early days of Confederation has been portunities of observing how men are followed by other Provinces, the in chosen for the most responsible posidirect support of whose Governments tions, not on account of their mental, was secured to the party in power at moral, or professional qualifications, Ottawa by most flagrant violations of but because they have demonstrated the Act of Union.

certain usefulness in a party sense of Nor does this system of bribery and themselves or their connections. Nor intimidation cease at any given point, are the amenities of social life exempt for we find its ramifications extending from the all-prevailing stigma of polithroughout all phases of commercial tical reprobation as the insolent asand social, as well as political life. sumption of the title · Party of GentleEven criminal jurisprudence is not men' sufficiently indicates. Fortunfree from the universal taint, for it is ately Canada has no aristocracy. Now in the power of anyone who reads the every man has an open field to display daily papers to cite instances where his merits; but our system is as yet the prerogative of pardon has been too raw for the growth of sound social exercised to defeat the ends of justice homogeneity. Canadians, beyond the and open prison doors for the escape immediate circle of their families, have of convicted malefactors. I may not none of that intercourse which constibe permitted, perhaps, to go so far tutes such a charm in the society of as to say that political influence has some countries. An almost oriental done this, but the friends of the con seclusion surrounds every household, demned have always in such cases and gives an air of awkward superfitaken care to employ counsel noto ciality uncomfortably recognizable by rious for active sympathy with the all who have had the benefit of foreign party that happened to be dominant travel. This is modified to some exat the time. In prosecutions for mal tent by church congrcgations; but the feasance of office, there have been | general effect is unhappy and greatly some grievous cases of injustice. A retards the growth of national spirit. well known instance will suffice as an This brings us to the consideration illustration. Some time ago two men of a matter of the first importance in were guilty of an exactly similar of. relation to the development of national fence; both were clearly indictable for character. Our state educational sysfelony as well as for misdemeanor ; tem controlled by the Provincial Govbut for some occult reason one was ernments has been lauded to the skies, sent for trial by the Government on a especially in Ontario, as a triumph of charge of felony, convicted, and sent administration in a very difficult field, to the penitentiary for five years; the and there are certainly good reasons other charged simply with misdemea for the praises that have been bestowed nor, got off with four months in gaol. upon it. There is, however, one conOf the hush up' system, it is only spicuous neglect, which under a sysnecessary now to observe that it is the tem of state education is little short of curse of the Civil Service and the marvellous. From primary schools to worst result of the appointments for universities there is not the slightest political reasons. To those familiar provision for teaching the duties of with the Capital, it is scarcely neces citizenship and the principles of polisary to point out the every-day ap tical morality. Next to that part of pearance on its streets of contractors education which relates to the control backed by parliamentarians of pro of the impulses and emotions, should nounced proclivities, long experience, come the inculcation of sound princiand tried sagacity in departmental ples concerning the rights, duties, resmanipulation. Again, in the matter ponsibilities of citizenship, and so long of employment, we have all had op- l as this is lacking, our system of education is incomplete and faulty in the In addition to these evils and demost important particular. I will not | fects which I have endeavoured to pause here to describe the laws enacted point out, we must not forget to note in ancient states for the purpose of the suicidal mania our general, local, training the youth, so that when each and municipal governments have generation arrived at maturity, every · contracted for borrowing from forman was prepared to discharge the eign money-lenders. Nor is this infunctions of a citizen with advantage sane system of hypothecating future to the nation and honour to himself. endeavour confined to those bodies ;

Thegeographical position of a country for the fact is notorious that seven is of commanding importance when out of every ten farms in the country we come to consider the possibilities are mortgaged at rates of interest that of its future and the probabilities of double the debt every ten years. its maintaining independent national Human industry, though ever so existence. As regards Canada, this wisely applied, is incapable of successportion of our inquiry requires but fully resisting such a drain, and the brief consideration. A glance at the consequences are to be seen in the map of North America shows that fact that the land is gradually falling the Dominion extends across the into the hands of large proprietors, broadest part of the continent, a zig while freeholders in the older settled zag shelf of mountain and prairie de provinces are becoming fewer every void of natural boundaries from Thun year. The independent farmer is disder Bay to a few miles below the appearing to make way for the thriftmouth of Lake Ontario. It is barri. less, shifting tenant. This is, perhaps, caded on the north by eternal winter of all evils that afflict Canada, the and interminable ice, while the con worst, because there seems no way to terminous territory on the south is arrest it. It means poverty of the occupied by an unconquerable power people, sterility of the soil, and is determinately hostile to everything pregnant with social disaster. British and Canadian. To these dis Considering all these things, it is advantages must be added a climate not too much to say that political morwhich closes our ports against com ality in Canada is at a very low ebb. merce for six months in every year; Nor can we listen to the speeches and the wonder then is, not that Canada observe the conduct of our statesmen should be in its present backward con in the face of these crying abuses and dition, but that its people ever con portentous facts without feeling how trived to wrest from reluctant nature wofully unequal they are to cope with and foreign step-mother government the difficulties of their times. Their the amount of material prosperity and organs are filled with personal slander, political freedom which they do en vituperation, and false witness ; their joy. Circumscribed by climate, hem utterances the dreariest common-place med in by artificial boundaries pro of professional politics. None of them jected in defiance of geographical limi have the courage to grapple with the tations, with nothing but a fading evils which are sapping the foundation tradition to separate the inhabitants of national life. Our destiny is, therefrom a great progressive kindred peo fore, manifest under the conditions set ple, the dream of Canadian nationality, forth. We may stagger along for or even the perpetuation for any awhile, but the combined oppressions length of time of British supremacy of our political system and vast public in North America, appears in the debt must put an early period to the light of sober judgment one of the most foolish and ill-contrived experwildest chimeras that ever haunted iment ever attempted in colonial gove the political imagination.

| ernment. The spurious loyalty which bestowed longevity on the errors of our | yet no true Canadian can resign the forefathers, and rooted in Canadian vision of independent national greatsoil some of the worst abuses of an ness without a pang. Dispute the effete European system, will then be point as we may, the whole tendency impotent to save the people of Canada of our affairs is towards absorption by from becoming a prey to the enlight- . the United States, and that end wil ened rapacity of republican America. surely be reached much sooner than Nor can we contemplate that result many people anticipate, if a higher with unmixed feelings, for undoubted political morality and a more noble ly our condition would be vastly im public spirit than now obtain are not proved thereby in a material sense ; | infused into Canadian institutions.



As our friend, 'A Woman of

A Newfangle,' comes forward again to break a lance on behalf of the much maligned men whom she' has kindly taken under her powerful protection, a few criticisms on her criticisms may be in order. They shall be as brief as possible, for, since she now so satisfactorily 'sums up' in favour of the higher education' movement, and so cordially agrees that there can be no reason why women should not be afforded all facility for making the most of their lives and of any talents with which they may be gifted,' it is hardly worth while to waste time in arguing side-issues that are of consequence chiefly in enforcing the need for the promotion of more thorough and systematic female education. Still, a few remarks are, I think, called for in view of the very remarkable character of some of our friend's criticisms.

It is a pity that a mind so ingenious in devising and maintaining hypothetical lines of defence, and in disposing of inconvenient facts, should have been lost to the noble profession of the

law, in which 'A Woman of Newfangle' would doubtless have distinguished herself. Her method of prov. ing statistics that the facts brought out through the • Working Women's Protection Union of New York.' amount to nothing-reminds one of the way in which a worthy alderman in Dickens' 'Chimes' proves, by the same means, that a poor man has no right to eat tripe—in fact, that it is quite iniquitous in him to do so. Statistics, it has been often said, may be made to prove anything. Everything de pends on the way in which they are used. Had A Woman of Newfangle' held a brief on the opposite side, there is no doubt that, with her acuteness and perspicacity, she would have argued somewhat in this way: Six thousand women are a small proportion of the women of New York and its suburbs or outlying cities, but it must be remembered that a very large proportion of the adult female population are not working women,' i. e., women working for remuneration from employers. Deducting married women,

whose work, little or much, is entirely covered for each, respecting which ‘A domestic-single women similarly cir Woman of Newfangle' is so scornful, cumstanced—women whose pride is let me remind her that there are very that they toil not, neither do they many working-women with families spin,' and the women too old to work in far more needy circumstances than at all-it will be seen that the 'work servant girls, since they have to board ing women' proper cannot constitute and lodge themselves, and often halfeven a third of the whole female popu. a-dozen hungry little ones as well, and lation. When we can arrive at the that, to such, the loss of so small a real proportion they do constitute, sum as even one dollar will often cause we shall be able to say exactly how no little suffering. 'A Woman of large a fraction of that proportion the Newfangle 'may hardly believe it, but six thousand five hundred wronged I can assure her that I have known women represent; but we may be women of mature age to weep over tolerably sure that it is by no means & the loss of a few sorely-needed shillings small one. Then there is every reason because to them it made all the differto believe that the number of cases euce between getting what they needed righted by this Protective Union does and going without. Many a poor not represent anything like the num school-teacher, working hard to supber of the actually existing cases of port a widowed mother and younger wrong. We all know that no Society brothers and sisters, would find the of this kind ever reaches all, or any loss of even $3.26 make a sorely felt thing like all who might be benefited hole in her slender purse; and asforfacby it. It is long before even the tory-girls, the amount paid them, when knowledge of such a Society penetrates board and lodging are deducted, is through the whole mass of a popula usually barely sufficient for their daily tion so large as New York and its needs, in which circumstances a very suburbs or outlying cities,'—which small loss may entail much privation. latter our friend has assumed to be in The appreciation shown by a Woman cluded in its operations. And of those of Newfangle' of the circumstanwho were aware of its existence, how ces and needs of her struggling and many-either through procrastination suffering sisters, reminds one of that or dislike to push matters, or fear of shown by the naïve question of Marie offending where it is their interest to Antoinette, who, when informed that please, or feminine shrinking from the poor were suffering for lack of going to law—would neglect to take bread, enquired, why do they not advantage even of this Union? So eat cake?' that we may fairly presume that the As I am not, and have not been, dissix thousand five hundred righted cases cussing the relative moral excellence represent a very much larger number of the sexes, we shall pass over that of cases which have not been righted, alarming story of Baron Huddlestone, and this number would bear not by and also the delicate ethical question any means a very small proportion to whether a more logical lie' is more the working female population of New heinous than a less logical. To me it York, with which, alone, it should be seems that the gravamen of a lie rests compared. This would certainly be a in the 'intent to deceive,' indepenmuch more tenable, because a much dently of the way in which the intent fairer calculation than the remarkable is executed, which may be more or one our friend has made, and it is a less clumsy or skilful, according to the pity it did not suit her case' to use intellectual not moral calibre of the it, as she could doubtless have done deceiver. As to the question to what with so good effect.

extent women might cheat men, had Then, as to the average amount re- | they the same opportunities, we need not enter upon that either. No one fitted by education for taking care of will for a moment pretend, that, as the themselves, and that they should be world goes at present, women have disabused of the idea that in the serianything like the opportunities of ous affairs of life, the conventional cheating, or wronging men, that men courtesy of society will at all make up have of cheating or wronging women, for the helpless ignorance which they who, from their comparative ignorance are too often encouraged to cultivate of business, are so much in the power as an additional charm. of men. Even to the limited extent She is further--as a matter of course that they are employers, they would -sceptical as to the flagrancy of the find it difficult to be guilty of much cases which I said I would give from injustice. If a lady were to try to my own personal knowledge, for I underpay, or refuse to pay at all, her certainly happen to know more than coachman or her gardener, she would she apparently does—of the circumsoon be glad, for the sake of peace, if stances and trials of poor women. The not of honesty, to give him his due. pages of a magazine are obviously not However, the question does not con: the place in which to give a detailed cern us—how women might treat nien list of circumstances which have come if they had the power, since ifs' | to one's knowledge in the free interdefy proof—but how men do actually course of private life. Were it suittreat women? How often do we hear able to give even a few of the cases I the sad story of helpless and inexpe- can readily recall within the compass rienced women entrusting their whole of my limited experience, most readproperty to men in whom they placed ers would think them flagrant enough; implicit confidence, and finding them. but I am not sanguine enough to hope selves suddenly left penniless, desti that it would convince our Newfangle tute of the little provision they had friend. She would, doubtless, act on saved for old age or sickness ! How one of the time-honoured privileges of often do we hear of female wards find the sex to which she ostensibly belongs, ing that theirinheritance has, somehow and what she will—she will—you or other, melted away under the mani. may depend on't ;' and if the facts pulation of its supposed guardians ? went against her, would aver, so No one, with the most moderate know much the worse for the facts !' All ledge of the world, will deny that such wrongs are to be looked at through cases, with others that could be cited the small end of the telescope, where ad infinitum are only too numerous. women are the sufferers. Yet I canHow often, when such cases of suffer not but think, that if she had come in ing occur, do we hear the half impa contact with some of the cases of bitter tient, half pitying remark · Women hardship which I happen to know ; know so little of business ?? Well, had her indignation been as often and since this ignorance and confidence as justly stirred as mine has been, by work such mischief, would it not be almost incredible meanness and injuswell that they should be educated to tice on the part of men towards woknow a little more of it! It were ab men, and often by men, who were resurd, as well as wicked, to attempt to garded by those about them, as at least establish an antagonism between the average men,' who could hardly resexes, which, it has been repeatedly gard as extreme, 'the opinion' which, pointed out, are meant to be the help doubtless, on behalf of the men of and complement, each of the other. Newfangle, has so excited her ire. But there is no attempt to do this in | It is, certainly, very kind of her to simply calling attention to the exig- take up so warmly the cause of the tence of a real evil, and to its simplest average man,' though one cannot help remedy—that women should be better thinking that she might have allowed

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