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be will certainly write again to him. Hav-screen himself. Many clients will con ing transacted this most urgent piece of fess that they have been extravagant, and business, the client considers himself will seek to raise money on mortgage, fairly entitled to a little gossip. He in while not a few will have exceeded their quires whether this is true, and whether allowances and will require a temporary that is true, whether there are any grounds loan. It is needless to say that lawyers' for such and such a rumor, and whether visitors are not exclusively of the male bis solicitor has heard so and so.
Most country solicitors have aged lawyer tells him as much as he thinks female clients who constantly call on them. right, and gets as much information out The primary objects of their visits are of his visitor in return as he can. Some usually to make codicils to their wills, country gentlemen, when out of humor, leaving five pounds to some other antedi. go, or are sent by their wives, to their luvian, or to inquire whether their legal lawyers to be put into a good temper advisers can recommend any perfectly again. A successful lawyer is generally sale investment that will make a return a master in the art of improving people's of fifteen per cent. — a rate of interest tempers. His clients may enter his sanc- which they hear is obtained by a relatum with gloomy faces, but will often tive living in the republic of Venezuela. come out smiling, He will tell them of a The secondary object of their consultablunder committed by their bitterest ene. tion is to find out whether that odious my; or be will inform them that one or Miss Higginbottom is really going to be two people have been making inquiries married to Dr. Goodenough, or whether about their unlet farms. He will shake Ghostly Manor has actually been let to an his head and look incredulous about the East-End pawnbroker. It must not be supposed unlimited wealth of the neigh- supposed that the time of a lawyer is enbor of whom they are jealous, and he will tirely spent in agreeable conversation or hint in a mysterious way at troubles that entertaining gossip. He occupies a posiare in store for that provoking family tion of great responsibility, and his life is which always appears prosperous and one of considerable anxiety and not a happy. He has some pleasant little bits little drudgery. He has to wade through of gossip about the unpopularity of the long, wordy deeds and documents, which parson, and the “high doings” that go have a dangerously soporific tendency on at the iron chapel of ease in the early while they require most shrewd and caremornings. There is a report, he says, ful attention. One dull, and to lay eyes that the Jesuits are about to buy one of meaningless, sentence, among many the largest houses in the neighborhood, dreary pages of a deed or settlement, and he has heard that there has been a may at some time or other lead to a grand quarrel between two leading mem- Chancery suit, if it escapes his notice. bers of the United Methodists. He is As regards the profits of solicitors, algenerally very strong upon the underhand though still very large, they are small in doings of "those rascally Dissenters,” comparison with what they were when the who, by the way, have an unholy habit of principal lines of railway were being proemploying lawyers of their own. In most jected in England. Gossiping clients are neighborhoods there an old maiden often surprised at the length of their lawlady of eccentric habits, a gentleman of yer's bills; but, if they like to employ a strongly pronounced religious opinions, a professional man to spend his time in scapegrace on the verge of ruin, and a chattering to them, it seems but reasonaman with a hobby. Of each of these the ble that they should pay for it. It would lawyer has a pleasant anecdote. A law. be hard, indeed, if a country, lawyer yer often acts also as a sort of confessor should not earn some profits when the and director to his clients. One will con- wide nature of his functions is taken into fess that he has lost his temper and in consideration; for he has sometimes to sulted an acquaintance, and will want help serve in each of the following capacities in propitiating the injured person; an. - conveyancer, law-stationer, land-agent, ;
, other will accuse bimself of having lost secretary, bookkeeper, newsvendor, polit. heavily on the turf, and will want to know ical agent, money.lender, railway agent, how to raise money without the knowl. banker, and electioneering agent. Nor edge of his parents ; this man will have must it be forgotten that another cheerful made a foolish promise, from which he occupation has lately been discovered for wishes to recede, and that man will have him — namely, that of serving long terms written a libellous letter, from the penal. of imprisonment in her Majesty's gaols, ties of which he is naturally anxious to when he has been executing what had
hitherto been considered the recognized | is found in the old Homeric poems; we duties of a canvassing agent.
read in the Odyssey of amber beads in a necklace of gold brought by a Phænician merchant to the queen of Syra; and in the description of the palace of Menelaus, the
mighty king of Sparta, it is said to shine From Chambers' Journal.
like the sun or the moon in its splendor
of copper, of gold, of amber, and ivory.” The origin of amber has always been the Greek name for amber, electron, was obscured in a more or less deep halo of occasionally also used in ancient times for mystery. Pliny the naturalist wrote of it a mineral composed of gold and silver, beunder its Greek name electron, as the fos cause its pale yellow color resembled amsil resin of an extinct cone-bearing tree. ber. In those old days, amber was in great Although these firs or pines became ex- request for the imitation of precious tinct at a period far anterior to all his stones by artificial staining, from its briltorical time, it is certain that they lived liant lustre and the ease with which it in a later age and were of a higher or could be cut and polished. From changes ganization than the giant forms of the induced by its fossilized condition, amber semi-tropical carboniferous era, which differs from other resins in respect of its were prototypes of the cypress-trees still peculiar hardness, and in being less britexisting in eastern North America. Pro- ile, and of greater electric action. Blaz. fessor Zaddach says the amber-producing ing like a torch when a light is applied, it trees must have grown on green sand- was peculiarly adapted for use in religious beds of cretaceous soil forming the shores ceremonies ; and great quantities have of estuaries where the lower division of alone been consumed in the unbroken the tertiary accumulated. And it is not worship of thirteen centuries at Mecca, only to these prehistoric forests that am- that holy city of Arabia, which saw the ber bears witness; for in this resin, fos- birth of the Prophet, the dawn of the silized by centuries of time, have been Mohammedan religion. · There is a quaint discovered nearly eight hundred different fascination in this ancient town, the cradle species of insects, mostly now extinct; of Mussulman traditions, where the Beiand many specimens of the flora of that tullah or house of God stands surrounded period, embalmed whilst still a living veg- by colonnades, to which hundreds of thouetation, which differ entirely from the sands of weary pilgrims annually resort, fossil plants supplied by the brown coal. crossing great sandy deserts, through beds resting immediately above.
hardships innumerable, to fulfil the comOn the Prussian coast of the Baltic mand of the Prophet, that the faithful Sea, mines are now worked to a depth of should stand at least once in their lives a hundred feet, where Professor Phillips before the shrine at Mecca. They are found in a stratum of dark bituminous enjoined to walk seven times round, proswood, forty feet thick, stalactites of am- trating themselves, and kissing reverently ber; and round masses with pyrites and at each turn the great block of black sulphate of iron in the coarse sand be basalt, now fixed in the north-east corner neath. Indeed, the true home of amber of the massive stone structure called the is on the borders of that inland sea, the Kaaba ; but at which, in a far different Ostsee of the Germanic and Scandinavian religion, the same strange rites were ob nations; and vast quantities are still served inany centuries before the birth of thrown up in stormy weather, when the Mohammed. restless waves break in foam upon the If we could unweave the tangled web shore, particularly on the seagirt promon- of centuries, we should probably find that tory of Samland. It is found also at the burning of amber was not the least Cape Sable, in Maryland; and in insig. amongst the rites and ceremonies of the nificant quantities in Siberia and Green- past. It was strangely intermingled with land. In Britain, it is so rare as almost the myths and legends of the ancient to be unknown, although small pieces Greeks, and was largely used in the have been discovered in the sandy de adornments of their temples, being laid, posit of the London clay at Kensington. with other precious things, upon the But the most beautiful specimens of a sacred altars, where all costly gifts were varying purple shade have been torn from thought acceptable to the gods. It is dif. their far-away home in the classic isle of ficult now to realize the feeling of superSicily.
stitious veneration with which amber has The first record of this antique treasure I been regarded through successive civilizations, or the strange fantasies evoked by (orated with arabesques, this dimly lighted its mystic properties which transformed city in the heart of Stamboul is full of it into a passion and a faith. Not only marvels and treasures. Through its narin the luxurious cities of Greece and row thoroughfares, camels and carriages in Rome, but under the great historic and horsemen force their way, amongst a dynasties of China, and amid all the dense throng of people of every nation extravagance of Oriental splendor, it was and type — Turks in muslin turbans, Per. esteemed very precious. One of the gates sians in pyramidal bonnets of Astrakhan of Thebes, "the city of the hundred fur, Hebrews in yellow coats, with Greeks, gates,” whose superb ruins, perhaps the Armenians, and running-footmen in gormost ancient in the world, now lie scat-geous liveries; and in this shifting crowd tered on both banks of the Nile, was, are dignitaries of the court, who spend Herodotus tells us, made of amber. Even perhaps fifty thousand francs on their pipe in the oldest of known sepulchres, the collections; and harem ladies, wrapped in British barrows, amber beads have been long white veils, who come for gray found along with pierced stone axes, ar- amber, gold-embroidered bags of Imusk row-heads, and other buried treasures. and sandal-wood, and the sweet-scented
No doubt its value was enhanced by gums made by the women of Chio, which the curious electrical phenomena which it are all sold in the perfumery bazaar of exbibits ; for six hundred years before this great Oriental fair. the Christian era, Thales of Miletus no. Thus we find that amber, little esteemed ticed that, when rubbed, amber or electron as it is at the present time in Europe, and attracted light and dry bodies; in which although no longer the important source remote observation lay the foundation of of wealth that it once was, still has a our modern science of electricity. It was place in the luxury and religion of the believed to bear a charm against disease, East; and the dim records of its venand to possess the power of detecting the erable history furnish us with many pic. presence of poison. Pliny remarks upon turesque and poetic associations, whether its wonderful properties, and says: “True we think of it in its early home amid it is that a collar of amber beads worn archaic forests, or, as in classic lore round the neck of young infants is a singu; The sweet tears shed by fair Heliades, lar preservative against secret poison, and
Apollo's daughters, a counter-charm to witchcraft and sorce. When their rash brother down the welkin sped, ries.” The same authority mentions that Lashing his father's sun-team, and fell dead the price of a small figure in amber, how
In Euxine waters. ever diminutive, exceeded that of a healthy living slave. In the reign of Nero, a Ro. man knight was sent with an expedition to the shores of the Baltic in search of
From The Spectator. this foreign treasure; and returned with
PROPHETIC MISANTHROPY. thirteen thousand pounds of amber for the emperor, including a single piece MR. FROUDE, as we have elsewhere which weighed thirteen pounds. The shown, makes no sort of attempt to disdull barbarians of that northern land, who guise, even if he does not give almost were stirred to labor for this valued prod-artificial emphasis to, the atrabiliousness uct of their stormy sea, could not com- of Carlyle's attitude towards human life. prehend the startling price paid for it, or Indeed, Mr. Froude remarks with a sort its use in the great and unfamiliar world of pride that probably Isaiah himself was beyond the Alps.
not a very pleasant or accommodating The best pieces of amber are now taken companion, and intiinates that in this rein the rough by Armenian merchants to spect prophets who denounce the shortConstantinople, where they are carved comings of their countrymen are apt to be and chased and polished by the hand of very much alike. There is no comment the engraver, as mouth-pieces for pipes. on Carlyle to which his biographer refers In the pipe bazaar of the great Byzantine oftener than his mother's, that Carlyle edifice which contains mosques, foun-was 'gey ill to live with,”. and this tains, and a labyrinth of arcaded streets, peculiarity obviously strikes Mr. Froude each a separate bazaar are hidden away as a most interesting personal feature, of amber mouth-pieces of fabulous value, in which an honest biographer can hardly every shade of color, lustrous as crystal, make too much. But if the prophetic facand set with diamonds and rubies. Sup. ulty is supposed to include the power of ported by sculptured columns, and deco | really spurring man on to higher life and
work, we doubt very much whether it be man selfishness and sin. He can dwell consistent with a nature of such unmixed with a sort of satisfaction on any great aggressiveness as Carlyle's. Whether human power like Mirabeau or Danton, Isaiah was
"gey ill to live with” or not, or even Frederick, in spite of their infi. we do not know. We do know that not delities to the highest light within them. one of his great denunciations of the hol. But he cannot see the littleness and the lowness and self-sufficiency of the Jews superficiality of the world, its vanities of his time was unaccompanied by pas. and its follies, its weak devices for forgetsages of sublime and heart-stirring en- ting itself, its conventional beliefs in couragement, in which the strength of the formulas, its tricks of self-deception, withAlmighty arm to reach and bless his peo- out a rage and fury which almost take 'ple, and his unfailing promise to uphold him out of himself. And yet these quali. and strengthen those of them who should ties are by no means the evidence of what cling to him, are poured out in.speech is worst in man, they are, in fact, insepthat is less like mere words of any human arable from his short sight and small tongue, than the breakers of the eternal store of feeling, are essential parts of that love itself, as they touch and shatter finite nature which religion is given us to themselves on “this bank and shoal of deepen and strengthen, but by no means time.” For ourselves, we had, we con- essential parts of that evil in us which fess, always thought ihat this was part conscience is given us to condemn, and and parcel of the function of the prophet, to make us repent of in sackcloth and
that scathe and burn away the evil in ashes. Carlyle's misanthropy seems to man as he might, he must always have us to fall short of anything that can propthe power, and prove the power, to renew erly be called prophetic misanthropy, the fountains of that life which is pure, at doubly, — first, in not being directed least as effectually as to apply the scorch- straight to the true evil, the moral unfaith. ing fire to that life which is impure. fulness at the root of what is most disheartCarlyle appears to have failed utterly in ening; next, in not being combined with this. For though his misanthropy is any of that genuine love for man, in spite closely allied with prophetic wrath, though of all bis weakness, nay, in consequence it is not hatred of that which is good in of all his weakness, which alone has man, but of that which is petty and poor power to cast out that weakness, and to in man, still it is hatred of what is petty make him conscious of the mighty stores and poor even more than of what is evil of strength to which, if he will, he may in man, and it is wholly unaccompanied yet have access. Intellectually Carlyle with vivifying and restoring life. He despised Irving, but Irving knew the could say, doubtless, with Isaiah : “ Your secret of sapping the vanities of man far new moons and your appointed feasts my better than Carlyle. soul hateth; they are a trouble unto me; Carlyle once frankly admitted that there I am weary to bear them.” But Carlyle was “a dark humor” in him, over the hardly ever goes on to say anything'so working of which he had very little or no humble as,
“Cease to do evil, learn to do control, and which was totally distinct well, seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, from the miseries of blue-devils or the judge the fatherless, plead for the widow." | fretfulness due to ill-health. We believe Still less does he ever proceed from hum- that it was true self-knowledge which ble moral precepts to the renewal of the compelled this declaration. We can imliving spiritual forces.
He never an- agine no other explanation of the pain. nounces to those whom he scourges that fully idle fury with which Carlyle raged “ the people who walked in darkness had against the pettinesses, the superficialities, seen a great light, and that they that and the fine mesh of necessities whichi dwelt in the valley of the shadow of death, govern human circumstances — nay, gen. on them has the light shined.” He had erally raged against them without touch. no name to proclaim, that was called ing any of those higher keys by which he “Wonderful, counsellor, the mighty God. might at least have stirred some deeper the everlasting Father, the Prince of for a season. He could not have be. Peace," no hiding-place from the tem- lieved that he would make politics more pest,” “shadow of a great rock in a fruitful by raving against constitutional weary land” to reveal to his hearers. His rules, habits, and conventions, any more words are scorpions to what is poor and than he could have believed that he would shallow in man, even more than to what make social converse richer by raving is evil. He hates human pettiness and against empty fashion and ästhetic teas. blindness, even more than he hates hu- | But “the dark humor" never suffered
him to remit his useless and savage dia-called a “lower position;" but Carlyle tribes against these formulas of “liberty,” could never restrain his indignant scorn against fashion," against the unhappy for that most human misapprehension. conviviality of custom, against shallow It is eminently human for men to suppose and false art, but acted upon him as a that if they can think and reason well higher spirit acted on St. Paul when he enough to interest others, and attract and his companions "essayed to go into their attention, they have a right to be Bithynia, but the spirit suffered them rather proud of themselves, and to rank not."
Men attaching real importance to amongst the spiritual aristocracy of the constitutional formulas, men prizing the race; but no sort of vanity irritated liberty to do and talk foolishly, as if it Carlyle so profoundly. In a word, he were the most sacred of privileges; men raged against all the superficial follies of insisting on going wrong by prescription life and literature with an almost hyporather than on going right without rule, chondriac bitterness, which rendered his men whose enjoyments were superficial, wrath wholly ineffective in dethroning whose life was flippant, whose impression the idols which he most abhorred. Carof themselves was unreal, and perhaps Tyle, if he were a prophet at all, was a affected, — such men did not fill Carlyle prophet sent only to smite, and not to with the desire to save them, and redeem strengthen; a prophet of the purely de. them from their mistaken formalism and structive kind, whose function it was only their silly affectations, but with a vehe. to make us see through the conceits of ment passion for rooting them out of the modern civilization, but whose voice earth. Carlyle seems to have hated man- 'failed the moment you asked him for kind, himself included, because God had something wherewith to replace these connot made man more Godlike. His desire ceits, something breathing the spirit of was to purge the earth of its weaklinys, power and of love and of a sound mind.
and he accounted amongst weaklings What Carlyle wanted was some true love many who knew far better than himself for man for man in his insignificance, what the proper and normal strength of and yet his great capabilities. Of this he the smaller and more habitual elements in had hardly a grain. Flaming wrath for our nature really is, not to lift the weak- every sign of the smallness of the scale lings into a life of comparative strength. on which so much of man's nature is Of course, Carlyle hated nothing that was built, he had in abundance. And his really grand in man; but then there is so “ dark humor" must be said to have exlittle in man that can be called really tended itself to the creative power which grand, if
you look carefully for the alloy, had sanctioned and tolerated this smallas he always did; and he hated what was ness of scale, and had decreed that only feeble, even though it were as much part in the power of conscience and love can of human nature as the free-will itself, frail human beings grow into something and hated it all the more because it is in nobler, and more worthy of eternal life. eradicable; indeed, he worked himself into a fever of fury at the very fibres of our nature itself, even though the golden tbreads which he most valued could only have been woven into it by the help of
From The Saturday Review. those commoner fibres which he so much
THE LAST ENCYCLICAL. disdained. It was in very great degree The Encyclical Letter Etsi Nos ad. finite man himself, and not even the deg. dressed by the pope to the archbishops radation of our petty limitations, that and bishops of Italy, the full text of which Carlyle felt himself bound to rail at. For has now been published in the Tablet, is example, it is eminently human to think for many reasons a noticeable document. more even of an accustomed and long. Like other utterances from the same sanctioned method than of the main ob quarter it requires to be read between the ject of that method, and yet nothing lines, and is perhaps more remarkable for excited Carlyle's ire so frequently as this what it omits and implies than for what it tendency in man. It is eminently human actually contains; but it entirely bears for men to be deceived by their accidental out on the whole the consistent impresposition in the world, and the respect sion created from the first by the public paid by others to that position, into fancy- acts and words of Leo XIII. as to the ing that tliey have a divine right to that spirit and aims of his policy. The Tablet, position, and that they are intrinsically with characteristic caution, declines “10 superior to those who are in what is assume,” as some of the Italian Liberal