, as well as of a priest, and if his its ruin," alike in the scientific, the moral, view of the religious evils with which and the social sphere, will allow it fair Italy and modern society at large is af- play: It is only through the special proflicted does not materially differ from tection of Divine Providence that Italy

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has hitherto been spared "a reign of ter- Leo XIII., like his predecessor, but for a ror," and there is great reason to strive longer period, filled an episcopal see in and pray that so terrible a misfortune may Italy before ascending the papal throne, be still averted. And then follows a ref- and he had ample opportunities as Archerence to the rights of the Holy See, bor- bishop of Perugia for estimating the rowed apparently from some previous average religious condition of the popumanifesto, and expressed in studiously lation and of their pastors, and observing temperate language : “Say that the State that the latter at all events had “not done in Italy can never prosper nor become quite as much as they might have done stable and tranquil, unless provision be in more ways than one. It is to the cormade for the dignity of the Roman See rection of these grave deficiencies that and the liberty of the Supreme Pontiff, the later portion of the Encyclical is as every consideration of right requires.” | addressed. After this his Holiness proceeds to his It begins by impressing on the bishops practical admonitions, which do certainly that "up to the present time, whether convey a very significant intimation that through unfamiliarity with the new state "Italian Catholics” – priests and people of things, or through an imperfect underalike — "have not hitherto done quite as standing of the extent of the danger, the much as they might have done,” and, we courage of many, from whom much mnight may add, that they have done some things have been expected, does not seem to which they might advantageously have bave displayed itself with all the activity left uodone. The full force and import and vigor required for the defence of so of this part of the Encyclical cannot be great a cause; ” and they are bidden to adequately appreciated except by those profit by the lessons of experience, and more or less fainiliar with the religious remember that “nothing could be more conditions of Italy, and especially of the fatal than to endure in cowardly inertness Italian clergy, both secular and regular, the untiring malice of the wicked, and before the outbreak of the revolutionary leave the field open to them to persecute movement. A good deal of light was the Church to the full measure of their thrown on these points in somnc interest. hatred.” It is therefore of supreme iming papers, commonly attributed to the portance to teach the people the true value pen of Mr. Cartwright, which appeared of their religion, to rouse the indolent and about twenty years ago in the Edinburgh kindle the lukewarm, and train them, both Review, partly in connection with the con- by word and example, to fulfil with controversy provoked by the publication and stancy and courage the duties of the subsequent censure of Rosmini's “Cinque Christian life. For this end it is highly Pinghe.". Pius IX. himself, in the earlier desirable to form associations of young years of his reign, was reported to have men, of workmen, and others, in order to spoken in terms more pungent than polite stimulate Christian zeal and energy, to of the general character of the parochial relieve poverty, instruct the children of clergy of Italy, and to have even contem- the poor, maintain the observance of fes. plated a sweeping reform of the monastic tivals and the like, as also “ to take every institutions which had lapsed into a de possible means within the limits of the plorable state of apathy and corruption. law” for securing to the Holy See a real It was also well known that, under cover independence. Another instrument of of an enforced orthodoxy of profession, great importance, of which the enemies there lurked a widespread indifferentism of the Church have been too long allowed among the people, ranging from mere an. to enjoy a monopoly, is the press. “ Writ. gry discontent or doubt to all but open ings must be opposed by writings, so that scepticism, which the authorities in the same art which can effect most for Church and State had no thought of the destruction of mankind may be apmeeting, by any more persuasive argu- plied to their benefit and salvation, and ments than the strong arm of the law remedies be derived from the source could supply. All this Pius IX., while whence poisons have flowed.” And for still Bishop of Imola, was well aware of, this purpose the establishment in every and at the beginning of his pontificate he province at least of periodical and espeshowed a real though somewhat otiose cially daily organs is suggested, which desire to provide a fitting remedy. But must be conducted “with gravity and the Revolution of 1848 put an end to all moderation of tone, without bitterness such schemes, and thenceforth a timid and with respect for individuals, and in aoxiety quieta non movere became the clear and simple language which the mul. guiding principle of his administration. I titude can easily understand.” But above



all things the bishops are urged - and so many old endowments have been swept the exhortation evidently implies some- a way of late years, the people should be thing of a tacit reproof — to take all care exhorted to contribute according to their for “the due appointment of fitting min. means, after the example of their pious an. isters of God.” This is their paramount cestors, and of other Catholic nations of obligation, and, while “grave reasons our own day, to the support of institutions common to all times demand in priests for carrying on this necessary work; and, many and great graces, this time in which indeed, the pope feels confident that they we live requires that they should be even will readily respond to the call. Such is more and greater." There is need for a brief summary of the contents of this sound learning, "embracing not only sa- last Encyclical, which manifestly points, cred, but philosophical, physical, and his. we do not say to an acceptance of the torical studies," and there is yet more status quo, but to a frank recognition of urgent need of a high standard of moral the altered conditions of modern life, in excellence; and for securing these results Italy as elsewhere, and an honest desire a long course of diligent preparation is to make the fullest use of “the resources necessary. The pope here refers to his of civilization ” for the service of the former Encyclical Återni Patris on the Church. In this general programme, the study of St. Thomas noticed at the electoral question of the moment holds a time in our columns for the purpose of subordinate place, but readers of the Enobserving that besides these graver stud- cyclical could hardly fail to understand, ies the young clerics should be instructed as in fact they evidently have understood, in other branches of knowledge which it to foreshadow, if not actually to convey; cannot fitly be ignored in the present day, a withdrawal of the self-denying ordisuch as natural science, and whatever nance by which Pius IX. deliberately serves to illustrate the authority and in- placed the voting-urns at the perinanent terpretation of Holy Scripture. And, as 'and exclusive disposal of his assailants.

A TYPICAL INDIAN VILLAGE. — Outside the draw water from the tank, each with two or entrance of the single village street, on an ex- three water-jars on her head; and so, while posed rise of ground, the hereditary potter sits they are going and returning in single file, the by his wheel, moulding the swift-revolving clay scene glows like Titian's canvas and moves by the natural curves of his hands. At the like the stately procession of the Panathenaic back of the houses which form the low, irregu- frieze. Later the men drive in the mild, gray lar street there are two or three looms at work kine from the moaning plain, the looms are in blue and scarlet and gold, the frames hang. folded up, the coppersmiths are silent, the ing between the acacia-trees, the yellow flowers elders gather in the gate, the lights begin to of which drop fast on the webs as they are glimmer in the fast-falling darkness, the feast. being woven. In the street the brass and cop. ing and the music are heard on every side, and per smiths are hammering away at their pots late into the night the songs are sung from the and pans; and further down, in the veranda of Ramayana or Mahabharata. The next mornthe rich man's house, is the jeweller working ing, with sunrise, after the simple ablutions rupees and gold mohrs into fair jewelry, gold and adorations performed in the open air beand silver ear-rings, and round tires like the fore the houses, the same day begins again. moon, bracelets and tablets and nose-rings, and | This is the daily life going on all over western tinkling ornaments for the feet, taking his de- India in the village communities of the Dakhan, signs from the fruits and flowers around him, among a people happy in their simple manners or from the traditional forms represented in and frugal way of life, and in the culture de. the paintings and carvings of the great temple, rived from the grand cpics of a religion in which rises over the grove of mangoes and which they live and move and have their daily palms at the end of the street, above the lotos- being, and in which the highest expression of covered village tank. At 3.30 or 4 in the after their literature, art, and civilization has been noon the whole street is lighted up by the stereotyped for three thousand years. moving robes of the women going down to

The Industrial Arts of India - Birdwood.

Fifth Series, Volume XXXVIII,


No. 1977. – May 13, 1882.

From Beginning,


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Nineteenth Century,
II. PENTOCK. Conclusion, .

Blackwood's Magazine,

Fortnightly Review,

Temple Bar,

Modern Review,

Cornhill Magazine, VII. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF INDIA. Part II.,



349 356


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322 | THE REASON WHY, The YEAR OF DEATHS, APRIL, 1881-2, 322

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THE REASON WHY. Tho' she hath not Dian's grace, Nor Aphrodite's perfect face

And golden hair,
She is dearer unto me
Than another e'er could be,

And more fair.

He mocked, that spirit of matchless wit;

He mourned the rite that warps and seres :
And seeing no hope of health in it,
He laughed lest he should break in tears.

And we, if still our reverend fanes

Lie open to the salt sea deep,
If Aying sand our choir profanes,
Shall we not laugh, shall we not weep?

We toll the bell, we throng the aisle,

We pay a wealth in tithe and fee,
We wreathe the shrine, and all the while
Our church lies open to the sea.

The brackish wind that stirs the flame,

And fans the painted saints asleep,
From heaven above it never came,

But from the starless Eastern deep.

“Is she rich, then?Oh! dear, no, But I have enough, I trow,

For us two. “ What do I love her for?” Ab! well, That I can't exactly tell,

But I do.

All my hope of gladness lies
In the love-light of her eyes;

The fond kiss
Of her tender, rosy lips,
Touch of her slender finger-tips,

Gives more bliss


The storm is rising o'er the sea,

The long bleak windward line is grey, And when it rises, how shall we

And our weak tapers fare that day?


cold cynic, e'er could guess. But, still, the reason, you confess,

“ You can't divine."
Well, I love her, and she loves me;
What better reason can there be

For joy like mine?

M. E. G.

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